117 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2019
    1. equinoctial

      relating to the equinox

    2. Little Marvel Stove,

      Vintage stove, may be a brand name

  2. Sep 2017
    1. Somewhat paradoxically, the group took advantage of their backgrounds in software even as they were careful to denote they weren't ''those kinds" of hackers. In correcting misunderstandings they both negotiated the stigma around hacking while retaining the term as central to their operations, albeit less so than before. Wayne, a director, would use the term in public because he knew people might question it. He saw this as a chance for redefinition, to get people to "realize that we're not just guys who read 2600 and try and make free long distance calls." Nancy similarly described it as a "word we 're trying to take back" from the media. Even as outwardly the organization shifted to being a maker space the word hacker continued to be a potent way they could mark the difference of their space as compared with other types of shared workshops.

      Algo similar pasó con HackBo ante la filtración de información sobre el proceso de paz en Colombia y la atención en los medios a las conotaciones inadecuadas del término hacker. Aún así el término se ha mantenido, así como la inteción de tomarlo de vuelta de los medios.

    2. Mike, the most involved director, described a conscious move towards maker culture and away from "being like a closed little nerd group that requires a prerequisite of being able to program in C." Software production was frequently used as a point of contrast to the current space. Making captured a notion of productivity and openness that the previous iteration lacked. Mark described the current version of GeekSpace as "more of a makerspace ... there's a lot of physical fabrication happening." The original members, by comparison, were "more software [oriented]... specifically, hardcore infosec [information security]," harkening back to the group's roots in local 2600 meetings and professional occupations.

      Una discusión similar la hemos tenidos en HackBo. La práctica, sin embargo ha sido preservar el nombre y lididar con la ignorancia y la cultura popular frente a la connotación de hacker. Otros espacios, como La Galería, en Armenia, se han alineado desde el comienzo a esa tradición artesanal referida al trabajo con maderas en la región y han elegido la connotación más abierta de maker, desde le comienzo.

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  3. Jun 2017
    1. they don’t wring the value out of collections.

      The process of mapping community conversations is covered in greater depth in the Atlas of New Librarianship.

    2. The average age of school board members in the States is between 40 and 59.

      In Middle Township, ‘age is no barrier to leadership.’ (2007, January 18). New Jersey’s School Board Recognition, 30(21). Retrieved from http://www.njsba.org/sb_notes/20070118/recog.html (accessed December 8, 2015)

    3. “test everything; retain what is good.”

      1 Thessalonians 5:16-24

    4. That line comes from a hilarious video that a group of librarians put together about getting college students into the library.

      http://youtu.be/ibi7aTmVA_c (accessed December 8, 2015)

    1. Libraries and Museums in an Era of Participatory Culture.

      Mack, D. L. (2011, October 19–23). Libraries and museums in an era of participatory culture. Session 482 Report, Salzburg Global Seminar in partnership with Institute of Museum and Library Services. Retrieved from http://www.imls.gov/assets/1/AssetManager/SGS_Report_2012.pdf

    2. Some libraries have used these tools to maintain libraries for centuries. The Bodleian Library at Oxford first opened its door in 1602, for example.
    3. even as an executive vice president and head of mortgage servicing at JPMorgan Chase.
    4. “is concerned with recordable information and knowledge, and the services and technologies to facilitate their management and use. The curriculum of library and information studies encompasses information and knowledge creation, communication, identification, selection, acquisition, organization and description, storage and retrieval, preservation, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, synthesis, dissemination, and management.”

