2,845 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2018
    1. Therefore, it can be stated that teachers often focus more on teaching rather than learning. This perspective can lead to the misconception that learning is the activity when, in fact, learning is derived from a careful consideration of the meaning of the activity.

      I agree. the teachers, atleast when i was in school, tended to focus more on teaching and passing the test rather than learning and understaning

    1. Furthermore, the format of the test causes many educators to erroneously believe that the state test or provincial exam only assesses low-level knowledge and skill. This, too, is false. Indeed, the data from released national tests show conclusively that the students have the most difficulty with those items that require understanding and transfer, not recall or recognition.

      like I stated before, not memorization but understanding!

    2. The UbD framework promotes not only acquisition, but also the student’s ability to know why the knowl-edge and skills are important, and how to apply or transfer them in meaningful, professional, and socially important ways

      it should be more than just "knowing" the material! students should be able to understand and perform the material.

    3. In Stage 3 of backward design, teachers plan the most appropriate lessons and learning activities to address the three different types of goals identified in Stage 1: transfer, meaning making, and acquisition (T, M, and A).

      after knowing the goal and how it will be assessed, lastly the teacher must come up with lessons on how she will teach the students

    4. • Can explain concepts, principles, and processes by putting it their own words, teaching it to others, justifying their answers, and showing their reasoning.• Can interpret by making sense of data, text, and experience through images, analogies, stories, and models.• Can apply by effectively using and adapting what they know in new and complex contexts.• Demonstrate perspective by seeing the big picture and recognizing differ-ent points of view.• Display empathy by perceiving sensitively and walking in someone else’s shoes.• Have self-knowledge by showing meta-cognitive awareness, using productive habits of mind, and reflect-ing on the meaning of the learning and experience

      these are great examples of how students understand the lesson. we should be assessing our students in more than one way in order to make sure they understand fully.

    5. The perfor-mance tasks ask students to apply their learning to a new and authentic situation as means of assessing their understand-ing and ability to transfer their learning.

      Problem solving? This is beneficial to students because it allows for them to have a better understanding of their learning when they are having to perform what they learned.

    6. An important point in the UbD framework is to recognize that factual knowledge and skills are not taught for their own sake, but as a means to larger ends.

      personally, I learn a lot more efficiently when I am told why I am learning something and how it will help me and make me a better student. If a teacher does not stress why a student is learning something, the student might feel as if the content is useless.

    7. This first stage in the design process calls for clarity about priorities.

      I feel like so many people struggle with priorities, really when there are 1000 other things going on. This approach forces students to focus on their priorities up front.

    8. In the first stage of backward design, we consider our goals, examine established content standards (national, state, prov-ince, and district), and review curriculum expectations.

      I think this is efficient because I work better with a common goal in mind.

    9. Understanding cannot simply be told; the learner has to actively construct meaning (or misconceptions and forget-fulness will ensue). Teaching for transfer means that learners are given opportuni-ties to apply their learning to new situ-ations and receive timely feedback on their performance to help them improve.

      I think this is a crucial point. Children are not going to simply remember the information let alone understand it if they are just simply told the information by the teacher. Making meaning and forming connections requires students to have engaging activities and a positive experience with the material.

    10. The UbD framework helps focus curriculum and teaching on the develop-ment and deepening of student understanding and transfer of learning (i.e., the ability to effectively use content knowledge and skill)

      When students have a deep understanding they can make connections and when they see that learning can be applied to the real world we have more motivated learners. I feel if students are motivated their ideas and capabilities are boundless. I believe having motivated learners should be a huge part of education, allowing kids to see their potential and how connections can be made.

    1. only nine percent of high school students in an Advanced Placement history course were able to see through MinimumWage.com’s language to determine that it was a front group for a D.C. lobbyist, or as Salon’s headline put it, “Industry PR

      I remember having to do this in my AP history course when preparing for the AP exam. Some kids in my class didn't seem to understand why the article or charts would be biased.

    2. would hope that middle school students could distinguish an ad from a news story. By high school, we would hope that students reading about gun laws would notice that a chart came from a gun owners’ political action committee. And, in 2016, we would hope college students, who spend hours each day online, would look beyond a .org URL and ask who’s behind a site that presents only one side of a contentious issue.

      Students today often lack this ability which is concerning. I remember having to do work in class that would give us pictures of charts that were published by support groups or action committees and were then asked how the chart might be biased.

    3. Between January 2015 and June 2016, we administered 56 tasks to students across 12 states. In total, we collected and analyzed 7,804 student responses. Our sites for field-testing included under-resourced, inner-city schools in Los Angeles and well-resourced schools in suburbs outside of Minneapolis. Our college assessments, which focused on open web searches, were administered online at six different universities that ranged from Stanford, an institution that rejects 94% of its applicants, to large state universities that admit the majority of students who apply.

      This is important to note because they not only analyzed students in high school but college as well.

    1. Simply stated, students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      I agree. when I was in school it was almost frowned upon to use the internet and social media within the school. I think it is important, however, that we educate our students on how to properly use the web and technology because it is our generation.

    2. he World Wide Web has become this generation’s defining technology for literacy. This technology facilitates access to an unlimited amount of online information in a participatory learning space.

      The web is such a big part of our current generation. It amazes me how much information is at the tip of our fingers

    3. These efforts seek not to simply understand the web but to empower adolescents to help build a better open web.

      After reading the draft, I think the Web Literacy Map has good intentions and uses. I think the fundamental strands of exploring, building, and connecting are crucial in every aspect and subject of students learning especially in digital literacy. I appreciated how they pointed out that they do not know what the future of web literacy holds because I think if we continue to encourage children to explore and build and then eventually connect, the possibilities will be incredible and endless.

    4. Simply stated, students are often not provided with opportunities in school to practice the web literacies necessary to read, write, and participate on the web.

      I agree. I think that it is very important that we teach children how to use the web. I had computer classes in elementary school, but by high school and college everything had changed. I think we need to continue to teach children how to use technology and the web because technology is always changing.

    1. It is important for students to recognize that although technology gives us a lot of power, it also restricts us in many ways, and we need to question how the affordances of technology modify our communication and our behavior.

      yes! technology can be such a great tool but at the same time it can be dangerous. We must be careful in the way that we use it and teach our children to use it.

    2. I avoid putting my students in high-risk situations, but this does not mean avoiding teaching digital literacy. It means discussing with them why they would post a real photo of themselves as avatars

      this is a scary topic. it is interesting to me though because I rarely think about my audience before I post something of myself online.

    3. I allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions. When is it best to do a Google search versus ask a question on Twitter? Why would students tweet to a particular hashtag or person versus another? When they tweet to people from another country in another time zone, what kind of context do they need to consider? What should they add, remove, or modify in order to communicate better?

      one of my professors freshman year used twitter as a tool in our classroom. we did not have a choice of how to use it, however; but i think a choice is important

    4. eight elements of digital literacies, I have just mentioned the civic, critical, creative, and communicative. The other four are cultural, cognitive, constructive, and confidence

      I have never thought about connecting these elements to technology. very interesting

    5. or example, teaching digital skills would include showing students how to download images from the Internet and insert them into PowerPoint slides or webpages. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities

      I never learned about copyright and what images I could properly use. I just learned how to use them.

