90 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2019
    1. To him it was chiefly the diurnal and annual variations of the temperature that were lessened by this circumstance.

      The amount of incoming energy from the sun changes drastically between night and day, and varies throughout the year, yet these variations don't affect Earth's surface temperatures as much as would be expected. Tyndall linked the ability of the atmosphere to absorb infrared radiation (heat) to this dampening of temperature variation.

  2. Dec 2018
    1. which demands a genial age on the Southern hemisphere at the same time as an ice age on the Northern and vice versá

      Croll's work made important contributions to the understanding of Earth's climate. However, one problem with his theory was that it led to the conclusion that glacial periods occurred at different times in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

      We now know this is not correct; ice ages are global. But at the time Arrhenius wrote this paper, the geological record of the ice ages was not understood well enough to rule out this possibility of separate glacial periods in the hemispheres.

    1. Marine reserves can clearly enhance exploited coral reef species that have relatively sedentary adult life-stages, in which some individuals live almost exclusively within reserve boundaries

      A study in 2 June 2009 conducted by Philip P. Molloy explored the relations with the age of the marine reserves and of the recovery of different species of fish. The studies showed that older marine reserves (15 years and older) were more effective than younger ones. They harbored more fish.

  3. Oct 2018
    1. It has been recognized for over 60 years that aerosol particles influence the earth's radiative balance directly by backscattering and absorption of shortwave (solar) radiation (1)
  4. Sep 2018
    1. these systems were very slow, had a low assembly or operation yield, or were unable to exert appreciable forces against external loading.

      The authors recognize the significant achievement and potential of what others have done, but also note the ways in which the previous work can be improved. The goal of this paper is to build upon others' results and to develop new ideas to try to improve upon what has been done.

  5. Jun 2018
    1. (Childers, 2006; Hao et al., 2011; Schedlbauer et al., 2012)

      Childers and colleagues demonstrated that Everglades hydrology was co-varying with changes in greenhouse warming potentials, energy fluxes and C dynamics which proved that hydrology is important for creating and maintaining conditions sufficient for wetland ecosystem and structure

    2. (Jimenez et al., 2012)

      Jimenez and colleagues studied the effects of carbon balance in wetland ecosystems before the planned Everglades restoration of historical water flow. They trajected that there would be an alteration on the carbon dynamics of the Everglades as a whole.

    3. (Dugan, 1993)

      Dugan examined wetlands in the United States and the total loss of thus ecosystem. This atlas was able to divide the world’s regions into 19 sections and develop information on the wetlands.

  6. Dec 2017
    1. Low values indicate that transisthmian pairs showed little tolerant behavior or much intolerant behavior relative to intraoceanic pairs of the same taxa.

      Schein, H. (1975). Aspects of the aggressive and sexual behaviour of alpheus heterochaelis say. Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 3(2), 83–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/10236247509378498

      This previous work studies aggressive and sexual behavior in snapping shrimp. Although the snapping shrimps studied were found in North Carolina, their behavior reflects the behavior of the genus. Here they established that males seek females using chemical cues, and in general a male with a larger claw/larger body size favors larger females that can produce more offspring. Also, males with larger claws are stronger and can out compete smaller males. In relation to this publication, this previous work establishes a background of the behavior of the snapping shrimp. Understanding their natural behavior helps in understanding how the authors of this publication reached their conclusion. (JP)

    2. sibling species

      Knowlton, N. (1986). Cryptic and Sibling Species among the Decapod Crustacea. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 6(3), 356-363. doi:10.2307/1548175

      This previous work defines the term sibling species. According to Knowlton, sibling species are species that have been shown to be very closely related using biochemical techniques such as electrophoretic analysis. Sibling species are not the same species. This publication also uses electrophoretic analyses, known as starch gel electrophoresis, to differentiate between species of snapping shrimp. (JP)

    3. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Knowlton, Nancy & Mills, DeEtta. (1992). The Systematic Importance of Color and Color Pattern: Evidence for Complexes of Sibling Species of Snapping Shrimp (Caridea: Alpheidae: AZ'heus) from the Caribbean and Pacific Coasts of Panama. Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 18.

      This past publication explains how loosely related, or distantly related, species in the genus Afpheus Fabricius (snapping shrimp) can be distinguished based on color morphology such as differences in color patterns. This relates with this publication because both are related to the speciation of snapping shrimp in the Isthmus of Panama. Both publications find methods to differentiate between species; while this paper uses mtDNA and allozymes to compare genetic distance, the other paper uses careful analyses of color patterns to separate species. (JP)

    4. snapping shrimp genus Alpheus

      Sexual selection and dimorphism in two demes of a symbiotic, pair-bonding snapping shrimp Knowlton, N. (1980), SEXUAL SELECTION AND DIMORPHISM IN TWO DEMES OF A SYMBIOTIC, PAIR-BONDING SNAPPING SHRIMP. Evolution, 34: 161–173. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.1980.tb04802.x

      This previous work provides evidence on how differences between mates affects mate choice and, with environmental constraints, can lead to sexual dimorphism which is a distinct difference in size or appearance between the sexes of the same species. This study found that snapping shrimp are very aggressive and territorial to other shrimps of the same sex. By having these type of aggressive traits, compatibility would decrease as species are more separated. This supports one of the results found in this publication. (JP)

    5. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Svitil, K.A. (1993). "Oceans Divided". Discover, pp.1-2.

