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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Fun facts about apples Apple trees are 4 or 5 years old before they actually have apples. Apple are members of the rose family. The first apple tree in the United States was planted by the pilgrims when they came to the United States from Europe. It takes about 36 apples to make 1 gallon of apple cider. Apple trees can live to be about 100 years old. China grows more apples than any other country in the world. Apples have to be picked by hand when it is time to harvest them. Apples are amazing!

      Fun apple facts

    1. The criteria you put in your assessment will guide students toward the content and skills you want them to learn. You might even want to get their input before you finalize the project’s assessment.Be sure that your assessment gives students lots of leeway in how they investigate and share their projects. Every project should turn out differently. As Chris Lehmann says, “If you assign a project and you get back 30 of the exact same thing, that’s not a project, that’s a recipe.”

      assessments and project based learning

    2. Below is a checklist to help you refine your question. You might not be able to check off all the items, but the more the merrier! ‼️ The question is appealing to students.🗜 The question is concise. 💦 The question has no easy answer. 😍 The question taps into students’ interests and passions. 💤 The question does not sound like a test question. 💗 The question leads to more questions. 🔀 There is more than one answer to the question. 🔰 The topic is personal or local.🏡 Students can relate to the question in their daily lives.🤔  Students will have choices for end products. 💬 There is an authentic audience for the project.🕵️‍♀️ The question requires serious investigation. ℹ️ Students will learn important skills and content.💥 The project will somehow make a difference in the world.

      Suggestions on how to refine a driving question

    3. 📐 Solve a Problem: There’s a real-world predicament with multiple solutions.How can we stop phantom traffic jams?How can we beautify the vacant lot across the street for $200?What’s the best way to stop the flu at our school?Design a better lunch menu for our school.Design a safe and sturdy bridge to replace one in our city.🎓 Educational: The purpose of the project is to teach others.How can we teach second graders about helpful insects.Create a campaign to teach senior citizens how to use an iPad.What do the students at our school need to know about being respectful?👍 Convince Others: Students persuade a specified audience to do something or change their opinions.Create a public service announcement (PSA) that persuades teens to drink more water.Drive yourself to define a question and then Prove It to your classmates.Convince grocery shoppers to return their shopping carts.How can we convince our principal that we should have a party in December?🌏 Broad Theme: The project tackles big ideas.What does it mean to read?How does conflict lead to change?How does math influence art?How do writers persuade others?How are good and evil depicted in different cultures?💬 Opinion: Students need to consider all sides of an issue in order to form and justify their opinions.Should pets be allowed to attend class?Why has a woman never been a U.S. president?What makes a good astronaut?🚥 Divergent: Students make predictions about alternative timelines and scenarios.What if Rosa Parks gave up her seat?What if the world ran out of oil tomorrow?How might your city change if the climate became an average of 10°F warmer?What if the USA switched to the metric system?🚀 Scenario-Based: Students take on a fictional role with a mission to accomplish.You’re a NASA engineer, and you are in charge of building a moon base. What are the ten most important things to include and why?Imagine that you are King George. What would you have done differently to keep American part of England?You are the CEO of a company that is designing a new social media app. Present a business plan to your investors that explains how your company will make money.You’ve been hired to revamp your local shopping mall. Come up with a plan to increase business.How would you spend $1,000,000 to help your community?🚧 Scaffolded Around Framing Words: BIE has a tool to help you develop driving questions called a Tubric. It provides possible framing words, actions, audience, and purpose. If you’d rather not take the time to construct a tube, you could use Rhoni McFarlane’s Developing Inquiry Questions chart, Amy Mayer’s Scaffold for Writing a Driving Question, or TeachThought's PBL Cheat Sheet.How can I create a campaign to reduce bullying in my school? (from Rhoni McFarlane)How can we find a solution to reduce the litter in our school permanently? (also from Rhoni McFarlane)How can we as first graders create geocaching sites to promote physical fitness in our neighborhood? (from Washington Discovery Academy)

      Types of Driving Questions with examples

    4. Driving questions pose simply stated real world dilemmas. They pose predicaments that students find interesting and actually want to answer. The question drives students to discuss, inquire, and investigate the topic. It should push them toward a production or solution. In the process of investigating the question and sharing their answers, students learn important content and skills.  

      Driving Question

    5. it’s not surprising that we have a variety of other terms for a question or statement that is the project’s driving force. These terms include essential question, challenge, prime question, WILD HOG question, focus question, and smart question. I’ll stick with driving question, but do know that sometimes the driving question is not interrogative. It might be a statement, but I’ll still refer to is as a question.

      Other "names" for a Driving Question

    6. Projects begin with a driving question—an open-ended question that sets the stage for the project by creating interest and curiosity.

      What is a driving question in project based learning?

    1. Here are a few guidelines for parents to consider: In terms of social interaction, a child who is kindergarten-ready should be able to play and work well with others and know how to cooperate and share (both with physical objects and with ideas). While some children are slow to warm to others, particularly if they don't have siblings, it's best if they are at least willing to participate in group activities such as singing, rhyming, and talking. For the most part, a child who is in kindergarten will be expected to listen to the teacher and to other children, be able to pay attention and follow directions, and have some level of self-control, particularly in a group setting.

      General Social Skills for kids in kindergarten

    1. understanding of other cultures, and other people seems to be more critical than ever. In addition to learning about other countries and cultures, children need to learn early about the ways in which countries and people are connected. This includes an understanding of history and economics. It's not that children will learn all about world history or even all about the history of their own country and certainly not that they will learn all about economic theory. However, they can begin to learn some basics. We can think of this learning as "social science readiness."

      General Social Science learning in Kindergarten

    1. Usually, before kindergarten, most children can use words they've learned from conversations with others or by being read to. Throughout the academic year, your child's speech will become more structured and understandable, and reading and writing skills will emerge and advance. As the school year goes on, children should be able to understand basic sentence structure and punctuation. They will learn, for example, that the first word in a sentence is capitalized and that sentences end in periods, question marks, or exclamation points. Most kindergarteners learn to print letters in both lower- and uppercase. During kindergarten, children also learn to use question words, such as who, what, when, where, why and how, as well as how to make words plural by adding an 's' or "es". They also learn how to use common nouns and prepositions. By the end of kindergarten, most children can learn to read age-appropriate books by themselves, and your child might like to have you listen while he or she reads out loud at home.

      What kindergartener's generally learn in language arts

    2. In kindergarten math, children learn the names of numbers and how to count them in sequence. They begin to become familiar with numbers 11-19. They should also be able to count objects and begin an introduction to geometry by learning to recognize and name shapes such as triangles, rectangles, circles, and squares. Kindergartens begin to learn the concepts of addition and subtraction, respectively, as "putting together and adding to" and "taking apart and taking from," according to the Common Core State Math Standards.