    6. Unfortunately, many focus on skills rather than literacies. Digital skills focus on what and how. Digital literacy focuses on why, when, who, and for whom.

      Yes! in school, I felt like it was not about the literacy but more about just completing a task and moving on.

    7. Digital literacies are not solely about technical proficiency but about the issues, norms, and habits of mind surrounding technologies used for a particular purpose.

      this is important to think about when teaching about the digital world because there is more to teach about than just the technology

    8. Digital literacy is not about the skills of using technologies, but how we use our judgment to maintain awareness of what we are reading and writing, why we are doing it, and whom we are addressing.

      It is important for students to be aware of their surroundings and to not judge other people's ideas and posts on the internet because they wouldn't want the same thing to happen to them

    9. We should not be throwing students into the public domain to discuss sensitive topics without having conversations with them on what they might face and which of these risks they are willing to take, how they would handle it, and how they might support each other. Then we should give them a private option if they so choose.

      This is an important idea to teach in the classroom and to allow students to understand the risks of posting sensitive items on the internet. And it is important to also allow them to know that they can put their posts on private

    10. I allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions.

      Allowing students to have their own ideas and to be creative allows them to be independent and not forced to do an activity one way but can do it in many different ways.

    11. Teaching digital literacy does not mean teaching digital skills in a vacuum, but doing so in an authentic context that makes sense to students. It means teaching progressively rather than sequentially, which helps learners understand better and more clearly over time.

      Being able to teach new ideas and concepts to students in an authentic way helps them to better grasp the new concept and to understand it in a more complex way.

    12. eight elements of digital literacies, I have just mentioned the civic, critical, creative, and communicative. The other four are cultural, cognitive, constructive, and confidence.

      These eight qualities are important to have and to teach in the classroom, but I had no idea that it related to using technology. It is interesting to see that.

    13. It was a way of both encouraging one another to remain critical and supporting one another through adversity in creative ways.

      I think that is very important to teach in the classroom, students need to be able to encourage each other and the work they are doing.

    14. teaching digital skills would include showing students how to download images from the Internet and insert them into PowerPoint slides or webpages. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities.

      This helps me better understand how to teach my future students how to use technology appropriately.

    15. Digital literacy is not about the skills of using technologies, but how we use our judgment to maintain awareness of what we are reading and writing, why we are doing it, and whom we are addressing.

      True and useful statement. It is a summary of the entire text. It stresses the importance of digital literacy as opposed to digital skills.

    16. I place students in authentic situations as much as possible. When they tweet and blog, they have a public audience beyond our class. I ask students to tweet to other educators and learners (locally and internationally).

      I think this is a good idea! It can show students how big the internet actually is

    17. When we encourage students to use technology, do we remind them of the risks of placing their information online and give them choices of how much personal information to reveal? Do our students recognize the ways in which Facebook’s privacy settings continually shift without user permission, and what posting a photo today might mean for their future employment opportunities? Do students recognize the importance of password-protecting their devices and having different passwords across platforms?

      Yes! Students need to be educated!!!!! The internet can be scary and not private. People need to learn that instead of making a big mistake that ends up in the public eye.

    18. allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions. When is it best to do a Google search versus ask a question on Twitter? Why would students tweet to a particular hashtag or person versus another? When they tweet to people from another country in another time zone, what kind of context do they need to consider? What should they add, remove, or modify in order to communicate better?

      If a student doesnt use the platform that you hint at does that make then fail an assignment though? Or is there room for creativity in the platforms they use?

    19. It means teaching progressively rather than sequentially, which helps learners understand better and more clearly over time.

      As our world progresses in technology, I think that it is essential to teach progressively starting at a very young age. Technology is hard to keep up with so starting off young will give our students a foot ahead.

    20. When would you use Twitter instead of a more private forum? Why would you use it for advocacy? Who puts themselves at risk when they do so?

      I think that by asking questions people become more self aware of their actions on the internet. If we asked why post that picture on snapchat or Facebook then maybe people wouldnt post things they regret.

    21. Unfortunately, many focus on skills rather than literacies.

      I strongly feel that the school I grew up in focused on skill rather than literacy. Once we completed a computer assignment we would move on. Example: putting numbers into an excel sheet but never exploring excel

    22. We also need to recognize the risks of blogging/tweeting, which include opening avenues for abus

      I think this is something that hadn't really come up until my generation. Our generation is really where social media bloomed so there weren't really any warnings or preventative measures told to us until the realization that online bullying would be an issue occurred when it started happening. I think because of this, The next generation of parents and educators are going to be hyper aware of this.

    23. fter students have the skill to use multiple platforms, I allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions. When is it best to do a Google search versus ask a question on Twitter? Why would students tweet to a particular hashtag or person versus another? When they tweet to people from another country in another time zone, what kind of context do they need to consider? What should they add, remove, or modify in order to communicate better?

      This is a cool exercise because it still allows for creativity while still making sure the student understands which platform best suits the current needs and why.

    24. Digital literacies are not solely about technical proficiency but about the issues, norms, and habits of mind surrounding technologies used for a particular purpose.

      This is something important to keep in mind both to people teaching others about the digital world and those learning about it because your outlook on the internet space depends on it.

    25. I allow them the choice of which platform to use for the support they need, but I make sure they ask questions.

      I think autonomy in education is very important because it gives students more motivation. And in regards to technology it is important because when they are using technology on their own there are so many platforms and choices they need to learn what fits them best and how they like to collect info and data.

    26. Digital literacy would focus on helping students choose appropriate images, recognize copyright licensing, and cite or get permissions, in addition to reminding students to use alternative text for images to support those with visual disabilities.

      The concept of digital literacy is brand new to me, but instantly I see the importance especially in a growing world of technology. Knowing digital literacy seems to prepare students for the real world in jobs and future education. I think it gives more meaning to the use of technology for students.

    27. Digital literacy is not about the skills of using technologies, but how we use our judgment to maintain awareness of what we are reading and writing, why we are doing it, and whom we are addressing.
    28. It means teaching progressively rather than sequentially, which helps learners understand better and more clearly over time.
    29. Doug Belshaw’s eight elements of digital literacies, I have just mentioned the civic, critical, creative, and communicative. The other four are cultural, cognitive, constructive, and confidence. This last one is important and takes time to build
    30. Digital skills focus on what and how. Digital literacy focuses on why, when, who, and for whom.
    31. Digital literacy is not about the skills of using technologies, but how we use our judgment to maintain awareness of what we are reading and writing, why we are doing it, and whom we are addressing.

      This quote summarizes the whole article for me. Before reading this, I thought that digital literacy was about the skills of using technology, but now I know it it more than that.