      A magazine article by Kathy Svitil talks about the closure of the Isthmus of Panama. She talked about how the rise of Panama 3.5 million years ago separated Atlantic and Pacific species before the land-bridge could even form. This was caused by the shift in tetonic plates, where the Pacific Ocean floor shifted underneath the Carribean plate before melting/solidifying by lava. She states how animals felt the influence of the rifts coming together, even quoting Nancy Knowlton on the speciation of snapping shrimps on either sides of Isthmus since these shrimps used to live in deeper depths of the ocean.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    6. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Knowlton, N. & Keller, B.D. (1982). "Symmetric Fights as a Measure of Escalation Potential in a Symbiotic, Territorial Snapping Shrimp." Behavioral Ecology And Sociobiology, 10(4): 289-292.

      This journal goes into detail the behavioral aspect of the Alpheus shrimp. This species readily defends its territory using its large snapping claw. Results gathered focused on symmetric fights of shrimps in regards to sex, size, and resources. According to this study, larger females are more likely to defend their anemone territories and showed more aggressiveness than the male shrimps. The losers of these contests experienced severe injuries by these large females than any other type of shrimps.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    7. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Glynn, P.W. (1985). “El Nino-Associated disturbance to coral reefs and post disturbance mortality by Acanthaster planci.” Marine Ecology Progress Series, 26(17): pp. 295–300.

      Another study shows how in 1985 the coral reefs in eastern Pacific (Panama included) got ruined by El Nino due to very high water temperatures (average of 31 Celsius) and depth penetration (over 100 m). Since most habitats in coral reefs were destroyed, many species were easily exposed to predators. This may affect the results obtained by Mills and co. because barely a decade has passed for the marine habitats in Panama to recuperate.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    8. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Read, A., McTeague, J., & Govind, C. (1991). "Morphology and behavior of an unusually flexible thoracic limb in the snapping shrimp, Alpheus heterochelis". The Biological Bulletin, 181(1): pp. 158-168.

      This journal explains the morphology of the snapping shrimp Alpheus. Their second thoracic limb is thinner, flexible, bilaterally symmetrical, and possess larger ganglion. This type of limb is almost always active in regards to grooming and foraging for food. The major cheliped, or the larger claw, is used to produce loud popping noises as a defense mechanism against predators.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    9. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Bermingham, E. & Lessios, H.A. (1993). “Rate Variation of Protein and Mitochondrial DNA Evolution as Revealed by Sea Urchins Separated by the Isthmus of Panama.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 90(7): pp. 2734–2738.

      Another research was made in regards to the closure of Isthmus of Panama 3 MA based on changes in oxygen/carbon ratios in sea water. The main subject studied was sea urchins. Bermingham and Lessios compared mtDNA and protein divergence among three differ species of sea urchins--Diadema, Echinometra, & Eucidaris. Results concluded that protein divergence between Atlantic and Pacific sea urchin species only differed by 1 order of magnitude, so no significant difference. The Diadema species had an overlap of allele frequencies whereas the other two species displayed fixed loci for differ alleles of both shores, which may hint towards gradual genetic drift or mutations.This proves that other marine life besides the Alpheus shrimp community were also affected by a change in the environment via closure of Panama Isthmus.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    1. promote neuronal dysfunction (12).

      Amyloid beta accumulation creates synaptic impairment and learning and memory deficits in AD patients. The impairment of neurons as opposed to neuronal loss maybe the mechanism behind cognitive impairment in AD patients. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3385944/)

    2. Hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations and cross-frequency coupling (CFC) through theta-phase modulation of gamma power are measures of network activity related to memory, including in humans

      Phase amplitude coupling measures the coupling between theta and gamma waves in the hippocampus. The theta and gamma waves are associated with learning and memory. Figure I shows virtually no phase amplitude frequency in the mice with Alz compared to Alz free mice, especially in the APP23p38𝛾-/- mice. Such low frequencies would suggest those mice would have the most problems with learning and memory.

      http://www.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/jn.00106.2010

    3. PSD-95/tau/Fyn

      Researchers have found the binding of tau and fyn have been associated with Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Fyn is a kinase that phosphorylates tau and co-localizes with tau in the neurons of Alzheimer’s patients with tau tangles. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4870772/

    4. Aβ is thought to trigger toxic events, including tau phosphorylation

      E. S. Musiek, D. M. Holtzman, Nat. Neurosci. 18, 800–806 (2015). Amyloid-beta is a key initiator of all the downstream processes that cause Alzheimer’s. One process Aβ leads to is initiating tau tangles. Even though Aβ is a key player, Aβ can not cause Alzheimer’s by itself.

    5. Aberrant tau phosphorylation is the first step in a cascade leading to its deposition and to cognitive dysfunction

      K. Iqbal, F. Liu, C.-X. Gong, A del C. Alonso, I. Grundke-Iqbal, Acta Neuropathol. 118, 53–69 (2009). Neurodegeneration from tau implications can be caused from different protein kinases hyperphosphorylating tau. Hyperphosphorylated tau can misfold, create tangles, and not able to stabilize microtubules, all which can all lead to loss of connectivity between neurons.