      What kindergartener's generally learn in math

    1. What can you expect your child to learn about science by the end of kindergarten? In general, they will learn some basics of the physical sciences, Earth sciences, life sciences, and scientific principles of investigation and experimentation. Children are encouraged to develop their curiosity about the world around them and to make observations. As they are introduced to science, children develop organized and analytical thinking as well as problem-solving skills.

      what kindergarteners learn in science generally

    1. 1. PersistingHave students identify characteristics of persistence shown by individuals in well-known events, or imagine what might have occurred if more or less persistence was shown in a given scenario.2. Managing ImpulsivityModel the use of patience in the classroom, including wait time during discussion, or using helpful sentence stems that reflect intentional choice (such as "After reviewing all of the possible solutions . . . ").3. Listening to Others with Understanding and EmpathyIdentify the most common "listening set-asides" in conversation so that students can begin to recognize common "errors" that occur in everyday communication. These errors might include comparing, judging, placating or giving advice instead of really listening and understanding a message.4. Thinking FlexiblyUse RAFT assignments (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) where students must consider a situation, letter, speech or poem from a perspective other than their own, or that of the original speakers.5. Thinking About Our Thinking (Metacognition)Ask students to map out their own thinking process. This can be done simply at first, e.g., diagramming the relationship between a want and a need, a gesture and a need to gesture. Then make it increasingly complex -- mapping out how characters from books or thinkers in history might have arrived at certain starting or stopping points in thought.6. Striving for Accuracy and PrecisionUse "three before me," a strategy that insists on any important assignment being checked by at least three other people before being handed in.7. Questioning and Posing ProblemsCreate a "parking lot" area in the classroom -- stocked with post-it notes -- where students can post questions that may not fit into the pace or format of a given class. Then highlight the better questions periodically, or use them as jumping off points for discussion or even lesson planning.8. Applying Past Knowledge to New SituationsUse question stems like "What do you remember about . . . ?", "When have you ever seen anything like this?" or "Tell me what you know about . . . " Whether you consider this activating schema, prior knowledge, or simply getting students more comfortable and in tune with what they already know, it can be a huge boost to the learning process.9. Thinking and Communicating with Clarity and PrecisionRemind students to avoid the vagueness and abstraction -- and imprecision -- of terms like always, never, all, everybody, teachers, celebrities, technology, they, we, should and must. Post these kinds of words or phrases where students can be reminded of them -- and know to avoid them. And hopefully know why they should avoid them.10. Gathering Data Through All SensesPlayfully allow students to "cite" sources from sensory data in addition to traditional textual sources. Also consider including the compelling use of such data in a rubric for formal assessment.11. Creating, Imagining and InnovatingOffer persistent sources of inspiring thought, design, art or multimedia through writing prompts, discussion points or simply as a daily class closure. This models not only creativity, but also expertise, and is readily available on YouTube, Pinterest and Instagram.12. Responding with Wonderment and AweDon't just allow opportunities for student choice in topics, formats or learning pathways -- insist on it. Refuse to move the class forward until they are bringing their own passions into the learning experience.13. Taking Responsible RisksCreate an environment where failure is analyzed, not punished.14. Finding HumorPoint out humor where it is not immediately apparent, especially in stories and examples from your own life. This can help establish the "relativity" of "things," which supports more accurate analysis. Humor makes everything better.15. Thinking InterdependentlyUsing digital and social media imposes at least a topical need for interdependence from the beginning. The more thinking is published and shared, the more opportunity there will be for cognitive interdependence, though even opportunities aren't guarantees that it will happen.16. Learning ContinuouslyIntermittently revisit old ideas, writing and projects to identify areas for development, improvement or revision. This is especially natural in digital domains, where content is more fluid -- updated, shared, hyperlinked, curated, reformatted into more or less visual terms, then shared again.

      Examples of how to integrate the 16 habits of mind into your classroom

    2. The Habits of Mind by Art Costa and Bena Kallick don't simply represent fragments of practice to "add on" to what you already do, but rather new ways to think about how people learn.

      How people learn = Habits of Mind

    3. the Habits of Mind that (often predictably) lead to success or failure in the mastery of given standards. In fact, it is not in the standards or assessments, but rather these personal habits where success or failure -- in academic terms -- actually begin.

      Habits of Mind are really more personal habits on how people learn

    1. Habits of Mind are dispositions that are skillfully and mindfully employed by characteristically intelligent, successful people when they are confronted with problems, the solutions to which are not immediately apparent. When we draw upon these mental resources, the results are more powerful, of higher quality, and of greater significance than if we fail to employ those habits.

      Habits of mind. How we handle things when we are confronted with a problem.

    2. What Are Habits of Mind? According to Kallick and Costa, the Habits of Mind are less about behavior and more about intent. A “Habit of Mind” means having a disposition toward behaving intelligently when confronted with problems, the answers to which are not immediately known. When humans experience dichotomies, are confused by dilemmas, or come face to face with uncertainties–our most effective actions require drawing forth certain patterns of intellectual behavior. When we draw upon these intellectual resources, the results that are produced through are more powerful, of higher quality and greater significance than if we fail to employ those patterns of intellectual behaviors.

      Habits of Mind definition

    1. Expectations for instruction, assessment, and student work are called Performance Standards. These incorporate Content Standards and define the level of work that demonstrates achievement of the standards. Performance standards isolate and identify skills needed for problem-solving, reasoning, communicating, and making connections with other information. They provide all constituents with the evidences that students have met the content standards, helping teachers define what level of work is satisfactory.

      Performance Standards defined/ explained

    2. Broad statements that describe specific content areas that groups of students should learn at each grade level are called Content Standards. They define the knowledge within each discipline.

      Content Standard definition

  2. Feb 2020
    1. Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages through verbal or nonverbal means, including speech, or oral communication; writing and graphical representations (such as infographics, maps, and charts); and signs, signals, and behavior.

      Definition of communications

    2. To break it down, in any communication there is a sender and a receiver, a message, and interpretations of meaning on both ends. The receiver gives feedback to the sender of the message, both during the message's conveyance and afterward. Feedback signals can be verbal or nonverbal, such as nodding in agreement or looking away and sighing or other myriad gestures. There's also the context of the message, the environment it's given in, and potential for interference during its sending or receipt. 

      Explanation of communications

    1. Impacts of TPACK:Impact on the Teacher: It is important for the teacher to be completely up to date and knowledgeable with the curriculum and the components of TPCK to effectively incorporate it into their lessons.Impacts on the Students: Students of the millennium work better through technology and quite often find the content and direct teaching quite stale. Therefore by adding the technology component to the already existing PCK model the students become more engaged in their learning.

      Impacts of TPACK

    2. TPACK is an essential part of the education system today as it incorporates the growing demand on the use of technology in the classroom as well as continuing the focus on the content and how we teach it. Therefore it sets up education for the future as well as setting up the students for their future.

      Importance of TPACK

    1. The SAMR model considers four levels of integration: substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition. The TPACK model addresses the interaction of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge and how they relate to teaching in a technology-enhanced learning environment.

      SAMR vs TPACK SAMR- the levels of integration TPACK- how pedigogy, content and techology knowledge interact and relate to teaching in a tech-enhanced learning environment

    1. The SAMR model was created by Ruben Puentedura, and provides some context for assessing the quality of the technology task that we integrate into learning. 

      A way to assess the quality of a technological task wanting or is being used by a teacher for a lesson

    2. Filtering instructional planning through the TPACK model should serve to eliminate frivolous or irrelevant use of technology, and inspire teachers to make deeper connections to all aspects of effective instruction.

      TPACK is good for filtering instructional planning to make better use of technology for instruction

    1. Without educational alternatives that expand and diversify meaningful life options and pathways available to young people, we risk reinforcing an educational system that only serves the interests of elites, breeding a culture of competition for scarce opportunities.