    32. Do our students recognize the ways in which Facebook’s privacy settings continually shift without user permission, and what posting a photo today might mean for their future employment opportunities? Do students recognize the importance of password-protecting their devices and having different passwords across platforms?

      I think this is very interesting and something that students need to be aware of and learn about. I believe internet safety is one of the most important things we need to teach to young children.

    33. When would you use Twitter instead of a more private forum? Why would you use it for advocacy? Who puts themselves at risk when they do so?

      I think this would be important for children to learn. I think often children, mostly teenagers, don't understand how widespread something like a tweet can be in the matter of a few seconds.

    1. This statement to me is very powerful because the web is an amazing platform for collaboration that can lead to amazing products, discussions, creativity, and so much more. If literacy of the web is missing from people's knowledge they are less likely to attempt to or don not have the means to share and explore on the web and that is a missed opportunity. This paragraph states that learning and teaching digital literacy skills, "allows more and diverse people to shape the Web." Just think how much more power that gives to society and especially our students.

    1. Developing and presenting effective messages, and contributing to groups through appropriate interactions and active listening.

      It is important to be able to communicate to the people around you because that is always going to be present in a classroom setting or in a real-world setting.

    2. Generating, connecting, synthesizing, transforming, and refining ideas.

      Being creative while doing any type of assignments is important for students.

    3. Being audience and culturally aware, resolving conflict appropriately, using technology tools effectively, and taking responsibility for personal and group productivity.

      This is very important for students to learn at a young age. They need to know how to work collaboratively in a group setting because it is something that will occur often throughout their education and into their future careers.

    4. college and career readiness, and workforce development.

      I think this is important for students to start preparing for at a young age because it will help them in the long run when they do start applying to colleges and jobs.

    5. Managing and maintaining the privacy and security of your digital identity through behaviors and digital tool settings.

      I think that this is very important to incorporate into the classroom because students, especially at young ages, need to have their privacy on the internet.

    6. Writing on the web enables one to build and create content to make meaning.

      I want my students to be able to create things on the web, but I don't know what is developmentally appropriate for a kindergartner.

    7. Comparing and evaluating information from a number of sources online to test credibility and relevance.

      This is very important to do and to teach in the classroom because not all sites are valuable and credible.

    8. Understanding the basic structure of the web

      How are young students in a kindergarten classroom supposed to understand the basic structure of the internet?

    9. Using questions and keywords to find the information you need.

      This is very important for students to grasp because if they are typing whole sentences into the search box they aren't going to get the exact information they are looking for

    10. Good online readers know the tools and strategies that can be used to search for and locate people, resources, and information. They then know how to judge the credibility of these sources.

      This is important for my students to know, but how exactly do I teach this in the classroom?

    11. Approachable and accessible to diverse audiences and their needs. The map needs to be written in a language that is easy to understand, and relevant—why do web literacy skills matter to them. Applicable to interest and/or expertise. The map needs to connect to curriculum, credentials, professional development, and other resources to teach people the skills they need to engage online and offline.

      I feel as a future educator that I need to understand how to appropriately and effectively use technology in order to be able to teach my students how to use technology appropriately and effectively. I need to be a model for my students in many ways and how to use technology is now one of those ways.

    12. They can evaluate web content, and identify what is useful and trustworthy.

      How is a young student in kindergarten supposed to be able to know what is trustworthy on the internet?

    13. critical thinking, collaboration, problem solving, creativity, communication), these digital-age skills help us live and work in today’s world.

      I want my students to have all of these skills and qualities in my classroom and if I can provide that through the use of technology then I will try to incorporate it as much as I can.

    14. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic

      This still baffles me as a student, but as a future educator I understand that technology is a growing and developing idea and will always be around. therefore, I need to find beneficial ways to incorporate it into my classroom curriculum.

    15. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has

      Definition of web or digital literacy.

    16. he web literacy skills and competencies identified under reading on the web are as follows.

      All of the following are things that people could be tested on. As I previously mentioned, I wonder if our children will eventually be tested on this kind of web literacy. The guidelines below are a pretty good rubric for testing (not that I believe in testing in the first place but it is the way of the world these days)

    17. skills to move from being a consumer to a maker on the web.

      Yes!! I think that the web would be a better place if it was treated more as a learning tool as opposed to a means of entertainment.

    18. What we concluded is that people needed the map to be more approachable, accessible, and applicable for learning and teaching web literacy skills.

      I strongly agree with this!

    19. What leadership skills are being developed as a result?

      Is classroom and daily life leadership different from web leadership? One is in person while the other may be behind a screen.

    20. “Participate” is how we connect on the web.

      Before this class my idea of participating on the web was having a social media account. I was so wrong in that assumption.

    21. degree to which you can read, write, and participate on the web while producing, synthesizing, evaluating, and communicating information shapes what you can imagine—and what you can do. follows:

      Do does anyone else wonder if the degree to which we can do all online things will eventually become a part of standardized testing? Maybe a test people need to take to get into college?

    22. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic

      It sure is! My question is at what age should we start teaching this skill.

    23. impact policies and practices to ensure the web remains a healthy open and public resource for all.

      As teachers I think we should have policies in our classrooms that model having a healthy and positive relationship with the internet and all of its users

    24. Evaluate Comparing and evaluating information

      Making sure what you have found is reliable by comparing to other sources

    25. Synthesize Integrating separate and unique information from multiple online sources.

      Taking what you know and applying

    26. Navigate Understanding the basic structure of the web

      Being able to use the web

    27. Understanding basic principles, purpose, and applications of coding and programming languages.

      I never really thought coding was important but I guess it would make sense to be educated in at least the basics of coding.

    28. Comparing and evaluating information from a number of sources online to test credibility and relevance

      This is another important thing I learned in computer club, I used to believe anything that popped up when I googled it and we had to recognize the difference in the .org, .com, .gov etc. and which one would be more reliable for what we were looking for.

    29. Using questions and keywords to find the information you need.

      this is such an important skill. I joined a computer club in middle school and they emphasized that you really need to choose key words that will be you the best results possible, because the more you type into the search engine the more results you get in varying relativeness.

    30. What we concluded is that people needed the map to be more approachable, accessible, and applicable for learning and teaching web literacy skills.

      This makes perfect sense because in any subject if it appears to be unapproachable people shy away from it.

    31. teachers and in-school educators, scientists, afterschool leaders, community members, web and technology advocates and experts, and international leaders of emerging markets and digital learning networks.

      I like how their focus groups were so mixed to get different perspectives.

    32. Does one need to code in order to be considered web literate?

      I don't think that one has to necessarily know how to code in order to be considered web literate. I think that is more of an extra thing.

    33. we need to provide people with open access to the skills and know-how needed to use the web to improve their lives, careers, and organizations.

      The earlier this is introduced to people the more "tech savvy" they will be later in life.

    34. web remains a healthy open and public resource for all.

      I think this is a very important factor. The web and the digital space in general can become a very nasty place and a very addictive place. If not used correctly the original purpose gets lost.