      American Library Association, Office for Accreditation. (2008). Standards for accreditation of master's programs in library & information tudies. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/accreditedprograms/sites/ala.org.accreditedprograms/files/content/standards/standards_2008.pdf

    5. Illinois

      webjunction illinois ilead u (accessed December 5, 2015)

    6. Maine

      state of maine library genealogy (accessed December 5, 2015)

    1. Stacks of physical resources can now be compressed into smaller space, allowing robotic systems to retrieve them, like at the Joe and Rika Mansueto Library at the University of Chicago.
    2. A computer from 1982 weighs 100 times as much, is 500 times larger by volume, costs approximately 10 times as much, and runs 100 times slower than the average smartphone in your pocket today.
    3. The British Library replaced its Business Reading Room with an incubator to help start businesses.

      https://www.youtube.com/user/BIPCTV (accessed December 5, 2015)

    4. I was thrilled to have so many students who wanted to “help” during their non-academic times in school. Enthusiastically, I found and created jobs and kept them busy. It started to grow like wildfire. Word spread that I loved “little helpers” and soon many were sent my way for various reasons. I began to realize that managing these volunteers was becoming a full time job for me and I wasn’t sensing the jobs would get done unless I was involved. The impact of the tasks was low (straighten chairs, dust, straighten books, sharpen pencils). Initially, I thought about sending out a big “Thanks, but no thanks” message and luckily, I had a revelation of wisdom where I realized that the energy was positive and priceless but the implementation of these willing helpers needed a revised approach.

      from the New Librarianship Field Guide. MIT Press

    5. “Rising To The Challenge: Re-Envisioning Public Libraries,”
    6. …a public laboratory and educational facility with a focus on information, design, technology, and the applied arts. The more than 12,000 sq foot space hosts equipment, expertise, programs, events, and meetings that work within this scope. While traditional library spaces support the consumption of knowledge by offering access to media, the 4th floor is unique because it supports the production, connection, and sharing of knowledge by offering access to tools and instruction.

      http://chattlibrary.org/4th-floor (accessed December 5, 2015)

    7. one article published from an LHC experiment listed 3,046 authors.

      ATLAS Collaboration (2012). Search for down-type fourth generation quarks with the ATLAS detector in events with one lepton and high transverse momentum hadronically decaying W bosons in sqrt(s) = 7 TeV pp collisions. Retrieved from http://inspirehep.net/record/1091070 (accessed December 5, 2015)

    8. Less than a month later, she was dead.

      Keiger, D. & De Pasquale, S. (2002). Trials & tribulation. John Hopkins Magazine, 54(1). Retrieved from http://www.jhu.edu/jhumag/0202web/trials.html (accessed December 5, 2015)

    9. The Northern Onondaga Public Library (NOPL) has built the LibraryFarm

      http://www.nopl.org/library-farm/ (accessed December 5, 2015)

    1. In New York City there are estimated 730 thousand households with no Internet access in the home.
    2. “The Copyright Office provides expert assistance to Congress on intellectual property matters; advises Congress on anticipated changes in U.S. copyright law; analyzes and assists in drafting copyright legislation and legislative reports; provides and undertakes studies for Congress; and offers advice to Congress on compliance with multilateral agreements, such as the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. The Office works with the executive branch’s Department of State, the U.S. Trade Representative’s Office, and the Department of Commerce in providing technical expertise in negotiations for international intellectual property agreements; and provides technical assistance to other countries in developing their own copyright laws.”

      http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1a.html (accessed December 4, 2015)

    3. You can start with the fact that 99.3% of public libraries offer free public Internet access and 64.5% of public libraries report that they are the only free provider of Internet access in their communities.
    4. “So one of the analysts – and I spoke to the guy who ran this program, who kind of built this model. One of the analysts figured out that women who start buying, all of a sudden, a lot of unscented lotion might be pregnant. And then they started looking at what else those women bought, and they were able to run these little experiments because they have a baby registry. So they have a whole bunch of people who they know are pregnant, who told them what their due date is. And if you buy unscented lotion, and then all of a sudden you start buying certain vitamins like zinc or magnesium, then that means that you’re probably pregnant, and you’re probably in your second trimester. And if you wait a little while longer, and that same person starts buying washcloths and cotton balls and hand sanitizer, which they’ve never purchased before, then you can use this information. And there’s about 25 different products to figure out, within a two-week window, what that woman’s due date is. So even if this person has never told you that they’re pregnant, in fact maybe they haven’t even told their parents that they’re pregnant, Target, by looking at their shopping patterns, can figure out not only if they’re pregnant but when their likely delivery date is, and that gives them an enormous power to send them coupons at precise moments.”
    5. As there are nearly 4 million miles of highway in the U.S.,

      https://www.dot.ny.gov/highway-data-services (accessed December 4, 2015)