      This is the sad realty that we're hoping to change. We need educational alternativies without isolating one group of students from the other.

    2. Today’s educational institutions are struggling to fulfill their mission of providing pathways to opportunity for all youth

      Overarching problem - dropout rates, charter/magnet school alternatives.

    3. he reality for too many youth, however, is that they see a shrinking set of options and little guidance towards new kinds of learning opportunity, community contribution, and diverse careers.

      A challenge to collaborating through onlines forms of education and translating it to reality without the proper resources

    4. What would it mean to consider an educational agenda that includes more flexible, informal, diverse, and interest-driven learning environments? Can we do this in a way that elevates all youth rather than serving the privileged minority?

      Elevating all youth, despite their socioeconomic status. Sharing parts of the world and opportunities through connected learning that may have not been accessible otherwise.

    1. Academically Oriented Connected learning recognizes the importance of academic success for intellectual growth and as an avenue towards economic and political opportunity. When academic studies and institutions draw from and connect to young people’s peer culture, communities and interest-driven pursuits, learners flourish and realize their true potential.

      Connected Learning- Academically Oriented

    2. Openly Networked Connected learning environments link learning in school, home and community because learners achieve best when their learning is reinforced and supported in multiple settings. Online platforms can make learning resources abundant, accessible and visible across all learner settings.

      Connected Learning- Openly networked

    3. Peer Supported Connected learning thrives in a socially meaningful and knowledge-rich ecology of ongoing participation, self-expression and recognition. In their everyday exchanges with peers and friends, young people fluidly contribute, share and give feedback. Powered with possibilities made available by today’s social media, this peer culture can produce learning that’s engaging and powerful.

      Connected Learning- Peer Supported. Exchanges with peers, even thru social media, produces engaged and powerful learning

    4. While wealthy families are embracing the potential of new technologies for learning, and investing more and more in out-of-school and connected learning, less privileged kids are being left behind

      The Haves vs the Have Nots

    5. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them. It is a fundamentally different mode of learning than education centered on fixed subjects, one-to-many instruction, and standardized testing. The research is clear. Young people learn best when actively engaged, creating, and solving problems they care about, and supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments.

      Connected learning definition/ explanation

    6. when the topic is personally interesting and relevant, learners achieve much higher-order learning outcomes.

      Teachers should find ways to create an interest to learn a topic, they should incorporate more hands on and technology rather than just lecture and notes.

    7. While connected learning is not new, and does not require technology, new digital and networked technologies expand opportunities to make connected learning accessible to all young people.

      Tech is not required but is an aid to the learning process and educational experience.

    8. Principles of Connected Learning

      -Interest powered -Production centered -Peer Supported -Shared Purpose -Academically Oriented -Openly Networked

    9. when the topic is personally interesting and relevant, learners achieve much higher-order learning outcomes. Connected learning views interests and passions that are developed in a social context as essential elements.

      The desire to learn is fostered by a students interest

    10. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them. I

      Definition of connected learning

    11. We need to harness these new technologies for learning rather than distraction.

      This is a great point. Sometimes we find ourselves abusing the technology we are gifted by using it to distract ourselves instead of fully engage the potential.

    12. The “connected” in connected learning is about human connection as well as tapping the power of connected technologies.

      This is an important clarification.

    13. Young people learn best when actively engaged, creating, and solving problems they care about, and supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments.

      This is very true. Even adults are more attuned when they know that they are recognized for their accomplishments.

    14. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them.

      Definitely pinpoints the collaborated learning or connected learning. Collaboration depends on support.

    15. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them

      I really like this definition. It shows that individuals are actually pursuing something that is interesting to him or her while also showing others their passions by connecting through learning.

    16. Openly Networked

      5th Principle of Connected Learning

    17. Academically Oriented

      5th Principle of Connected Learning

    18. Shared Purpose

      4th Principle of Connected Learning

    19. Peer Supported

      3rd Principle of Connected Learning

    20. Production Centered

      2nd Principle of Connected Learning

    21. Interest Powered

      1st principle of Connected Learning

    22. less privileged kids are being left behind

      We can see schools today that are barely funded and lacking the new technologies for learning. This effects the children in these schools and their academic career.

    23. failing to engage many students

      I think that this is important to note that tradition education is lacking many things to engage students more.

    24. Connected learners have a web of relationships and organizations that support their learning, beyond the formal educational pipeline.

      There is a big emphasis on relationships outside of the formal classroom.

    25. supported by peers who appreciate and recognize their accomplishments

      Encouragement and support from teachers, peers, and family is very important to the development of a child.

    26. Connected learning is when someone is pursuing a personal interest with the support of peers, mentors and caring adults, and in ways that open up opportunities for them.

      Clearly stated definition of "connected learning"

    27. learners achieve best when their learning is reinforced and supported in multiple settings.

      not only this, but it allows those who may struggle in some settings to thrive in others!

    28. when the topic is personally interesting and relevant, learners achieve much higher-order learning outcomes

      the reason why it is so important to alter your lesson plans to the students of that year or semester or class period!! minor changes = huge results!

    29. support

      uses this specific word choice a lot

    30. open up opportunities for them.

      our job as educators

    1. technology tools allow educators to redefine a traditional task in a way that would not be possible without the tech, creating a novel experience.

      Redefintion: global connection, online working and communicating

    2. Instead of replacement or enhancement, this is an actual change to the design of the lesson and its learning outcome. The key question here—does the technology significantly alter the task?

      Modification

    3. The technology is again directly substituted for a traditional one, but with significant enhancements to the student experience.

      Augmentation: augmenting a student's productivity or potential

    4. At this stage, technology is directly substituted for a more traditional one. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement

      Substitution. Think online textbook

    5. The SAMR model was created to share a common language across disciplines as teachers strive to help students visualize complex concepts.

      Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefintion: created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura Framework and spectrum

    6. The last stage of the SAMR model is Redefinition and represents the pinnacle of how technology can transform a student’s experience. In this case, you ask yourself if the technology tools allow educators to redefine a traditional task in a way that would not be possible without the tech, creating a novel experience.

      SAMR Model- Redefinition

    7. At this stage, technology is directly substituted for a more traditional one. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement.

      SAMR Model- Substitution

    8. Contributed By H. L. Assistant Principal Share SAMR Model: A Practical Guide for EdTech Integration Posted in Pro Tips | October 30, 2017 Share The SAMR Model is a framework created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura that categorizes four different degrees of classroom technology integration. The letters "SAMR" stand for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. The SAMR model was created to share a common language across disciplines as teachers strive to help students visualize complex concepts. Image Modified from Original by Lefflerd’s on Wikimedia Commons While it’s often visualized as a ladder or staircase as above, this can be misleading because Substitution (the bottom of the ladder) is sometimes the best choice for a particular lesson. This is why it’s better to think of the SAMR model more as a spectrum. On one end technology is used as a one-to-one replacement for traditional tools, and on the other end technology enables experiences that were previously impossible without it. Click here to learn how to transform static resources, particularly PDFs, into engaging content in 3 easy steps   Regardless of how you visualize it, the SAMR framework can be a simple and effective way to assess how you are incorporating technology into your instruction. The SAMR Model Explained (with Examples) The SAMR model is made up of four steps—Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. Substitution and Augmentation are considered "Enhancement" steps, while Modification and Redefinition are termed "Transformation" steps. Think of the difference between seasoning an old family recipe (Enhancement) and creating an entirely new, original dish (Transformation). Susan Oxnevad referred to this movement across the spectrum as "teaching above the line." Substitution At this stage, technology is directly substituted for a more traditional one. It is a simple, bare-bones, direct replacement. For example, if you are teaching a government lesson on the Constitution, you might use an electronic or web-based version of the document instead of a hard copy. Students might also answer questions about the Constitution using a Microsoft Word instead of filling out a worksheet. Substitution might also include a student using Keynote, PowerPoint, Prezi, Slides, or a similar program to present information about an article or amendment to the class. In this step, you ask yourself what we stand to gain by replacing traditional tools with technology. Invariably, some situations will be better served with pen and paper.

      SAMR Model- Substitution

    9. Augmentation The technology is again directly substituted for a traditional one, but with significant enhancements to the student experience. In other words, you ask yourself if the technology increases or augments a student's productivity and potential in some way.

      SAMR Model- Augmentation

    10. beginning to move from enhancement to transformation on the model. Instead of replacement or enhancement, this is an actual change to the design of the lesson and its learning outcome. The key question here—does the technology significantly alter the task?

      SAMR Model- Modification

    11. a group of students might collaborate in a cloud-based workspace to propose a modern definition of equal protection under the law and solicit feedback on their proposals from classmates.

      SAMR Model- Modification

    12. The SAMR model is made up of four steps—Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. Substitution and Augmentation are considered "Enhancement" steps, while Modification and Redefinition are termed "Transformation" steps. Think of the difference between seasoning an old family recipe (Enhancement) and creating an entirely new, original dish (Transformation).

      SAMR model Transformation vs Enhancement

    13. The SAMR Model is a framework created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura that categorizes four different degrees of classroom technology integration. The letters "SAMR" stand for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. The SAMR model was created to share a common language across disciplines as teachers strive to help students visualize complex concepts.

      SAMR Model definition

    14. Layering technology into antiquated tasks isn’t going to improve the learning experience. But purposefully altering the substance of these tasks to address the skills students need today (and those they’ll need tomorrow) will improve learning.

      avoid the "textbook to e-book"; be PURPOSEFUL

    15. better to think of the SAMR model more as a spectrum

      I made the staircase assumption too #guilty

    1. Instead, TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones. By simultaneously integrating knowledge of technology, pedagogy and content, expert teachers bring TPACK into play any time they teach. Each situation presented to teachers is a unique combination of these three factors, and accordingly, there is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching. Rather, solutions lie in the ability of a teacher to flexibly navigate the spaces defined by the three elements of content, pedagogy, and technology and the complex interactions among these elements in specific contexts.

      TPACK

    2. TPACK is an emergent form of knowledge that goes beyond all three “core” components (content, pedagogy, and technology). Technological pedagogical content knowledge is an understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge.

      TPACK

    3. Thus, TPK requires a forward-looking, creative, and open-minded seeking of technology use, not for its own sake but for the sake of advancing student learning and understanding.

      TPK

    4. An understanding of the affordances of technology and how they can be leveraged differently according to changes in context and purposes is an important part of understanding TPK.

      TPK

    5. TPK is an understanding of how teaching and learning can change when particular technologies are used in particular ways. This includes knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies. To build TPK, a deeper understanding of the constraints and affordances of technologies and the disciplinary contexts within which they function is needed.

      TPACK component- Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)

    6. TCK, then, is an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another. Teachers need to master more than the subject matter they teach; they must also have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of representations that can be constructed) can be changed by the application of particular technologies. Teachers need to understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their domains and how the content dictates or perhaps even changes the technology—or vice versa.

      TPACK component- Technology Content Knowledge (TCK)

    7. FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives, to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in information technology. FITness, therefore, requires a deeper, more essential understanding and mastery of information technology for information processing, communication, and problem solving than does the traditional definition of computer literacy. Acquiring TK in this manner enables a person to accomplish a variety of different tasks using information technology and to develop different ways of accomplishing a given task

      TPACK component- Technology knowledge (TK). Hard to define because TK becomes outdated quickly

    8. Understanding the impact of technology on the practices and knowledge of a given discipline is critical to developing appropriate technological tools for educational purposes.

      Technological Content Knowledge

    9. the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment.

      Helps the teachers understand how students aquire knowledge and expand cognitive development. relationship with content knowledge

    10. PCK is consistent with and similar to Shulman’s idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content. Central to Shulman’s conceptualization of PCK is the notion of the transformation of the subject matter for teaching. Specifically, according to Shulman (1986), this transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adapts and tailors the instructional materials to alternative conceptions and students’ prior knowledge. PCK covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting, such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum, assessment, and pedagogy.

      TPACK component- Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)

    11. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom.

      TPACK component- Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)

    12. Knowledge and the nature of inquiry differ greatly between fields, and teachers should understand the deeper knowledge fundamentals of the disciplines in which they teach.

      Essential for content knowledge; being thorough to avoid misunderstandings and to be as accurate as possible.

    13. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.

      TPACK framework

    14. Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught.

      Content Knowledge (CK) definition.

    15. Equally important to the model are the interactions between and among these bodies of knowledge, represented as PCK, TCK (technological content knowledge), TPK (technological pedagogicalknowledge), and TPACK. Figure 1. The TPACK framework and its knowledge components.

      TPACK mondel

    16. newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling to use more technology in their teaching.

      Each digital technology has its own affordances and contraints; social and contextual factors can prohibit successful tenchology integration in the classroom (unsupported institutional efforts); lack of training

    17. At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.

      The core components to TPACK

    18. An approach is needed that treats teaching as an interaction between what teachers know and how they apply what they know in the unique circumstances or contexts within their classrooms. There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum. Rather, integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts. Honoring the idea that teaching with technology is a complex, ill-structured task, we propose that understanding approaches to successful technology integration requires educators to develop new ways of comprehending and accommodating this complexity.

      TPAC- integrating technology in classroom should be creative and done by subject matter

    19. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology

      What is needed to be an effective teacher

    20. Most traditional pedagogical technologies are characterized by specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums, and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of function (the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple and directly related to their function) (Simon, 1969).

      traditional pedagogical technologies

    21. Thus, effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

      Effective teaching

    22. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment.

      This is definitely important you need organization for the students to grow and succeed

    23. Understanding how these affordances and constraints of specific technologies influence what teachers do in their classrooms is not straightforward and may require rethinking teacher education and teacher professional development

      Access to different technologies and understanding the constraints of each is important. It's necessary to limit what technology is in the classroom and how long the students will spend on it. It's also important that there is balance.

    24. Over time, these technologies achieve a transparency of perception (Bruce & Hogan, 1998); they become commonplace and, in most cases, are not even considered to be technologies

      This is accurate. I would not consider a pencil to be technology.

    25. effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.

      This is important. You want your students to be encouraged and engaged. In order to do that you need to understand what's important to them and how they learn.

    26. Social and institutional contexts are often unsupportive of teachers’ efforts to integrate technology use into their work.

      I too find myself guilty of judging educators for their use of tech at times; I think I focus on how heavily a teacher relies on it versus how much they contribute as a content expert

    27. Also complicating teaching with technology is an understanding that technologies are neither neutral nor unbiased

      I, personally, took this in many other ways: content bias, access bias, etc

    28. Teachers practice their craft in highly complex, dynamic classroom contexts (Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986) that require them constantly to shift and evolve their understanding

      no 2 kids or 2 classes or 2 years are the same

    1. In the revised taxonomy, knowledge is at the basis of these six cognitive processes, but its authors created a separate taxonomy of the types of knowledge used in cognition: Factual Knowledge Knowledge of terminology Knowledge of specific details and elements Conceptual Knowledge Knowledge of classifications and categories Knowledge of principles and generalizations Knowledge of theories, models, and structures Procedural Knowledge Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures Metacognitive Knowledge Strategic Knowledge Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge Self-knowledge

      The types of knowledge used in cognition in the revised taxonomy

    2. The authors of the revised taxonomy underscore this dynamism, using verbs and gerunds to label their categories and subcategories (rather than the nouns of the original taxonomy). These “action words” describe the cognitive processes by which thinkers encounter and work with knowledge: Remember Recognizing Recalling Understand Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining Apply Executing Implementing Analyze Differentiating Organizing Attributing Evaluate Checking Critiquing Create Generating Planning Producing

      Revised Bloom's Taxonomy using verbs instead of nouns to label the categories and subcategories

    3. consisted of six major categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The categories after Knowledge were presented as “skills and abilities,” with the understanding that knowledge was the necessary precondition for putting these skills and abilities into practice. While each category contained subcategories, all lying along a continuum from simple to complex and concrete to abstract, the taxonomy is popularly remembered according to the six main categories.

      Bloom's Taxonomy- what is it

    1. The rationale behind a great deal of personalized learning technologies is that, once complexity is minimized for the user, then teachers are freed up to use their time for other, more important tasks. Whether it’s conferencing with students, analyzing assessment data, or even taking some time for self-care, technology is intended to help us become more powerful and increase our potential as teachers and learners.

      Berkeley county has been doing online learning days this school year to allow for teachers to have staff development days and parent teacher conferences. They give out a detailed plan of what the children should do through out the day all revolving around apps.

    2. This is the intention behind a great deal of personalized learning technologies, which oftentimes individualize instruction on the students’ behalf, using assessment data to determine which activities are appropriate. Doing so minimizes the complexity of the role an educator plays, because they are no longer making decisions about content, but instead allowing the technology to take over that responsibility.

      I think this is hit or miss really. I hear the kids talking about what level they are on in prodigy and in reflex and how advance they are. They start to discuss who is smarter... But I think that the content is still on par with the grade level. If it stays on grade level then is it really taking over what content is being taught in the classroom? I think the Teacher still has a role.

    3. The problem with many personalized learning tools is that they live mostly in realm of Substitution or Augmentation tasks. While there may be some functional improvement with regard to delivering content and collecting assessment data, there is little to no redefinition of the learning experience, which still sees students simply consuming and regurgitating materials, albeit through more efficient digital means.

      I agree with this. The kids I babysit no longer bring home math sheets where they write out the problem to solve it. Instead they do something online through an app called reflexmath. They can't tell you how they did the problems just that they did them.

    4. When redefining learning experiences, we cannot do so at the expense of human connection. The most powerful technologies known to human did more than simply minimize complexity or do something new and catchy: they enhance communication, making it easier for individuals to connect with one another

      Will technology preserve or enhance human connection in the classroom is by far a great question. Technology does make it easier to connect you leave an imprint everywhere you go online. I think as much as it enhances communication it also hinders it.

    5. It consists of four steps: Substitution (S), Augmentation (A), Modification (M), and Redefinition (R).The SAMR Model. Source: Wikimedia Commons

      SAMR is a model to guide how to integrate technology into classrooms. Substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition are all aspects of this model.

    1. The image depicted in these sculptures originally was for the teaching of the Biblical story of creation to natives in the early colonial period

      Tree of life as text

    1. L’arte sa nuotare, meaning art knows how to swim, is about two ways one can live life, like eros and love or life and death. We can choose to be stuck with fear due to the crisis or we can choose to take it as an opportunity to overcome our limitations while being confidence in the future and in our potential. So, even though it seems like we are all underwater it is time to learn how to swim! Renaissance art in Florence is still strong and hides today’s art that is alive and contemporary, so by using icons of the past with diving masks the theme presents a mix between the past and the contemporary world. There is no need to deny the past in order to look at the present, but at least acknowledge it.

      scuba mask art in florence, italy

    1. In literary theory, a text is any object that can be "read", whether this object is a work of literature, a street sign, an arrangement of buildings on a city block, or styles of clothing. It is a coherent set of signs that transmits some kind of informative message.[1] This set of signs is considered in terms of the informative message's content, rather than in terms of its physical form or the medium in which it is represented.

      What is text?

    1. Teaching the Holocaust to Grade Six and Above Students in grades six and above demonstrate the ability to empathize with individual eyewitness accounts and to attempt to understand the complexities of Holocaust history, including the scope and scale of the events. While elementary age students are able to empathize with individual accounts, they often have difficulty placing them in a larger historical context. Such developmental differences have traditionally shaped social studies curricula throughout the country. In most states, students are not introduced to European history and geography—the context of the Holocaust—before middle school. Elementary school can be an ideal place to begin discussing the value of diversity and the danger of bias and prejudice. These critical themes can be addressed through local and national historical events and can be reinforced during later study of the Holocaust.

      Age Appropriateness for teaching the Holocaust

    1. SEL consists of five key skills: Self-awareness – recognition of one’s own emotions, personal goals, and values Self-management – regulation of one’s own emotions and behaviors Social awareness – understanding of and compassion for others’ backgrounds or cultures Relationship skills – ability to establish and maintain healthy relationships Responsible decision-making – making positive choices involving one’s own behavior

      important skills for every human being

    1. esigners in education must be mindful of their audiences.

      We have to understand out students to be able to have an impact on them and to know how to help them best.

    1. Unlike previous years, where Lee was pulled out of the classroom for tutoring or to complete worksheets that focused on isolated skills, she is now able to work alone, with a partner, or with a small group, or engage in whole‐group conversations that support her emerging ideas and give her space to consider other perspectives and the context surrounding the information

      Key to providing the least restrictive enviorment

    2. we promote constructing learning experiences based on the fluctuating needs of students that attend to the social, political, and economic realities of being labeled as special education, bilingual, at‐risk, struggling, or below grade level

      providing what the student needs

    1. According to Common Sense Media, digital citizenship addresses the following concepts:  Thinking, acting, and being online  Thinking critically  Acting responsibly  Being safe  Discerning the truth

      Digital citizenship and what its concepts for early education

    2. According to the Technology in Early Childhood Center, digital citizenship is a term for the skills children need to choose high-quality, developmentally-appropriate technology—and use it safely.

      digital citizenship definition for early education

    1. we use media to inform ourselves, to help shape our opinions, to interact with our communities and to make our voices heard. Models for digital citizenship are generally framed around elements such as rights and responsibilities, participation or civic engagement, norms of behaviour or etiquette, and a sense of belonging and membership.