    35. Being audience and culturally aware, resolving conflict appropriately, using technology tools effectively, and taking responsibility for personal and group productivity.

      this is so important because this will be useful as the years come as well

    36. Learning through making involves constructing new content.

      by creating our own website, we will create a new meaning by doing something new

    37. Approachable and accessible to diverse audiences and their needs. The map needs to be written in a language that is easy to understand, and relevant—why do web literacy skills matter to them. Applicable to interest and/or expertise. The map needs to connect to curriculum, credentials, professional development, and other resources to teach people the skills they need to engage online and offline.

      The map must be appropriate for everyone. If it had more complicated language, one may not be able to understand it.

    38. Does one need to code in order to be considered web literate?

      this is one thing that came to my mind. do i have to know code in order to build a website??

    39. degree to which you can read, write, and participate on the web while producing, synthesizing, evaluating, and communicating information shapes what you can imagine—and what you can do. follows:

      now a days it is become a necessity for children to be able to use in the wed in order to be successful.

    40. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic

      This is important to keep in mind as a teacher-it is very important to begin teaching how to use technology

    41. It includes interacting with others to making your own experience and the web richer to working in the open.

      As the web world becomes larger, its more important to put our own ideas and interpretations out there for everyone to see.

    42. Approachable and accessible to diverse audiences and their needs

      This is the most important aspect of the web literacy map, because those that have ore understanding of the web are not the ones that need all of this. It needs to include those that are not computer or web experts, or else it is just another thing that deters some people from using the web/technology. The web/tech world is also a place were equity is not always included.

    43. the degree to which you can read, write, and participate on the web while producing, synthesizing, evaluating, and communicating information

      It's interesting to see these components combined together. Within a learning environment all of these will be used at some point, but rarely do teachers illustrate or explain that all of these need to intricately work together in order to get the best and most useful outcome.

    44. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic—in a rapidly evolving, networked world.

      This is extremely important to remember in a school setting. Kids need to learn how to operate technology and the online world in order to keep up with everyone around them.

    45. college and career readiness, and workforce development

      Learning these skills will help students be better prepared for college and the workforce

    46. Managing and maintaining the privacy and security of your digital identity through behaviors and digital tool settings.

      This is very important with things such as social media!

    47. Good online readers know the tools and strategies that can be used to search for and locate people, resources, and information. They then know how to judge the credibility of these sources.

      Again, I think it is SO important to teach students the tools and strategies in order to search for things and be able to judge the credibility of the sources.

    48. The map needs to be written in a language that is easy to understand, and relevant—why do web literacy skills matter to them.

      I think that writing the map in a language people can understand is very important. I think many people give up on trying to become digitally literate because of how confusing some of the words used can be.

    49. “21C Skills” refers to a broad set of knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits that are important to succeed in today’s world, particularly for college and career readiness and in the workplace. Examples of these skills include collaboration, communication, creativity, and problem-solving.

      These are the skills needed to succeed in today's world.

    50. They can evaluate web content, and identify what is useful and trustworthy.

      I think this is something we really need to teach students. There are so many untrustworthy websites that people end up trusting because it is on the internet. I see it constantly while scrolling through facebook. People share some extremely fake things, but they actually think the articles are real and it really concerns me.

    51. critical thinking, collaboration, problem solving, creativity, communication), these digital-age skills help us live and work in today’s world.

      These are the digital age skills needed

    52. web remains a healthy open and public resource for all.

      I think this is very important. We need to make sure that we keep the web a healthy place to be for all individuals.

    1. Studentsmust be taught to read both sources from a critical perspective.

      This is important. Children need to be able to understand the differences between real and fake things.

    2. 17Their writing is much more open to the public and can have more far-reaching consequences.The young people are creating new modes of expression that are poorly understood by adults,and as a result they receive little to no guidance or supervision.

      I think this is important. Many adults do not understand these new modes of expression and it leads children to be very vulnerable on the web.

    1. We need a leadership alliance between education and technology developers

      So true!!! Teachers cannot figure it all out on their own!!

    2. But if web literacy, including web programming, was adopted by every school as a fourth basic literacy, kids would not only learn how to code, they would learn about interactivity, collaboration, the melding of the artistic and the scientific, creativity, and precision.

      Alot of schools in charleston are shifting towards this. Problem is that not all schools can afford that.

    3. Learning the basics of intellectual property is part of web literacy.

      Something that should be taught in schools.

    4. Making web literacy the fourth literacy begins with the premise that not only are humans capable of learning together–we’re doing it, contributing to peer learning online, every day of our lives. That is a major educational paradigm shift, the great gift we’ve been given by those who built the web on open architecture.

      Interesting perspective. Most people view us as still trying how to use the internet instead of already learning from it.

    5. would build the largest encyclopedia the world has ever known, because we love to share what we know with others, and we’re even willing to spend endless hours creating our own community standards, editing, and making it right.

      Although we did build a large encyclopedia, it is not completely accurate

    6. No one would have believed that peers could contribute knowledge and advice, helping one another to learn through YouTube videos, Wikipedia, or other sites.

      No one wouldve guessed this but it is now what the internet is for!

    7. the conceptual DNA that helps you to understand and negotiate the world you live in.

      The truth of the matter is that this is the world we live in with technology. We have the choice to get with the technology program or get confused.

    8. You don’t just learn “about” reading: you learn to read. You don’t just learn “about” arithmetic: you learn to count and calculate. You don’t just learn “about” the web: you learn to make your own website.

      Best way I've heard this idea put into words so far!

    1. Netherlands covering different age groups found a general prevalence of 5.5% among adolescents 13 to 20 years of age and a prevalence of 5.4% among adults.15

      Its interesting to see how the differing of cultures has an effect on the amount of people reflecting these symptoms.

    2. The American Psychiatric Association recently included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a potential diagnosis

      I really believe this is a thing as needs to be treated and prevented.

    3. discourage the placement of media in children’s bedrooms and encourage parents to limit the total amount of entertainment screen time in general to <1 to 2 hours per day

      As a future educator, I would hope that all of the parents of my students enforce some sort of media restriction. However, I know that I will be teaching children from different socio-economic backgrounds, different families with different values, etc., and this will not always be the case. I will make it my mission as an educator to find an appropriate balance between appropriately accessing technology in my classroom and spending time with physical print.

    4. clinically significant impairment or distress.”

      Connecting to the other article I read, Digital Media, Anxiety and Depression in Children, extreme exposure to technology, as described in Internet Gaming Disorder, can eventually lead to anxiety and depression.

    5. The increasing prevalence of digital media has led to growing public concerns about potential detrimental effects, including the possibility that video game play may be “addicting.”

      Through becoming an RA, I got the chance to meet several residents that, for all intents and purposes, were addicted to video games. Sometimes I would not see them come out of their rooms for hours upon hours, even days if a new game or update had just been released. I looked out for all of my residents but especially my few residents who I knew had a gaming addiction.