    6. APP23 mice present with premature mortality, memory deficits, neuronal circuit aberrations with epileptiform brain activity, and Aβ pathology

      L. M. Ittner et al., Cell 142, 387–397 (2010)

      APP23 mice have increased Aβ toxicity which is the main contributor to the deficits seen in APP23 mice. Deficits include premature death, increased Aβ at young ages, decreased memory, and irregular neuronal circuits.

    7. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–type glutamatergic receptors (NRs) drive glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity

      Hardingham and Bading show that NMDAR responses depend on receptor location. Synaptic NMDARs promotes cell survival, while stimulation of extrasynaptic NMDARs promotes cell death. The unequal stimulation of these receptors cause neuronal dysfunction, while stimulation of synaptic receptors could be used a protective therapy.

    8. However, this finding is in line with the idea that tau is involved in normal physiologic NR signaling events in neurons (12).

      In normal physiological conditions tau is used to stabilize microtubular cytoplasmic components in neurons.

    9. APP23

      APP23 is a version of APP that will develop into AB plaques and aggregates that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The APP23 mouse in the experiment overexpressed the APP23 protein.

      Previous work: Animals can produce amyloid-beta independently of using APP precursor protein. However, when animals have APP23 mutation, the APP is overexpressed and amyloid beta plaques and intracellular amyloid beta aggregates form. The APP23 has been linked to synapse loss and dendrite degeneration. The APP23 is a Swedish mutation in CNS neurons. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4046770/ )

    10. This is contrary to the current view that tau phosphorylation downstream of Aβ toxicity is a pathological response (3).

      Ittner and Gӧtz review new findings showing the interactions of tau and amyloid beta. Tau can shift from the axon to the dendrite helping to increase amyloid beta toxicity.

    11. We have previously shown that postsynaptic PSD-95/tau/Fyn complexes mediate Aβ-induced excitotoxicity

      L. M. Ittner et al., Cell 142, 387–397 (2010).: In this article, Ittner and others show that the absence of tau in amyloid beta-forming mice lessens the severity of amyloid beta toxicity. These results suggest that tau and amyloid beta together increases the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer’s disease.

    1. lower incidence of reduced birth weight, and reduced

      Beall, C. M. (2007). Two routes to functional adaptation: Tibetan and Andean high-altitude natives. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(Supplement 1), 8655-8660. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701985104

      These are some of the physiological traits that were found to be different between populations of Tibetan highlanders and Han Chineese. These include but are not limited to: less oxygen in the arteries, higher breathing rate at rest, loss of low oxygen induced blood vessel constriction, and lower occurrences of decreased birth weight, as well as decreased hemoglobin concentrations.

    2. Because sex and age affect Hb concentration in Tibetans and Han Chinese, and the age effect differs between males and females

      This paper discusses the effect of gender on hemoglobin levels in Han Chinese and Tibetan Plateau inhabitants as a mechanism for high altitude adaptation. In Han populations a correlation was seen between increased altitude and increased hemoglobin levels (men having higher hemoglobin concentration than women), this correlation was not see in Tibetan highland inhabitants, or between genders of Tibetan highland individuals.

    1. Regression analyses describing the relationships between protein divergence estimates and divergence time estimates were implemented for each sex-determining protein as well as for SSX using the program

      It has been noted that protein divergence increases as divergence time increases, thus being said as time increases more protein divergence occurs. To learn more click here. http://www.pnas.org/content/94/24/13028.full.pdf

      • Jake Barbee
  7. Nov 2017
    1. S. F. Ober

      S.F. Oberbauer's previous work:

      National Science Foundation – Ecosystems. Causes and implications of dry season control of tropical wet forest tree growth at very high water levels: direct vs. indirect limitations (CARBONO - VERANO project).

      National Science Foundation – Polar Programs. Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: Sustaining and amplifying the ITEX AON through automation and increased interdisciplinarity of observations (AON-ITEX).

      NSF-Arctic Natural Sciences. Collaborative Research; cold-season gas exchange of arctic plants - resolving winter carbon and water balances of Alaskan arctic tundra (Coldseason project).

      NSF -IPY Arctic Observing Networks � Study of Arctic ecosystem changes in the IPY using the International Tundra Experiment. (ITEX-IPY)

      DOE-NICCR. Response of carbon dioxide, water, and energy exchange of peat and marl wetlands in the Florida Everglades to changes in hydroperiod (Evergladesflux).

      NSF-Biocomplexity. Biocomplexity Associated with the Response of Tundra Carbon Balance to Warming and Drying Across Multiple Scales. Barrowbiocomplexity (this project has sunsetted). Effects of increased season length on plant phenology, community composition, productivity, and ecosystem carbon fluxes in Alaskan tundra Season project (this project has sunsetted)

      Carbon stockes and fluxes in a tropical rain forest in Costa Rica Carbono project

      NSF- Integrated carbon program. Understanding interannual NEE variability in a tropical rain forest using constrained estimates of carbon exchange. S.F. Oberbauer, D.A. Clark, M. Ryan, D.B. Clark. Carbono-Towers

      National Science Foundation - Biocomplexity of the Environment Coupled Biogeochemical Cycles. Complex interactions among water, nutrients and carbon stocks and fluxes across a natural fertility gradient in tropical rain forest. (CICLOS PROJECT).