      Being a "critically engaged user and consumer of media", or a "digital citizen" is a form of active citizenship. This point really interests me, as I am known to often express my opinions online. I never thought about tech as a form of "civic engagement" until more recently with more and more social media movements.

    2. a curriculum framework

      Developed by MediaSmarts to promote speicifc concepts of digital literacy that they find are essential for students in classrooms; cover topics of ethics/empathy, pivacy/security, community engagement, digital health, consumer awareness, finding/verifying, & making/remixing.

    3. key concepts for digital literacy are essential both in providing a common language for theorists and educators and in being a guiding principle for teachers in a rapidly changing technological landscape.

      Important for students to apply their learning to different conexts. The key concepts are: Digital media are networked/persistant/searchable/shareable, have unknown or unexpected audiences, don't always feel real, and are influenced by their creators

    4. As Douglas Belshaw puts it, “Digital literacies are transient: they change over time, may involve using different tools or developing different habits of mind, and almost always depend upon the context in which an individual finds herself.”[

      The Media world is always changing, we must stay up to date. Specific skills vary from person to person, but the key concepts of using, understanding, and creating hold true for all to achieve fluency, contexualize, and communicate effectively.

    5. basic access, awareness and training to inform citizens and build consumer and user confidence to highly sophisticated and more complex creative and critical literacies and outcomes.

      Outlined by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)

    6. As increasing numbers of businesses, services and even democratic processes migrate online, citizens who lack digital literacy skills risk being disadvantaged when it comes to accessing healthcare, government services and opportunities for employment, education and civic participation

      Technology is starting to play a pivotal role in day-to-day social life and essential tasks to live comfortably. Yes, the benefits of technology inside of a high school classroom are evident, but we can't forget about the use of tech after those students graduate and start their own lives.

    7. generation of youth who are not fully digitally literate, yet are deeply immersed in cyberspace. Therefore, “it is not… enough to assume that young people automatically have all of the skills, knowledge and understanding that they need to apply to their use of technology.

      Why digital literacy is important. Being online and using technology to our advantage is so second-nature to some that they (we) can forget about those that are not as informed. Maybe they're exposed to the technology world and understand its benefits, but it means nothing if one can't apply knowledge to actually profit from it.

    1. Most obviously, schools, colleges, universities and other formal educational institutions are key sites where people learn to use ICTs.

      When we integrate technology into our classes, we are helping our students learn how to work these technologies to be more successful in the future.

    2. Digitally literate women and men form the foundations for the inclusive, knowledge societies we need for the twenty-first century

      So true! Unfortunately, we need to work more in less fortunate societies to educate them in regular curriculum, but also digital citizenship, so they can spread the word.

    1. Even more important, the information resources and opportunities avail-able on the Internet provide individuals with opportunities to make their personal lives richer and more fulfilling.

      When we use technology, we are giving people the ability to learn about things that could help them in the future. Technology can help make all pf our lives better.

    2. Global economic competition within economies based increasingly on the effective use of information and communication.2. The rapid appearance of the Internet in both our professional and personal lives.3. Public policy initiatives by nations that integrate literacy and the Internet into instruction.

      Social factors that influence and are influenced by literacy changes; almost like reciprocal determinism

    3. According to one of the most systematic evaluations of worldwide Internet use, over 2.4 billion individuals now use the Internet—more than one third of the world’s population (Internet World Stats, 2011). Moreover, at the current rate of growth, Internet use will be ubiquitous in the world within the next decade.

      Is it by now?

    4. This approach suggests that the best solutions result from collaborative groups who bring diverse, multiple per-spectives to problems (Page, 2007). New Literacies theory takes an “open-source” approach, inviting everyone who studies the Internet’s impact to contribute to theory development and to benefit from others’ contributions.

      Explains why Dr. Obyrne chose to make the content of this class an open ed resouce! Increases comprehension and learning

    1. The more I read and research, the more fundamental I see digital citizenship being to what we do as educators. However, I also get more and more curious about where this type of learning fits in with the Ontario curriculum. In my research, I came across a document by the Ministry of Education entitled A Shifting Landscape: Pedagogy, Technology, and the New Terrain of Innovation in a Digital World, that reads:

      Digital citizenship

    1. 10 Social Media Rules for Teachers

      Tips for teachers and social media use. Decide how much I want to be viewed and connected to my school, its staff and students.

    1. Rather than engaging one-on-one with a device or program, whole classrooms can create projects online using a range of software. One teacher uses computers to create digital stories with his students. Each child contributes ideas and adds images to the text, or takes turns attaching audio files as narrators.  The final product belongs to everyone – and can be shared online with parents and administrators. This approach takes the early childhood training principle of fair play and effective teamwork to the next level, demonstrating to toddlers that by collaborating well they can create something lasting and quite impressive!

      Teach kids that technology is not a single person activity but group collaboration. Have fun with it.

    2. One teacher decided to use technology to build on a lesson plan where toddlers construct a copy of their own house using play blocks of different shapes. To enhance the lesson, the educator used Google Earth to bring up images of her students’ houses as references for their models. Students had fun manipulating the tool, and it actually helped them complete the task more effectively.

      Start small and make it a part of the lesson plan to help them learn and have fun

    3. Educators should strive to integrate technological tools where they complement and enhance an existing, carefully conceived lesson plan. These tools aren’t a substitute for thinking through learning goals, and making sure students understand key concepts. Nor does randomly adding a digital device to your classroom add up to effective technological integration – the tool must be built into your plan, have a clear purpose, and be accessible to all students.

      Basic thoughts on how to integrate technology into early edu. It must be thought out and built into a lesson plan and complement it.

    1. This is the most accurate thing I have read being an artist. it is truly a challenge. The difference between the digital art form and the physical art form can be overwhelming. Its also an overwhelming task to be original in this digital world we live in.

    1. Backward Design Template with Descriptions (click link for template with descriptions).

      Stages of backward design: identify desired results, determine acceptable evidence, plan learning experiences and instruction. Would be a great hyperlink source.

    2. encourages intentionality during the design process.

      I really liked the term "intentionality," It stuck out to me - I want my future assignments to be intentional in a way that I know will satisy a goal of my students. Learning > teaching, but it depends on it. Transparency in the classroom & being deliberate.

    3. backward design approach has instructors consider the learning goals of the course first. These learning goals embody the knowledge and skills instructors want their students to have learned when they leave the course. Once the learning goals have been established, the second stage involves consideration of assessment.

      Answers "What is backward design?" I feel that recent research has made this approach more common as many of my teachers have been very adamant about what we're expected to learn for the day, week, semester. But how many teachers actually work backwards...?

    1. “21C Skills” refers to a broad set of knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits that are important to succeed in today’s world, particularly for college and career readiness and in the workplace. Examples of these skills include collaboration, communication, creativity, and problem-solving.

      I've never heard of these qualities be called by this term. Very applicable and essential qualities to have, as it includes problem solving, collaboration (conflicts, cultural competency, productivity), creativity, managing communications.

    2. Knowing how to read, write, and participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic—in a rapidly evolving, networked world.

      Essentially the outline of this source. How we read (search, navigate, synthesize, and evaluate) on the web, write (design, compose, code, revise, remix) online, and participate (share, contribute, connect, protect) with others

    3. Web Literacy 2.0

      Very good article that explains in depth the concept of and behind web literacy.