    6. Withdrawal symptoms when gaming is taken away: These symptoms are typically described as irritability, anxiety, or sadness;

      After reading this I instantly thought about the kids I used to mentor. When it was time for them to figure out how to work a math problem out, or read a book they would become very irritable and frustrated. However, when it was time to play Fortnite they were all pumped and ready to go and knew exactly how to play.

    1. Interactive digital media, on the other hand, generally require some kind of behavioral actions from users, and thus the sequential flow of content is influenced by user behavior.

      So basically they are saying that interactive technology has more of a cognitive impact compared to tv because it requires the audience to interact?

    2. This is why it is important that even at a young age we filter what things children watch and we only give screen time in moderation

    3. The cognitive impact of television use on infants and toddlers (<∼2.5 years old) is related to the amount of exposure, the program content, and the social context of viewing.

      This is an important age for screen time to be balanced. Too much screen time at a young age can clearly impact them cognitively. So it is important to make sure that their screen time is in moderation.

    4. The cognitive impact of these media depends on the age of the child, the kind of programming (educational programming versus programming produced for adults), the social context of viewing, as well the particular kind of interactive media (eg, computer games)

      Its important to know that there are many factors that go behind a cognitive impact. Its not reliant on just one circumstance. An impact from screen time, as clearly stated, is made up of multiple factors.

    5. There has been considerable concern that television may negatively influence young children’s executive function, especially the ability to focus and sustain attention in task situations.

      I feel like technology in general has positive and negative aspects just like anything else. I believe that it is important for children to have a balance with technology. I think I grew up at a nice time because I know how to use technology, but it was not as dominant. I played outside and created special bonds with people, but also got a Game Boy and electronics for birthdays and special occasions. I think society today is a lot more dependent on technology I know from high school until now I have became a lot more attached. I think moderation is the biggest thing we should focus on when it comes to technology.

    6. There is little question from a large amount of research that educational television has a positive impact on cognitive development.

      I believe it is ok for a child to engage in educational games/T.V, and I also think it is ok to watch Disney/not as educational shows, but I believe it all needs to be balanced. In my human growth class we discuss at one of the most beneficial things to cognitive development is physical play.

    7. Thus, it appears that parental engagement with both television and interactive media, such as smartphones, may reduce the quantity and quality of parent-child interactions, which are crucial for the development of cognitive skills, especially language and executive function.

      I think is is important. I think if children are involved with their children and ask about the games/show interest in their activities I feel like it could benefit a relationship. I do believe that if a child hands a kid a tablet and does not communicate with them all night that their can be serious detachment between parent and child. I hate going to restaurants and seeing a whole family on their phones.

    8. and other interactive technologies (eg, educational apps for tablets and smartphones) to support learning in formal educational contexts.1

      I totally agree with Anna! We used Kahoot all the time in high school as a review and it did help me learn material.

    9. Media have repeatedly been claimed to be important sources of children’s informal education beyond school.

      I do believe in using videos and technology as a learning technique/way to connect ideas/to use examples. I am more old school so I think balance is important I do not think a child just should just learn from technology.

    10. The use of computer games as well as educational computer programs can lead to gains in academically relevant content and other cognitive skills. This article concludes by identifying topics and goals for future research and provides recommendations based on current research-based knowledge.

      I think educational games are fine but I think we should monitor it. In elementary school we played math games on the computers when we got done with our work. Also, in my math ed class we are talking about math in the form of technology and games can get the child more excited about the topic.

    11. The cognitive impact of these media depends on the age of the child, the kind of programming (educational programming versus programming produced for adults), the social context of viewing, as well the particular kind of interactive media (eg, computer games).

      I think technology can be used for good, but has to be thought through for different ages etc. I feel like in those first years of growing it is very important to use more social interactions.

    1. So many adults are quick to judge social media and say all of the terrible effects it has, but I do not think a lot of them take the time to look at the benefits it comes with.

    2. Social media can thus provide a good forum to practice skills related to identity development, such as self-presentation and self-disclosure.

      I believe that this is one the huge benefits of social media and the internet. A mentioned above and below this quote, adolescents can find individuals that are like them on social media which thus helps them feel better about themselves. If you find people that are like you, you no longer feel so uncomfortable with who you are. I also believe that social media helps us shape who we are through our social media mistakes and phases. If you mess up online, or go back and look through what you used to put on the internet, you may feel better about the person you have become or you may decide I want to go back to being like that. It keeps a timeline of our ever changing emotions, personas, and life events.

    3. exposure to developmentally inappropriate content.

      huge issue on social media for younger kids, lots of predators online hoping to attract youngsters

    4. 76% of teen-aged respondents in a recent Pew Research Center survey reported that they use social media.

      I would want to know why these students do not.. is it parent decision or do they have no interest?

    1. The tendency to be constantly connected to one’s social network through digital devices, therefore, potentially contributes to feelings of anxiety.

      I, for one, can personally attest to feeling anxious about not being active on social media. I try to establish a presence on many social media platforms- Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and Twitter to name my most frequently visited. When I haven't posted in a while or I have become inactive, I do get anxious and begin to feel somehow left out or like people have begun to forget me. Of course, this is not reality, but I can't help but feel anxious about inactivity.

    2. depression has been postulated to be caused by substituted digital communication, such as excessive mobile phone use that takes the place of face-to-face contact and causes subsequent social isolation

      Revisiting what I said earlier about the students my aunt taught that were unable to form social skills because of too much digital communication, research has actually proven that too much exposure can later cause depression in children.

    3. Adolescents may seek digital distraction from emerging anxiety or distress emotions, creating a reinforced behavioral avoidance of emotional experiences.

      The thought of a child using digital distractions as a coping mechanism for anxiety or distress is a very scary thought. When I was growing up, if I was upset I would simply go outside and play with my friends or read a book. My parents did not always allow me the opportunity to play a video game or get on the computer. My screentime was extremely limited. The fact that today's children are using digital distractions to cope with anxiety is only going to FURTHER damage them psychologically. Although it is easy to sit an upset child in front of a television, parents should encourage their child to seek healthier ways to deal with distress.

    4. Little research has been conducted on acute fear reactions delivered by newer technologies, such as the Internet, social media, and portable devices.

      Although little research has been conducted on the effects from frightening media via Internet, social media, etc., today's children were, for all intents and purposes, born with a cell phone/tablet/laptop in their hands. Children KNOW how to access developmentally inappropriate content in a variety of ways. The greater access to technology is only going to further prove the research that has already been proven- the same frightening content that children are accessing via television and movies will be accessed in a multitude of other ways and will have the same damaging effects.

    5. A variety of surveys dating back as far as the 1930s have shown that a substantial proportion of children experience acute fearful reactions to various aspects of the content of media, especially movies, television dramas, and the news.1

      I find it extremely interesting that surveys regarding children's responses to the content of media have dated as far back as the 1930's, when movies at the theater were a huge technological advancement and by far THE most exciting advancement in entertainment. Now, nearly 90 years later when media has consumed essentially every aspect of our day, I can only imagine the impact that content of media has had on children.