      RW

    1. (Talbert and Henikoff 2014; Santoro and Dulac 2015; Suárez-Ulloa et al. 2015).

      The way that organisms respond to their environment is ultimately through gene expression. For example, growth is caused by production of growth hormones, among other factors, which are turned on and off. Eukaryotic organisms use histone regulation as one way to respond to environmental changes. It has been found that exchange of histones can occur due to changes in temperature and season, during conflict, movement, learning, and more. AT

    2. (González-Romero et al. 2012)

      H2A.Z.1 is a well documented histone variant. It plays a role in keeping genome integrity, They are highly conserved, even more than H2A.X. AT

    3. (Gavery and Roberts 2010, 2012; Suárez-Ulloa et al. 2015).

      Recent research on mollusc DNA has found that they do use methylation systems to regulate their expression. This was determined by using bisulfate PCR. The bisulfate creates a tag on a methylated amino acid in the protein sequence, and PCR is a way to generate many different copies of a single strand of DNA. Using different mapping techniques the locations of methyl group were determined. A methyl group added to a DNA structure serves to wrap the DNA tighter around the histone in order to block transcription. AT

    4. (Talbert and Henikoff 2014).

      The histone variant H2A.Z Is the most important regarding environmental epigenetic responses. environmental epigenetic are everyday factors in an organism’s life that affect how their genes are expressed that does not create a change in their DNA. AM

    5. (Simonet et al. 2013) and at least 3 different H2A.Z variants in plants (Yi et al. 2006).

      H2A.Z was found to have four different subtypes in the Cyprinus carpio, due to the organisms high sense of acclimatization (an individual organisms ability to adjust to a change in its environment such a s a change in altitude, temperature, and humidity). The four subtype variants aid in the thermoregulation (process that allows the body to maintain a core internal temperature) and stability of the organism. KM

    6. Bönisch et al. 2012

      H2A.Z.2.2 is found in all human (and some primate species) cell lines but it is found mostly in the brain. It is achieved through alternative splicing of the H2AZ variant. Through biochemical fractionation, the paper results suggest that Z.2.2 causes major structural changes and significantly destabilizes nucleosomes. The findings add to the list of known variants of the H2A.Z family. EM

    7. (Dryhurst et al. 2009; Horikoshi et al. 2013; Nishibuchi et al. 2014).

      The papers research clear differences in the structure of the two H2A variants: one in amino acid 38 and one in the structures of the L1 loop. Through mutational analysis, the paper concluded that the amino acid difference at position 38 is partially responsible for the unique functional specializations of H2AZ.1 and H2AZ.2. EM

    8. (Eirín-López et al. 2009b)

      H2AZ has experienced multiple rounds of specialization which gave rise to new variants. Most vertebrates exhibit the H2AZ.1 and H2AZ.2 variants encoded by independent genes. While their protein products are similar, their promoter regions are very different, suggesting they are each tasked with different roles. The research utilized phylogenetic analysis of the promoter regions to conclude that they evolved separately during vertebrate evolution. EM

    9. (Matsuda et al. 2010), the differences in their mRNA expression levels in human tissues (Dryhurst et al. 2009), the presence of embryonic lethality in mice lacking H2A.Z.1 (Faast et al. 2001), and the specific role of H2A.Z.2 in metastatic melanomas (Vardabasso et al. 2015).

      They determined that the H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 are functionally different by individually turning them off and on by knocking out/deleting the gene that codes for the protein. By doing this they discovered that each gene codes for a different protein. Then they discovered that the knockout of each protein resulted in the loss of a distinct function. This work was done in several different studies using different types of cells, such as chicken and human. AT

    10. (Dryhurst and Ausió 2014).

      Highly dynamic chromatin state means that the chromatin is quickly unraveling and raveling to allow transcription, this happens because the histones are rapidly being exchanged from a core to a variant. The variants each give different functions and change the rate of transcription. AM

    11. (González-Romero et al. 2008; Eirín-López et al. 2009a)

      H2A.Z was derived from H2A through a series of mutations that resulted in it being 60% different from the core H2A. This was determined using a system called GWLA methodology which synthesizes two protein structure determining methods. It breaks the protein into fragments and then sequences it. The H2A.Z is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes meaning that the sequence is the same. Because there are few or no mutations this means that the function is very important and a mutation would be lethal. AT

    12. Among histones, the H2A family stands out because of the high number of specialized variants it displays (González-Romero et al. 2008), including some of the most studied histones so far such as H2A.X (involved in DNA repair; Li et al. 2005) and H2A.Z (essential for the survival of most eukaryotic organisms; Eirín-López and Ausió 2007; Talbert and Henikoff 2010).

      The family of H2A histone proteins are essential in understanding the biochemistry of chromatin-associated proteins in Mollusca. H2AZ is a variant form of the histone protein that regulates a mediated thermosensory response. The H2A.X variant form contributes to the formation of the nucleosome and its structural integrity.