      Main points:

      • Research Findings
      • Web literacy skills one may possess
    1. The Mozilla Foundation and community of volunteers have worked to address this paradox by creating a Web Literacy Map.

      From text: Mozilla Foundation is a global non-profit that created Firefox browser; goal: to offer descriptive guidance for educators on defining skills and competencies to participate on a large networked Web; across various theories, perspecitives, and geography; "internet as literacy"

    1. all students feel safe and comfortable participating

      many argue that technology inhibits community, but this says the opposite

    2. rubric when deciding whether to adopt a technology solution:  Does it give each child a chance to participate, even if they are not the first to answer? “Does it engage every learner in the room, and require them all to actively participate and respond to each question, form an opinion, and submit an answer?” Does it allow for students to share openly, without risk of exposure of their mistakes to other students?  Is it efficient and effective for teachers to target not only class needs, but individual student needs? Does it vary the way students can respond to a question? Some students like oral discussion while others prefer written replies.

      great rubric to decide what tech is appropriate and beneficial for the students

    3. Educational technology can help encourage quiet students to become active participants in the classroom

      voice for all students

  3. Jan 2020
    1. Figure 1.3. Continuum of Assessment Methods

      never just one assessment means all students can benefit; some can channel creativity in poster boards and skits, some prefer typical multiple choice

    2. Figure 1.1. Stages in the Backward Design Process

      great visual summary

    1. Once the learning goals have been established, the second stage involves consideration of assessment

      goals come before assessments, sort of like fighting back against the ever-growing standardized testing monster

    1. Being audience and culturally aware, resolving conflict appropriately, using technology tools effectively, and taking responsibility for personal and group productivity.

      3 of these 4 are goals for my classroom without tech even on my mind, but with tech, they can transcend even further into the daily lives of digitally literate students

    2. participate in the digital world has become the 4th basic foundational skill next to the three Rs—reading, writing, and arithmetic

      As the internet has become a major learning tool that is literally at the tip of our fingers it makes sense that it has become a 4th basic foundation skill.

    3. When most workers held jobs in industry, the key skills were knowing a trade, following directions, getting along with others, working hard, and being professional. To hold information-age jobs, people also need to think deeply about issues, solve problems creatively, work in teams, communicate clearly in many media, learn ever-changing technologies.

      So, even though these are two different types of jobs I think that in this day and age they are integrated. Even the industrial job needs the updated communication of the tech world, because of just how vast the internet has become a main source of information.

    4. Learning through making involves constructing new content

      design, revise, remix, MAKE SOMETHING

    5. reading online requires a basic understanding of web mechanics

      searching, determining credibility, etc.

    1. At least five processing practices occur during online research and comprehen-sion: (1) reading to identify important questions, (2) reading to locate information, (3) reading to evaluate information critically, (4) reading to synthesize informa-tion, and (5) reading to communicate information

      how do we make sure that students are not just "skimming" or doing #2???

    1. MediaSmarts has drawn on the work of academics and educators across the country to develop a curriculum framework to ensure that students from Kindergarten to Grade 12 can receive a comprehensive digital literacy education. This framework consists of lessons, classroom activities and other teacher resources that translate the five key concepts into specific digital literacy skills that are essential for each grade level. These skills are grouped into seven categories: Ethics and Empathy: This category addresses students’ social-emotional skills and empathy towards others as well as their ability to make ethical decisions in digital environments when dealing with issues such as cyberbullying, sharing other people’s content and accessing music and video. Privacy and Security: This includes essential skills for managing students’ privacy, reputation and security online, such as making good decisions about sharing their own content, understanding data collection techniques, protecting themselves from malware and other software threats, and being aware of their digital footprint. Community Engagement: Resources in this category teach students about their rights as citizens and consumers, and empower them to influence positive social norms in online spaces and to speak out as active, engaged citizens. Digital Health: Digital health skills include managing screen time and balancing students’ online and offline lives; managing online identity issues; dealing with issues relating to digital media, body image and sexuality; and understanding the differences between healthy and unhealthy online relationships. Consumer Awareness: These skills allow students to navigate highly commercialized online environments. They include recognizing and interpreting advertising, branding and consumerism; reading and understanding the implications of website Terms of Service and privacy policies; and being savvy consumers online. Finding and Verifying: Students need the skills to effectively search the Internet for information they need for personal and school purposes, and then evaluate and authenticate the sources and information they find. Making and Remixing: Making and remixing skills enable students to create digital content and use existing content for their own purposes in ways that respect legal and ethical considerations, and to use digital platforms to collaborate with others.

      all things that can easily be worked into any curriculum that involves technology

    2. Digital education

      We as a society are seeing more technology being brought into the classroom. My opinion on this goes both ways, it is good and bad. It is good for students to interact with technology and use other resources that are accessible to them as students. But this technology can be a distraction to some and can take away from the traditional skills children learn in the classroom such as reading a paperback book, or writing notes, etc.

    3. 5. How we respond and behave when using digital media is influenced by the architecture of the platforms, which reflects the biases and assumptions of their creators.

      Concept #5 Digital Literacy

    4. 4. Digital media experiences are real, but don’t always feel real.

      Concept #4 of Digital Literacy

    5. 3. Digital media have unknown and unexpected audiences.

      Concept #3 of Digital Literacy

      • audiences are different depending on the content you find on the internet
    6. 2. Digital media are persistent, searchable and shareable.

      Concept #2 of Digital Literacy:

      • Digital content is permanent, and many forget about this all the time.
      • So that is why parents, educators, and peers emphasize to be careful what you post on the internet because it could come back to hurt you, later in your life time.
    7. 1. Digital media are networked

      Key Concept #1 of Digital Literacy

    8. Create is the ability to produce content and effectively communicate through a variety of digital media tools.

      Good definition of "create". This I can see also relates to creativity, which is important for our future students to be creative and unique.

    9. Understand is that critical piece – it’s the set of skills that help us comprehend, contextualize, and critically evaluate digital media so that we can make informed decisions about what we do and encounter online.

      I believe that this is a crucial part of the digital literacy model. If one does not understand how to make informed decisions about what we do online, we as humans could potential get ourselves in trouble, so to speak.

    10. Skills and competencies that fall under “use” range from basic technical know-how – using computer programs such as word processors, web browsers, email and other communication tools

      Good definition of what "use" is on the digital literacy model

    11. This model

      The model above is a great visual representation of what digital literacy is!

    12. Digital literacy is as much a key part of learning about history and learning how to study history, and learning about science and learning how to study science,

      This relates back to how we use technology in the classroom, and also how it is a great tool we as a society are lucky to have.

    13. Instant-messaging, photo sharing, texting, social networking, video-streaming and mobile Internet use

      These actions are things we as a society do everyday. They are extremely influential and are inevitable in todays society.

    14. “it is not… enough to assume that young people automatically have all of the skills, knowledge and understanding that they need to apply to their use of technology.

      This statement emphasizes the need for understanding that everyone is not perfect, we are humans. Humans acquire knowledge over time through experience, not everyone is born with prominent technology skills.

    15. In order to be literate in today’s media-rich environments, young people need to develop knowledge, values and a whole range of critical thinking, communication and information management skills for the digital age

      Today's society focuses solely on the media because it is so prevalent, so this does create a demand for knowledge. So I significantly agree with this statement.

    16. Digital Health: Digital health skills include managing screen time and balancing students’ online and offline lives; managing online identity issues; dealing with issues relating to digital media, body image and sexuality; and understanding the differences between healthy and unhealthy online relationships.

      Again supper important for children to understand just how important it is to not disclose their identity to just anyone online. Its also important to deal with the issues that are so commonly seen in digital media.

    17. Teachers interviewed by MediaSmarts identified several key factors that limit the ability of educators to help students build digital literacy skills. They also offered some solutions to these problems, including the need to: provide students with authentic learning opportunities that are enhanced through technological tools; position teachers as facilitators and co-learners, instead of “drill and kill” experts; focus teacher training on how to use technology to enhance learning and meet curricular outcomes; and create reasonable policies and less restrictive filters in schools so that teachers can better help students develop and exercise good judgement.[12] Technology has shifted the traditional classroom paradigm that positions the teacher as the expert. This can be hard for many educators to accept, but it’s not necessarily a bad thing. In our quickly evolving technological world, we are all learners, and teachers who are willing to share responsibility with students are more likely to be comfortable – and effective – in a networked classroom.

      This is all good information. I think that when we ourselves show that we are all learners and create authentic learning opportunities the children gain not only respect for what they are learning but also for the teacher. It makes for a more comfortable learning environment.

    18. content can also be copied, shared or spread at a trivial cost

      This is a slight nightmare. Nothing is safe to manipulation.

    19. young people need to develop knowledge, values and a whole range of critical thinking, communication and information management skills for the digital age

      It's definitely important for children to develop an understanding of knowledge, values and definitely information management. Kids do not understand what being discrete and monitoring what you say and what info you give when it comes to being next to people let alone a whole internet full.

    20. Today’s youth are often called “digital natives” by adults because of the seemingly effortless way they engage with all things technological.

      This has definitely rang true for at least the past decade. I have heard on more than one occasion something along the lines of "Just ask the kid to show you how to work the phone."

    21. The Arts: As more and more artistic production is created or distributed through digital media, arts courses also need to reflect the impacts of digital technology, such as how platform architecture influences aesthetics and self-presentation, and the effects of networked technology on arts industries and communities. The Internet has definitely been a mixed blessing for most arts industries, but students need to understand those changes – and be able to see what changes are coming – if they’re considering careers in the arts.

      This is important to me as I am working toward teaching elementary arts. I love using multimedia design and I love using online to promote myself and art, but this also means my art is up for grabs by others online.

    22. it’s easy to forget that laws, morals and rights still apply online.

      I think this is why we've seen an increase in cyber bullying. People think that they can hide behind the screens and not have the same consequences.

    23. what you share online may be seen by people you didn’t intend or expect to see it. Your ability to control who sees what is limited: both content creators and traditional gatekeepers and distributors have much less power to control what happens to it once it’s posted. This can make it difficult to manage audiences, and there is always a risk of context collapse when what was intended for one audience is seen by another. As well, you may be sharing content that you’re not aware of with audiences you don’t know about, such as cookies and other tracking tools that record information about who you are and what you do when you visit a website.

      This could be a weakness to digital platforms. But it's also a reminder to the users that we need to be careful about what we post, create, and share.

    24. Digital content is permanent

      This is really important for us to remember. Especially as future educators.

    25. without guidance they remain amateur users of information and communications technology (ICT), which raises concerns about a generation of youth who are not fully digitally literate, yet are deeply immersed in cyberspace.

      I relate to this... I'm really good with the technology I'm familiar with but as soon as I have to figure out a new digital forum, I'm a mess!

    26. “it is not… enough to assume that young people automatically have all of the skills, knowledge and understanding that they need to apply to their use of technology. All young people need to be supported to thrive in digital cultures; they need help making sense of a rapidly changing world of technology which gives them access to vast amounts of information, which is infused with commercial agendas and which for many reasons can be difficult to interpret.”[1]

      I think this thought can be applied to other areas, not just digital literacy.

    27. citizens who lack digital literacy skills risk being disadvantaged when it comes to accessing healthcare, government services and opportunities for employment, education and civic participation

      This is so true. Everything is becoming digitalized.

    28. Digital literacy is more than technological know-how: it includes a wide variety of ethical, social and reflective practices that are embedded in work, learning, leisure and daily life.

      I like this definition. It shows that there is so much more to digital literacy than I originally thought.

    29. being able to adapt what we produce for various contexts and audiences;

      Our audience is huge! Giving a presentation to college freshman or a presentation to 70 year olds will look like two totally different things. We need to know our audience.

    30. Understand is that critical piece – it’s the set of skills that help us comprehend, contextualize, and critically evaluate digital media so that we can make informed decisions about what we do and encounter online. These are the essential skills that we need to start teaching our kids as soon as they go online. Understand includes recognizing how networked technology affects our behaviour and our perceptions, beliefs and feelings about the world around us.

      I think this is a crucial piece to digital literacy. Based on my experience with youth, the kids I work with rarely know how to make "informed decisions" about what they are doing, posting, and searching online. They aren't able to recognize the impact that certain things have on their future.

    31. Digital Literacy Model

      Perfect for visual learners!

    32. citizens who lack digital literacy skills risk being disadvantaged when it comes to accessing healthcare, government services and opportunities for employment, education and civic participation

      as teachers, we need to connect them to the world around them.. this world is digital in the modern age, so we can offer them not only the opportunity to do good for others but also for themselves

    33. Today’s youth are often called “digital natives” by adults because of the seemingly effortless way they engage with all things technological.

      we can prepare them for the future workforce; many jobs require certain skills with tech - managing social media, programming, contacting customers via chat and phone, etc.

    1. Promising trends

      Promising Trends Consist of:

      • Ensuring digital literacy for all.
      • Teaching computer and programming skills to children and young people.
      • Facilitate the development of digital skills needed for the ICT profession.
      • Foster 'soft' and 'complementary' digital skills.
    2. coding in national school curricula; outside-school coding clubs; competitions and campaigns; and the subsidized distribution of low-cost computers with pre-loaded courses and applications.

      This is ideal for building new digital tools that could impact future job skills. Most people want experience and if you have been coding since elementary school it is a huge advantage.

    3. National ‘digital literacy for all’ initiatives; integration of digital skills development into school curricula;

      Definitely important for the future. Technology being in the curriculum allows for children to develop the skill set necessary for our rapidly growing digital world.

    4. In the place of ‘digital natives,’ I believe we need to support the rise of a new generation of ‘digital citizens,’ with the right skills for life, work and engagement in connected communities for today and tomorrow.

      I think that it makes sense that the newer generation would be now digital citizens. The internet is definitely not the same as it was when it started to bloom into the world wide web in the early 90's. This new generation has only known the fast pace growing internet.

    1. Times piece viewed on the web may contain hyperlinks, videos, audio clips, images, interactive graphics, share buttons, or a comments section—features that force the reader to stop and make decisions

      I like the aspect of digital learning but sometimes having so many options is obnoxious. I have accidentally hit a link before that ended up taking me to a different page and the rest of the article I was reading is now lost and a chore to find again.