    6. anxiety resulting from lack of emotion-regulation skills because of substituted digital media use

      This is becoming an ever-increasingly important discussion in regards to today's youth. My aunt, who has been an public elementary school teacher for over 30 years now, told me that she has seen students come through her classroom that literally do not know how to socialize with their peers. She blames the social media and video game culture for keeping kids indoors and not engaged in outdoor or even indoor play with one another. She feared that her students that were lacking emotion-regulation skills went home each afternoon and spent the entire night playing video games.

    7. Researchers have documented that the options of texting, instant messaging, and emailing have become preferred by some individuals over face-to-face interactions for some types of contact.

      It's very easy to deal with someone over the internet because you can be whoever you want to be! You gain confidence because you aren't having to deal with someone face to face. This is where cyber bullying comes in to play. You can hide behind a screen and you can even be anonymous! It just makes it that much easier for someone to pretend.

    8. In contrast, research with adults showed that using the Internet to communicate with friends and family was linked with decreases in depression

      Most adults that I know are strictly using social media to connect with friends and family. Facebook, being the most popular in our parent's and grandparent's generation. They aren't call caught up in Twitter, Snapchat, or Instagram. Heck, I don't even know if the majority of adult's know how to use the apps or what they are used for.

    9. Key topics of inquiry include the following: anxiety and depression associated with technology-based negative social comparison

      This is one of the biggest reasons I have quit some social media apps such as Instagram. It is so easy to compare yourself to other people when thousands and thousands of people use the app. Also, most pictures out there are edited to make people fit the stereotypical "pretty."

    10. ms.17 The majority of victims report negative feelings, such as embarrassment, worry, fear, depression, or loneliness after cyberbullying events.24

      I think this is important because we see so much more of this as technology increases in society. I agree with Kennedy with the idea that technology is so dominant in schools now this is something teachers need to look out for.

    11. a feeling of being dependent on text messaging was associated with depression.

      I agree with all this because there are times when my phone dies and I have quick moment of panic. I then have to remind myself that there was once a tie without technology. I think the kids growing up now will have an even worse does of this because they were introduced to technology so much earlier.

    12. the behavior may actually increase risk in individuals vulnerable to social anxiety disorder.

      This confirms my idea from the pervious comment. I feel like social anxiety cannot be solved through social media/screentime.

    13. Research has shown that individuals with Internet overuse or addiction report using it to avoid negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression.

      Agree with Kennedy. I feel like using social media in this way could heal emotion in the moment but cause problems in the future. Social interactions in-person are very important especially at those early stages of growth/development.

    14. adults showed that using the Internet to communicate with friends and family was linked with decreases in depression.6

      I do believe communication is very important. I talk to my family, boyfriend and friends who all live away from me. Texting is important for me because I am usually on the go and it is the fastest way to get up with someone. I also rely on my phone when I forget something and I need to test a roommate. There are beneficial aspects to technology.

    15. people leading exciting and idealized lives in media programs invites social comparison and contributes to dissatisfaction with oneself.4

      I agree with Reilly because I have seen this many times. I also stated earlier that I have fears for my niece. Those fears come from seeing friends compare themselves to other people. I feel like social media sets expectations high and makes people question their personal lives/worth.

    16. difficult to calm a child who has been intensely frightened by a program or movie, and the resulting loss of sleep and heightened levels of unnecessary anxiety

      I think this is an important point and I feel like it is our job as future educators and parents to monitor what is being watched by children. I do believe in allowing a young adult more privacy but a child needs support in making certain decisions like watching a scary movie before bed.

    17. especially social media

      Also a big point. I believe social media sets expectations high and make people think they are not good enough. For example, my sister compared herself to all the "organic moms" out there. I think it is just important to limit this social media time. Also my niece is about to be 9 and has an Instagram with all her dance friends and as they get older i feel like it could cause issues.

    18. Early research has explored the impact of traditional media (eg, television, movies) on children’s acute fears, which can result in anxieties and related sleep disturbances that are difficult to remedy.

      Personally this was one of my fears. I find myself on my phone in bed at night and then not being able to go to sleep. My sister allows my niece and nephew to watch something before bed to get them to fall asleep, but sometimes it does the opposite. This is something I am interested in reading!

    19. In fact, researchers conducting a recent longitudinal study of adolescents found that greater use of mobile phones at baseline was associated with higher levels of depression 1 year later.19

      I thought this was interesting as I too feel like too much gaming or activity on mobile devices inside could lead to depression. I think this because you may not be doing enough social and physical activity and spending all your time staring at a mobile device or tv screen can sometimes lead to feeling alone and getting out of physical shape and becoming depressed.

    20. The use of social technology (eg, texting, instant messaging, e-mailing) has become a primary method of communication for a majority of young adults, and interrupting the use of these technologies can lead to increased levels of anxiety.

      I think that alot of us could attest to this feeling. I think that people especially of my generation, have serious mood swings when their technology gets taken away from them.

    21. For these individuals, opting to substitute digital media for interpersonal communication to avoid feared situations may become cyclically reinforced over time, making the person even more avoidant and worsening the symptoms and severity of social anxiety disorder.1

      I've also seen this first hand with another family member of mine who has anxiety. She chooses to communicate from behind a screen rather than in person. It in someways helps her because she is communicating but it does not help in improving her socialization.

    22. n contrast, research with adults showed that using the Internet to communicate with friends and family was linked with decreases in depression.6

      I've personally seen first hand how this is true. My aunt moved far away and was feeling depressed and disconnected from us until she got a facebook and it helped her feel more included in our lives.

    23. However, considering that these types of technologies are often used to access video entertainment, much of what we know about fear and children is applicable to modern types of media use.

      I think that the access to disturbing videos across the internet has a huge impact in fear amongst young children. Even on youtube when kids are just trying to watch funny videos, some really violent things end up popping up.

    24. Research on traditional media has found that the representation of attractive people leading exciting and idealized lives in media programs invites social comparison and contributes to dissatisfaction with oneself.4

      This is SO SO SO true! I have seens tons of girls my age feel less about themselves because of the lives that other people live on social media. It leads to dissatisfaction in life as a whole for many people.

    1. Many new vehicles come equipped with wireless technology, voice commands, and touchscreen liquid crystal displays that allows motorists to place calls, send voice-based text messages, navigate with the GPS, stream music, search the Internet, engage in using social media, and interact with other “infotainment” systems. The majority of these interactions are significant sources of driver distraction,17

      With my dad's new car, it has everything inside of it, GPS, voice call, voice text, and etc.. Its so easy for you to be driving and the car will start talking to you. Also, driving while using the GPS in the car also is a major distraction and I did not realize it until after reading this article.

    1. Rather, it is more helpful to think in terms of a healthy media diet that incorporates similar properties to a healthy food diet: moderation in amount, consuming more of the helpful and less of the harmful content, and having regard for the age of the consumer.