      KM

    13. (Ausió 2006; Talbert and Henikoff 2010; Henikoff and Smith 2015)

      The papers discuss several structural studies on core histones and linker histone variants. The papers focused on the roles of nucleosome stability, with data showing that histone variability plays an important role in regulation of chromatin metabolism. EM

    14. (Luger et al. 1997; van Holde 1988)

      They determined the structure of histone proteins through crystallography which uses a computer modeling system to determine the atomic structure and how it assembles to form a superhelix model. KM

    1. basis underlying sex determination in this group

      In the Drosophila group, members of the Drosophila group have either one or two X chromosomes and two sets of autosomes. Sex determination is determined for females by having balanced female determinants on the X chromosome. For males of the Drosophila group sex determination is based on the determinants on the autosomes. If there is only one X chromosome present in a diploid cell the member of the Drosophila group is male, this is shown by the ratio of (1X:2A). To learn more click here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18956315 -Jake Barbee

    1. . However, they do show some distributional differences that could affect sensitivity to changing conditions associated with gradual rise of the isthmus

      Heck, K. L. (1977). Comparative species richness, composition, and abundance of invertebrates in Caribbean seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) meadows (Panamá). Marine Biology, 41(4), 335–348. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00389099

      This previous work compares the species composition and abundance of invertebrates in the Caribbean coast of Panama and the Panama Canal Zone. While discussing some factors that could have affected this experiment, the author of this publication noted that the Panama Canal zone could have led to the displacement and death of many snapping shrimp. This previous work observed that species composition of invertebrates (which include snapping shrimp) were the same in tropical and subtropical seagrass meadows, however, different species of shrimp had a lower total abundance. This could mean that the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, followed by the construction of the Panama Canal, had an effect on speciation of several species of shrimp. (JP)

    2. sibling species

      Knowlton, N. (1986). Cryptic and Sibling Species among the Decapod Crustacea. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 6(3), 356-363. doi:10.2307/1548175

      This previous work defines the term sibling species. According to Knowlton, sibling species are species that have been shown to be very closely related using biochemical techniques such as electrophoretic analysis. Sibling species are not the same species. This publication also uses electrophoretic analyses, known as starch gel electrophoresis, to differentiate between species of snapping shrimp. (JP)

    3. Low values indicate that transisthmian pairs showed little tolerant behavior or much intolerant behavior relative to intraoceanic pairs of the same taxa.

      Schein, H. (1975). Aspects of the aggressive and sexual behaviour of alpheus heterochaelis say. Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 3(2), 83–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/10236247509378498

      This previous work studies aggressive and sexual behavior in snapping shrimp. Although the snapping shrimps studied were found in North Carolina, their behavior reflects the behavior of the genus. Here they established that males seek females using chemical cues, and in general a male with a larger claw/larger body size favors larger females that can produce more offspring. Also, males with larger claws are stronger and can out compete smaller males. In relation to this publication, this previous work establishes a background of the behavior of the snapping shrimp. Understanding their natural behavior helps in understanding how the authors of this publication reached their conclusion. (JP)

    4. snapping shrimp genus Alpheus

      Sexual selection and dimorphism in two demes of a symbiotic, pair-bonding snapping shrimp Knowlton, N. (1980), SEXUAL SELECTION AND DIMORPHISM IN TWO DEMES OF A SYMBIOTIC, PAIR-BONDING SNAPPING SHRIMP. Evolution, 34: 161–173. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.1980.tb04802.x

      This previous work provides evidence on how differences between mates affects mate choice and, with environmental constraints, can lead to sexual dimorphism which is a distinct difference in size or appearance between the sexes of the same species. This study found that snapping shrimp are very aggressive and territorial to other shrimps of the same sex. By having these type of aggressive traits, compatibility would decrease as species are more separated. This supports one of the results found in this publication. (JP)

    5. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Knowlton, Nancy & Mills, DeEtta. (1992). The Systematic Importance of Color and Color Pattern: Evidence for Complexes of Sibling Species of Snapping Shrimp (Caridea: Alpheidae: AZ'heus) from the Caribbean and Pacific Coasts of Panama. Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 18.

      This past publication explains how loosely related, or distantly related, species in the genus Afpheus Fabricius (snapping shrimp) can be distinguished based on color morphology such as differences in color patterns. This relates with this publication because both are related to the speciation of snapping shrimp in the Isthmus of Panama. Both publications find methods to differentiate between species; while this paper uses mtDNA and allozymes to compare genetic distance, the other paper uses careful analyses of color patterns to separate species. (JP)

    6. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Bermingham, E. & Lessios, H.A. (1993). “Rate Variation of Protein and Mitochondrial DNA Evolution as Revealed by Sea Urchins Separated by the Isthmus of Panama.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 90(7): pp. 2734–2738.

      Another research was made in regards to the closure of Isthmus of Panama 3 MA based on changes in oxygen/carbon ratios in sea water. The main subject studied was sea urchins. Bermingham and Lessios compared mtDNA and protein divergence among three differ species of sea urchins--Diadema, Echinometra, & Eucidaris. Results concluded that protein divergence between Atlantic and Pacific sea urchin species only differed by 1 order of magnitude, so no significant difference. The Diadema species had an overlap of allele frequencies whereas the other two species displayed fixed loci for differ alleles of both shores, which may hint towards gradual genetic drift or mutations.This proves that other marine life besides the Alpheus shrimp community were also affected by a change in the environment via closure of Panama Isthmus.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    7. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Read, A., McTeague, J., & Govind, C. (1991). "Morphology and behavior of an unusually flexible thoracic limb in the snapping shrimp, Alpheus heterochelis". The Biological Bulletin, 181(1): pp. 158-168.

      This journal explains the morphology of the snapping shrimp Alpheus. Their second thoracic limb is thinner, flexible, bilaterally symmetrical, and possess larger ganglion. This type of limb is almost always active in regards to grooming and foraging for food. The major cheliped, or the larger claw, is used to produce loud popping noises as a defense mechanism against predators.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    8. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Knowlton, N. & Keller, B.D. (1982). "Symmetric Fights as a Measure of Escalation Potential in a Symbiotic, Territorial Snapping Shrimp." Behavioral Ecology And Sociobiology, 10(4): 289-292.

      This journal goes into detail the behavioral aspect of the Alpheus shrimp. This species readily defends its territory using its large snapping claw. Results gathered focused on symmetric fights of shrimps in regards to sex, size, and resources. According to this study, larger females are more likely to defend their anemone territories and showed more aggressiveness than the male shrimps. The losers of these contests experienced severe injuries by these large females than any other type of shrimps.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    9. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Svitil, K.A. (1993). "Oceans Divided". Discover, pp.1-2.

      A magazine article by Kathy Svitil talks about the closure of the Isthmus of Panama. She talked about how the rise of Panama 3.5 million years ago separated Atlantic and Pacific species before the land-bridge could even form. This was caused by the shift in tetonic plates, where the Pacific Ocean floor shifted underneath the Carribean plate before melting/solidifying by lava. She states how animals felt the influence of the rifts coming together, even quoting Nancy Knowlton on the speciation of snapping shrimps on either sides of Isthmus since these shrimps used to live in deeper depths of the ocean.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    10. Divergence in Proteins, Mitochondrial DNA, and Reproductive Compatibility Across the Isthmus of Panama

      Glynn, P.W. (1985). “El Nino-Associated disturbance to coral reefs and post disturbance mortality by Acanthaster planci.” Marine Ecology Progress Series, 26(17): pp. 295–300.

      Another study shows how in 1985 the coral reefs in eastern Pacific (Panama included) got ruined by El Nino due to very high water temperatures (average of 31 Celsius) and depth penetration (over 100 m). Since most habitats in coral reefs were destroyed, many species were easily exposed to predators. This may affect the results obtained by Mills and co. because barely a decade has passed for the marine habitats in Panama to recuperate.

      ~(J.D.A.)

    1. Genetic studies have also suggested that Sox10and Ednrb do not interact during murine melanocyte development (Hakami et al., 2006).

      Sox10 is expressed in melanoblasts, which are the precursors of melanocytes, that do not contain Ednrb. Ednrb is expressed in embryos that do not contain Sox10. Therefore, Sox10 expression does not depend on the expression of Ednrb. (DB)

    2. High VEGF levels are in turn associated with poor prognosis in human melanoma tumors (Giatromanolaki et al., 2003).

      Studies show that there is a high expression of VEGF in human melanoma tumors, indicating that VEGF can serve as a marker for melanoma prognosis. Moreover, tumors with a high vascular density (VD) were also associated with poor prognosis. (DB)

    3. Moreover, in situ melanomas appeared in adult skin grafts, while invasive melanomas developed in newborn skin grafts indicating that the susceptibility of skin to environmental tumor promoters is dependent on age (Berking et al., 2004).

      Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a risk factor for the development of melanoma. Researchers have shown that people who sunburned in childhood are at a greater risk of developing melanoma than are people who sunburned in adulthood. This study suggests that age is associated with the susceptibility of skin to environmental carcinogens. (DB)

    4. Although Ednrb downregulation has been reported in some human melanoma cell lines (Eberle et al., 1999), other studies found Ednrb to be upregulated in most melanoma cell lines (Bittner et al., 2000; Ross et al., 2000). 

      There is an increase in the amount of Ednrb in most cell lines. This is significant because Ednrb expression is increased in melanoma metastases. (DB)

    5. This suggests that Ednrb may function to activate tyrosinase production indirectly by inducing the production or secretion of Kitl (Hou et al., 2004).

      Ednrb encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor that is necessary for the development of melanocytes. Studies have shown that Ednrb is not necessary for the development of early melanoblasts but is essential for the expression of the differentiation marker tyrosinase. Ednrb wild-type cultures must be able to generate the KIT ligand. Moreover, a soluble KIT ligand allows tyrosinase to be expressed in cultures that do not contain sufficient amounts of Ednrb. (DB)

    6. This increase in cell numbers in the treated cultures could not be accounted for solely by a proliferative effect, pointing to a possible role for Edn3 in the survival of melanoblasts from the NC (Opdecamp et al., 1998).

      Mutations in genes that code for Edn3 result in deficiencies in melanocytes. Edn3 serves as a stimulator of melanoblast proliferation and differentiation. When melanoblasts differentiate, they become melanocytes. (DB)

    7. Edn3 was most effective in promoting the long-term propagation of glia-melanocyte precursor cells as opposed to the other precursors (Real et al., 2006).

      Researchers have shown that individual melanocytes produce multipotent cells that are able to regenerate during consecutive subcloning. This indicates that the multipotent cells display stem cell qualities. Edn3 encourages the maintenance of the multipotent cells. Moreover, Edn3 stimulates the proliferation of melanoblasts, which are the precursors of melanocytes. (DB)

    8. In the absence of contact inhibition, cells treated with Edn3 were found to proliferate for two weeks without producing pigment (Lahav et al., 1996).

      Cells proliferate in the presence of Edn3. The cells that are produced are melanoblasts, which subsequently become melanocytes. (DB)

    9. It was first identified as a potent vasopressor derived from vascular endothelial cells (Yanagisawa et al., 1988).

      Researchers isolated Edn1 to determine its function. Edn1 was shown to be responsible for an increase in blood pressure. Expression of the gene was controlled by factors that affect blood vessels, suggesting that there is a cardiovascular control system. (DB)

  8. Oct 2017
    1. Marine reserves can clearly enhance exploited coral reef species that have relatively sedentary adult life-stages, in which some individuals live almost exclusively within reserve boundaries

      A study in 2 June 2009 conducted by Philip P. Molloy explored the relations with the age of the marine reserves and of the recovery of different species of fish. The studies showed that older marine reserves (15 years and older) were more effective than younger ones. They harbored more fish.

    1. the optimal defense allocation may be affected by differential costs of tissue replacement across habitats

      Herbivorous insects are constantly eating plants, creating competition between the plants and insects. What is stated here is that optimal defense may be impacted by the plants environment, giving it access to certain nutrients and materials needed to produce the desired defense mechanism, such as poisonous leaves or indigestible tissues.

      http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/doi/10.1890/12-1920.1/full#i0012-9658-94-8-1764-Coley2

      -Otniel Gonzalez

    1. Contrary to previous findings

      Previous work said that the sharks were traveling to different habitats to find food.

      McCauley, D.J., Young, H.S., Dunbar, R.B., Estes, J.A., Semmens, B.X., and Micheli, F. (2012). Assessing the effects of large mobile predators on ecosystem connectivity. Ecol. Appl. 22, 1711–1717.

      -RKL

    1. These scanning and tail-probing behaviors have been described previously

      The scanning and tail probing behavior of fish is the process in which they use certain tail movement around an object in order to discover the depth and size of objects in their environment. Think about what happens when you put a goldfish into bowl after it has been in an plastic bag. It will immediately start swimming around and swishing its tail around. That is a process of scanning and tail probing behavior. - Kierra Hobdy

    1. Sxl in Diptera

      From previous articles, the testing IN Drosophila melanogaster, the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls the processes of sex determination, sexual behavior, and dosage compensation (the products of the X-linked genes are present in equal amounts in males and females. Sxl produces two temporally distinct sets of transcripts corresponding to the function of the female-specific early and non-sex-specific late promoters, respectively -Melanie Learn more: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448812/

  9. Aug 2017
    1. Gene expression is often stochastic (11–14), because most genes exist at single or low copy numbers in a cell.

      Genes exist in genome as either single copy or duplication. The efficiency of gene expression ranges from low (producing few proteins) to very high (producing many proteins).

    2. Recently, many in vitro single-molecule experiments have probed real-time dynamics and yielded valuable mechanistic insights into macromolecules (5–8), including transcriptional (9) and translational (10) machineries.

      Mechanical property of single DNA molecule, assays of biomolecules with nanoscale control, single-molecule detection of ribosomes binding with other proteins, etc. add to our current understanding of transcriptional and translational events at molecular levels.

  10. Sep 2016
    1. and more recently, eels were important for identifying acetylcholine receptors

      Electric eels have been used as a model in the study of bioelectrogenesis, which is the study of electricity produced by living organisms. The species is of some interest to researchers, who make use of its acetylcholinesterase and adenosine triphosphate.

    2. electrical discharges resemble motor neuron activity that induces fast muscle contraction

      a brief and single electric shock(stimulus) triggers a signal (action potential) in the muscle. After an activation delay ( due to the time it takes for the signal to reach its target) a muscle contraction occurs. The muscle usually relaxes after a few milliseconds unless another contraction signal is send out before the muscle fully relaxes where the muscle contracts again. The contraction that happens after the second contraction is greater that the first because it equals the sum of the tension from both signals being greater. Each of these signals causes the specie to involuntarily twitch and lose control over motor neuron and therefore movement.

  11. Aug 2015
    1. We previously established coronal cross-linking of PI in such BCP micelles as a means to achieve permanent micelle stability in good solvents for both blocks

      Winnik and Manners et. al. used Karstedt's catalysts to cross-link polyisoprene in order to create micelles of varying morphologies. They were able to apply this technique for the development of noncentrosymmetric micelles.

    2. this method has been limited to the creation of centrosymmetric nanostructures

      Prior to this article, despite the usefulness of CDSA, many of the structures synthesized were centrosymmetric since growth can happen from both ends of the micelle core. This article presents the development of a method to overcome this limitation.

    3. In recent years, CDSA processes have been used to access elongated structures for a range of crystalline-coil BCPs

      After the discovery of CDSA, the synthetic strategy has been used with a range polymers including conducting, biocompatible, metal-containing, etc.