    6. Over 64% of adults in this country own a smartphone
    7. Starting in 1990, scientists from around the world sought to map every part of the human genetic code, some 20,000 to 25,000 genes.
    8. There is a 50/50 chance that if you use the Internet, you use a social networking site

      Rainie, L. (2012). The emerging information landscape: The 8 realities of the “new normal” [PowerPoint slide 11]. Retrieved from Pew Internet & American Life Project: http://www.pewinternet.org/Presentations/2012/Feb/NFAIS--New-Normal.aspx

    9. This has led librarians to ask whether libraries (public, academic, school, etc.) should be in the eBook business at all. Some in the library community have started boycotts.
    10. But in eBook land, you can pay $10, and the library, if it can even get it, would pay $30.

      Matt Weaver, of West Lake Public Library in Ohio, told me of an order for eBooks that cost $926.58 in February, and $2,299.74 two weeks later.

    11. Several years ago, the MacArthur Foundation funded research into credibility and youth.

      Metzger, M. J., & Flanagin, A. J. (2008). Digital media, youth, and credibility. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

    1. There are, as I write this, over 100 million registered Minecraft users.
    2. Inherently enough, Tor was originally develop by the U.S. military to protect intelligence communications.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tor (accessed December 4, 2015)

    3. The public library, with their board’s approval, set up a Tor node.
    4. “There’s nothing necessarily sinister about this subterranean data exchange: this is, after all, the advertising ecosystem that supports free online content. All the data lets advertisers tune their ads, and the rest of the information logging lets them measure how well things are actually working. And I do not mean to pick on The New York Times. While visiting the Huffington Post or The Atlantic or Business Insider, the same process happens to a greater or lesser degree. Every move you make on the Internet is worth some tiny amount to someone, and a panoply of companies want to make sure that no step along your Internet journey goes unmonetized.”

      Alexis Madrigal, T. A. (2012, March 1). I'm being followed: How Google—and 104 other companies—track me on the web. National Journal. Retrieved from http://news.yahoo.com/im-being-followed-google-104-other-companies-track-130904200.html (accessed on December 4, 2015)

    5. Long before Edward Snowden’s revelation of wide-scale government surveillance
    6. “Unlike in Egypt, however, the demands of the Bahrainis were never met. The Sunni government, with military help from neighboring Gulf States, quelled the uprising and afterwards, reportedly used access to social media to help identify and punish those who spoke out.”
    7. He created what we now call Maslow’s Hierarchy.
    8. The librarians at the University of Auckland launched a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) in academic integrity
    9. “In only one year, IDeATe is already recognized as a national model, merging technology and arts in education, research and creative practice. More than 300 students and 70 faculty from 15 different departments and schools are participating in IDeATe.”
    10. “This grant will make a huge difference in being able to bring much needed mobile technology to our libraries, and offer Delawareans new services that will help them get ready for jobs, find jobs and enhance their education,” said Governor Jack Markell. “While our libraries do a terrific job with information, these new services will make our libraries an even more valuable resource for people trying to equip themselves for a changing job market.”
    11. “Medieval Helpdesk.”

      Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation [nrk] (2007, February 26). Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles [video file]. Excerpt from Øystein og jeg [Television series]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQHX-SjgQvQ (accessed on December 4, 2015)

    12. “The mere presence of a large collection of books, magazines, and newspapers in the school library is not enough to generate high levels of academic achievement by students. