14 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. Food safety authorities worldwide have set acceptable daily intake (ADI) values for aspartame at 40 mg/kg of body weight. The FDA has set its ADI for aspartame at 50 mg/kg.[39]

      The recommended “safe” daily value is 40 mg/kg of body weight.

    2. Dr Arthur Hull Hayes was appointed as Commissioner of the FDA the day after Reagan's inauguration.[34] In 1981, Hayes sought advice on aspartame's ban from a panel of FDA scientists and a lawyer. It soon became clear that the panel would uphold the ban by a 3-2 decision, but Hull then installed a sixth member on the commission, and the vote became deadlocked.[34] He then personally broke the tie in aspartame's favor.

      Taking advantage of the ability to appoint voters in order to manipulate the government in favor of aspartame, aspartame was approved under Ronald Reagan’s administration.

    3. In November 1983, Hayes left the FDA under a cloud and joined Burson-Marsteller, chief public relations firm for both Monsanto and GD Searle, as a senior medical advisor.[37][38] The appointment was widely seen as a reward for his approval of aspartame.

      This a text book example of how companies are able to influence government officials in their favor.

    4. academic pathologists reviewed 15 aspartame studies by Searle, and concluded that, although minor inconsistencies were found, they would not have affected the studies' conclusions.[2]:4 This conclusion was reached despite the testimony of Dr. M. Adrian Gross, a former senior FDA toxicologist, who stated that Searle's studies were largely unreliable and that least one of the studies has established beyond any reasonable doubt that aspartame is capable of inducing brain tumors in experimental animals, and that by allowing aspartame to be placed on the market, the FDA has violated the Delaney Amendment
    5. nor Skinner's successor, Thomas Sullivan, convened a grand jury, allowing the statute of limitations to expire.[26][27][28] In December, 1977, Sullivan ordered the case dropped for lack of evidence, and Conlon was later also hired by Searle's law firm.

      The new FDA lawyer was also hired by the company and the case was eventually dropped.

    6. in February, 1977, Searle's law firm, Sidley & Austin, offered Skinner a job, which he accepted, recusing himself from the case

      The company being sued for the cover up of the negative side effects of aspartame hires the lawyer that represented the FDA thus resulting in the case never making it to trial.

    7. n January 1977, formally requested that a grand jury be convened to investigate whether indictments should be filed against Searle for knowingly misrepresenting findings and "concealing material facts and making false statements" in aspartame safety tests (the first time in the FDA's history that they request a criminal investigation of a manufacturer)

      Aspartame was so poorly misrepresented in the scientific research provided for its approval that it became the first case in history in which a lawsuit was brought against the manufacturer for concealing of material facts and false statements.

    1. elevated cortisol and gut dysbiosis via interactions with different biogenic amine may also have additional impact to modulate neuronal signaling lead to neurobiological impairments

      In summary aspartame increases the fire of neurotransmitters, increases heart rate and and blood pressure, and imbalances gut bacteria.

    2. aspartame metabolite; mainly Phy and its interaction with neurotransmitter and aspartic acid by acting as excitatory neurotransmitter causes this pattern of impairments

      Aspartame alters the chemical composition of the brain and excites neurotransmitters.

    1. examination showed fetal capillaries with condensed nuclei of endothelial cells, cytotrophoblasts with condensed fragmented nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm, and syncytiotrophoblasts with irregular condensed fragmented nuclei

      In summary aspartame results in the death of cells that carry nutrients and energy to the growing embryo.

    2. Damage in the placenta was detected in the form of rupture of the interhemal membrane, lysis of glycogen trophoblast cells, spongiotrophoblast cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and darkly stained nuclei.

      Aspartame caused placenta cells to rupture and behave like they had been exposed to a pathogen or virus.

    1. Results reveal that the aspartame molecule is inherently amyloidogenic, and the self-assembly of aspartame becomes a toxic trap for proteins and cells

      Aspartame inhibits the function of organs and tissues via clusters of proteins/“plaque”.

    2. amyloidogenic

      producing or tending to produce amyloid deposits. These are associated with malfunction of organs.

    3. Aspartame fibrils were also found to induce hemolysis, causing DNA damage resulting in both apoptosis and necrosis-mediated cell death.

      This study found that aspartame causes DNA damage and cell death.