      I love this analogy because it perfectly describes what consists of healthy media use. I believe all things should be done in moderation because too much of anything can be bad (except money lol). I also believe parents and teachers must have a regard for age and only allow developmentally appropriate media use.

    2. The vast majority of laboratory-based experimental studies have revealed that violent media exposure causes increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, aggressive behavior, and desensitization to violence and decreases prosocial behavior (eg, helping others) and empathy.

      I've always thought watching violent media would cause the child to be more violent but I never thought much about the many other effects it has on children's behavior,

    3. Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous.

      Violence is seen everywhere in multiple domains of media. I watch a video/movie or play a game before or with my daughter prior to allowing her to by herself to ensure it's developmentally appropriate.

    4. exposure to violent video games increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, and aggressive behavior and decreases prosocial behavior

      It can teach them to become violent

    5. violent video games can also have negative effects on players.

      violent video games can lead students to become desensitized to violence

    6. Video games in particular have increased in popularity, with some teenagers reporting that they play ≥40 hours per week

      video games have become more prevalent over the years, with an increased growth in violent video games

    1. Active mediation refers to parent-child conversations about media, including parental attempts to provide children with critical viewing skills regarding media. For example, a parent might discuss themes of bullying after the child views a television program containing aggressive behavior.9 Finally, co-viewing is when parents view, use, or consume media with their children but do not necessarily discuss the content with them

      I was not surprised by Sara Dewitt's findings discussed during her ted talk. Children benefited the most when watching a television show or playing a game and talking about the content with their parents, I use active mediation and restrictive mediation with my daughter. I try to talk to her about the content she plays or watches and I also restrict her from playing or watching anything inappropriate. I also like the idea of co-viewing but still discussing the content with them.

    2. Children today average more hours engaged with media each week than they do engaged with almost any other activity (between 6 and 9 hours/day).

      I believe screen time should be limited and only used in moderation. 6 - 9 hours sounds excessive. We must find a balance for our children and students in how much they use screens and how much they don't.

    3. We find that child characteristics, the parent-child relationship, parental mediation practices, and parents’ own use of media all can influence children’s media use, their attitudes regarding media, and the effects of media on children.
    4. For young children, active mediation can influence their comprehension of media, learning, and language exposure. When parents ask questions and scaffold interactions during media use, children as young as 3 can learn from videos and transfer learning to other settings.14 Between ages 1 and 2, toddlers can interact over video chat more effectively with parent support and learn content from media more readily when a parent co-views and teaches them the presented material.

      This is beneficial for the child. If parents can have conversations with their children about what they are doing on their devices, then this sparks a conversation in general. Children need to be scaffolded and talked to because their interaction with their parents are important

    5. In addition, low-income parents with toddlers with social-emotional delays were more likely to give their child mobile devices to calm them down or keep them quiet.

      This shouldn't be how parents "fix" what is wrong with their child. Handing a device to a child and having them entertain themselves because the parent needs them to is not beneficial for the child at all. They need the one on one interaction with their parents.

    6. However, in older children, gaming has the potential to encourage more family interactions because children often attempted to bring parents into their online and console playing

      A friend of mine and his dad bond over playing video games and discussing what is going on in those digital universes. They do not have much free time to spend with each other and neither of them are very communicative so that is their way to bond and show their love. If they did not have video games, they probably would not be as close and open with each other as they are today.

    7. A recent meta-analysis revealed that both restrictive and active mediation can reduce negative media effects, such as the learning of aggressive behavior, substance use, and sexual behavior, whereas co-viewing (without discussion) tends to enhance or facilitate media effects

      This topic was also lightly discussed in the TED Talk by Sara DeWitt. If parents took the time to discuss what kids did with screen time, such as what they watched or what video game they played, then they can both gain more insight and knowledge from it. Active participation by both parties can lead to more conversations and more understanding of each others lives. My mom would always talk to me about what I was doing, watching, or reading which lead to us having a deeper insight into the others day to day life. If she found something she didn't like within what I was viewing, we would discuss it and it would be over with. There were never any negative effects because we discussed things such as consequences, life experiences she had, and why such things were a bad idea. A lot of parents complain and say technology takes their kids away from them or allows them to get away with breaking rules, but if they would inject themselves into the child's interactions with technology they problem wouldn't be present.

    8. How can parents use media as a tool to strengthen their family?

      I think this is a good question that needs to be addressed because as the article states there are positive forces in technology use. Technology isn't going to go away our world is just going to become more immersed in it and good or bad we cannot change this fact. Because of this I think it is important to look for ways and participate in ways that technology can be a beneficial tool in our lives.

    1. Sleep deprivation has been associated with increased obesity and weight gain among children, most consistently among those between ages 3 and 7

      Sleep is very very important when it comes to maintaining personal health. A middle school aged child should be getting 8-9 hours of sleep a night. Most kids that are "addicted" will be up past midnight getting maybe 4-5 hours a sleep a night. This will eventually take a tole on one's body.

    2. This suggests that displacement of physical activity may not be a strong link between screen time and obesity.

      This was very interesting to read and I am going to have to say I disagree with this statement. Like stated in the article, there are difficulties when it comes to measuring screen media exposure and physical activity. Based off of experience such as babysitting, once the kids are glued in to a show or game, there is no way I am getting them to go outside. A 3 year old that I babysat threw a tantrum when I told him we were done watching TV and it was time to go on a walk. I think physical activity and screen time directly correlates with obesity.

    3. Observational studies have also revealed that greater screen time is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors more broadly, including hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, elevated inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome.2

      Screen time has to physical aspect to it so I without a doubt believe these side effects are associated with excessive screen time.

    4. Current evidence suggests that screen media exposure leads to obesity in children and adolescents through increased eating while viewing; exposure to high-calorie, low-nutrient food and beverage marketing that influences children’s preferences, purchase requests, consumption habits; and reduced sleep duration

      I also think screen media exposure becomes addicting and kids are no longer interested in going outside to play with their friends anymore. Why play outside when you both can be playing the same game and communicate through it?

    5. Eating while viewing is one important way that screen media exposure increases children’s energy intake.

      I know that im always hungry when im watching TV

    6. Over the 7 months of the trial, children in the school that received the screen-time reduction curriculum significantly reduced their television viewing, video game use, and number of meals eaten in front of the television

      This is a reason to reduce technology use in schools.

    1. Make sleep a priority: Talk with families about the importance of sleep and healthy sleep expectations.Encourage a bedtime routine that includes calming activities and avoids electronic media use.Encourage families to remove all electronic media from their children or teenagers’ bedrooms, including televisions, video games, computers, tablets, and cell phones.Talk with families about the negative consequences of bright light in the evening on sleep.If the child or adolescent in your care is exhibiting mood or behavioral problems, consider insufficient sleep as a contributing factor.

      As a future educator, I want to be able to promote these ideas to parents because if I notice a child falling behind in class or sleeping in class I want to make sure that its not because they are at home sitting in front of an electronic device for hours before they go to bed. Children need to go outside and play. I understand that some kids are doing something educational on their devices, but 9 out of 10 times they aren't. And that is not beneficial to their learning

    2. For example, media use in adults is associated with sleep onset latency but not with tiredness because adults who spend substantial time engaging with media may have the opportunity to compensate by sleeping longer.21 Such a compensatory mechanism is largely impossible for children and adolescents because their wake times are primarily determined by parents, school hours, and/or extracurricular activities.

      I find this interesting that screentime does not have as much as an affect on adults as it does in children, but I disagree with that idea. Yes it heavily affects children's sleeping schedule and then their school schedule and children also have to be up for school at a certain time and have different extracurricular activities to be present for. However, adults have work they have to be at and then they have to drive their children to school and take them and pick them up from extracurricular activities. Therefore, adults are affected just as much.

    3. Data from US population-based studies show that ∼30% of preschool-aged children and between 50% and 90% of school-aged children and adolescents do not get as much sleep as they may need.1,2 The pervasive use of screen-based media is a likely contributor to widespread sleep insufficiency. Screen-based media devices are present in the bedrooms of 75% of children,3 and ∼60% of adolescents report viewing or interacting with screens in the hour before bedtime.4 In a recent systematic review of 67 studies of screen time and media use in school-aged youth and teenagers (1999–2014), 90% found that screen time was adversely associated with sleep health, primarily via delayed bedtimes and reduced sleep duration.5 Potential mechanisms underlying these observed associations include the following6: (1) time displacement (ie, time spent on screens replaces time spent doing other things, including sleeping)7; (2) psychological stimulation based on media content8; and (3) the effects of light emitted from devices on circadian timing, sleep physiology, and alertness.9 Healthy sleep patterns in childhood and adolescence are associated with lower obesity risk,10,11 better psychological well-being,12 improved cognitive functioning,13 and lower risk-taking behaviors.14 We propose that sleep among children and adolescents should be a priority in family, school, and clinical contexts, as well as in future basic, observational, and translational research.

      This is surprising to see how many parents allow their children to have electronic devices in their bedrooms. I had maybe just one hour of television before bed when I was younger and then I would play for a little bit and then go to bed. Now that technology is placed in front of children so often it has become a major part in their lives. And now that children are looking at screens right before the go to sleep, it is affecting their sleeping schedule. Sleep is crucial for young children and if they do not get enough of it then they are going to fall a little behind.

    1. online sexual harassment has been linked with more serious problems, including depression and substance abuse,

      when something like this happens and, sadly, if it results in suicide, does the cyber bully get charged in court? how does one go about that?

    2. the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense

      I would think that it would be the other way around. I figured face to face bullying would be much harder to hide from, whereas it is much easier to just turn off a computer, etc.

    1. Indeed, many teenagers report at least sometimes doing homework while using another medium, including television (51% of teenagers), social networking (50%), text messaging (60%), and listening to music (76%).

      It makes me wonder how much more efficient I would be at getting my homework done if I set aside time and shut my phone off and just worked without any other screen beside what my homework required? I have just grown up answering a text when I get one, checking instagram when I take a homework break and so much more. I do believe I could be more efficient without that while, trying to do homework. The thing that I do not find distracting is music. I like listening to soothing music while doing homework because I believe this helps me focus.

    2. American youth spend more time with media than any other waking activity: an average of 7.5 hours per day, every day. On average, 29% of that time is spent juggling multiple media streams simultaneously (ie, media multitasking).

      I think its crazy that people spend more time on social media then in other activity. It scares me that people take that much time out of their day and probably most of that time spent on social media is not educative. As long as kids are using these for educative purposes then I think it can be of good use

      cofcedu #screentime

    1. s well as interventions on behalf of international development by organizations such as the United National Children’s Fund

      I think many funds should be started in order to take another step toward equalizing education

    2. Discursive and normative uncertainties mean that, for instance, “digital learning” is open to different interpretations, ranging from an instrumental concern with employability and growth to more idealist concerns for social mobility, social justice, and empowerment. In addition, given the huge inequalities in region, income, culture, sex, and so forth, efforts to promote digital opportunities can also become, inadvertently, the means by which inequalities are reproduced or new risks are encountered.

      "digital learning" can be a variety of things. I see digital learning as learning from anything media related. Children do learn best when they dont even know they are learning. (TV, game)

    3. in-school and after-school virtual learning and online coordination of academic activities are further intensifying the already considerable academic pressures on children in middle-class households, with the potential to adversely affect parent-child relationships

      I feel as if some kids are far more advanced with technology than others due to at home living situations which can cause issues in the classroom

    4. Research on parental use of monitoring technologies suggests that such updates about children’s whereabouts may trigger authoritarian parents to be more controlling,19 which in turn is unlikely to enhance children’s academic performance.

      My parents were very strict on monitoring media use. We were able to watch TV and play on the computer but they pushed for us to play outside and interact with other kids face to face more

    5. For instance, the United States, among other wealthy countries, is witnessing calls for data-driven instruction in the hope that this can remove bias in student advancement, equalize education, and improve learning outcomes and teacher efficiency.

      I feel as if it will be very hard for education to become completely equal. In the US today there are many areas where education is at a low compared to other areas

    6. In India, progress depends on the business case for digital education, which is only slowly gaining ground as the education market develops software packages around textbook content

      In the US, I think it is important for us to realize how well off we are compared to other countries

    7. s the goal to prepare students for a competitive workforce, to connect marginalized youth, to support schools, or to provide progressive alternatives to school? The goals determine the means, and both have implications for evaluating technological interventions.

      Yes! Our children must start at an age where they are able to acquire knowledge in order to become successful in te future.

    1. A considerable body of work now suggests that socioeconomic status predicts digital literacy skills.2

      This was actually not shocking to me because those families dont have access to technology like others do.

    2. The concept of digital and media literacy as a broad construct has not yet entered political discourse. Policy makers must recognize digital and media literacy as literacy in today’s world.

      I think that not only policy makers need to recognize the impact of technology and media but parents and families do as well.

    3. In short, interventions that equip youth to critically navigate their digital lives have positive impacts that mitigate potentially harmful effects of participation in digital spaces.

      I like how this acknowledges the harm in media but offers a way of helping the situation.

    4. The fallout about “fake news” from the 2016 US presidential election is but 1 example of the consequences we face when citizens do not engage critical digital and media literacies.

      I think that people need to be better educated on whats real and fake online as well as how permanent our online footprint is.

    5. eading and writing in digital spaces may require a more complex application of skills than print-based literacy2

      I agree with this. When you write with a pen or paper you only need those tools to write with. When you are typing you need to know how to use a computer as well as the software that comes with it.

    6. These questions underscore what parents, educators, health professionals, and community leaders need to know to ensure that youth become digitally and media literate.

      Becoming media literate is extremely important in today society! It is the new way of the world. As an educator it is my job to include technology and media in my classroom to ensure this literacy.