    4. In several cases, CDSA has been demonstrated to be a living process because the ends or edges of the micelles remain active to the addition of further unimer

      Previous Work: During CDSA, the crystalline core of the micelle is partially "exposed" to the solvent. When unimers are added to the micelle solution, they are able to grow on existing micelle. However, if the chemical structure of the core prevents crystallization/is not a lattice match, then micelle growth will not happen. This technique has been widely used with a variety of materials such as diblock polymers and nanotubes to create unique self-assemblies.

    5. crystallization-driven self-assembly (CDSA)

      This technique was first introduced in 2007 by Winnik and Manners et. al. where they discovered a "living" form of micellization. The term "living" in this scenario is derived from the phase "living polymerization" where monomers form long chains by continuous addition to the reactive chain ends, without termination. In the same way, certain micelles specifically those that had crystalline cores exhibited the ability to elongate when additional block copolymers are added to the micelle solution.

  12. Jul 2015
    1. Via its interaction with dynein and dynactin, HDAC6 acts as an adaptor that mediates retrograde transport of misfolded protein aggregates along microtubules (MTs) to aggresomes (14).

      
Previous study demonstrated that HDAC6 has the capacity to bind both polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins and dynein motors, thereby acting to recruit misfolded protein cargo to dynein motors for transport to aggresomes.

      Cells deficient in HDAC6 fail to clear misfolded protein aggregates from the cytoplasm, cannot form aggresomes properly, and are hypersensitive to the accumulation of misfolded proteins.

    2. An inhibitor of the deacetylase activity of HDAC6,

      This study reported the design and synthesis of a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor.

    3. We generated a mutant cell line HDAC6 (ZnFm-W1116A) with a mutation in the corresponding mouse HDAC6 ZnF-UBP

      In a previous work, scientists investigated whether ubiquitin chain binding affects HDAC6 activity. To generate a ubiquitin-chain binding deficient mutant of HDAC6, they mutated several residues in the BUZ finger that were predicted to make contacts with ubiquitin. It was found that W1182A point mutation markedly disrupted the ability of HDAC6 to bind free ubiquitin chains.

    4. A point mutation W1182A in the human HDAC6 ZnF-UBP disrupts binding of free Ub chains

      In a previous work, scientists investigated whether ubiquitin chain binding affects HDAC6 activity. To generate a ubiquitin-chain binding deficient mutant of HDAC6, they mutated several residues in the BUZ finger that were predicted to make contacts with ubiquitin. It was found that W1182A point mutation markedly disrupted the ability of HDAC6 to bind free ubiquitin chains.

    5. While analyzing the role of HDAC8 and HDAC3 in endosome maturation and IAV penetration

      In a previous work, the authors found the histone deacetylase 8 was required for centrosome cohesion and influenza A virus entry.

    1. The first wasat the origin of the domestication process, and thesecond was more recent during breed formationover the past several hundred years

      Previously, the DNA analysis of the genome of prehistoric wolves and dogs support the idea of a two-step domestication process. The first one was the evolution of wolves through a mutually beneficial relationship with humans, sharing food and space. The second one was the active breeding of dogs by humans in order to select dogs which were adapted to the current needs (hunting, tracking, pet).

      Furthermore, there are two main hypotheses to explain the first domestication step (http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/pub/early-canid-domestication-the-farm-fox-experiment):

      1) “Self-domestication” by the wolves: Some wolves lived in the vicinity of the camps of the nomadic hunter-gatherers to eat the garbage left by the prehistoric people. Those that were less anxious thrived and continued to follow the humans, generation after generation, and gradually the first dogs emerged from this group.

      2) The prehistoric people actively selected wolf pups and let only the most docile ones reproduce. After several generations, the first dogs emerged. This hypothesis has been being tested in Novosibirsk since 1959, where foxes are being bred for “tamability.”

    2. centers of dog origins fromgenetic data have been proposed, including theMiddle East and East Asia

      In ref. 5, a genome-wide array of SNP between dogs and wolves suggest that dogs originate from Middle East.

      However, ref. 6, the comparison between dog and wolf mitochondrial DNA suggests East Asia as the center of dog origin.

    1. ere compared withcomplete mitochondrial genome sequences from49 wolves; 77 dogs, including divergent dog breedssuch as Basenji and Dingo; three recently publishedChinese indigenous dogs (7); and four coyotestotaling 148 mitochondrial genomes.

      The authors collected the mtDNA sequences previously published by other teams in order to get more data to analyze and a larger diversity of samples.

    2. DNA extracted from the earliest canids showingphenotypic evidence of domestication

      Some of the phenotypic adaptation can be observed, such as: shorter fangs and claws alteration of some brain areas.

      By comparing the DNA of phenotypically domesticated canids and actual dogs and identifying the genes which are responsible of the domesticate phenotype, it is possible to understand which genes have been altered by domestication and when they have been altered.

    3. centers of dog origins fromgenetic data have been proposed, including theMiddle East and East Asia

      In ref. 5, a genome-wide array of SNP between dogs and wolves suggest that dogs originate from Middle East.

      However, ref. 6, the comparison between dog and wolf mitochondrial DNA suggests East Asia as the center of dog origin.

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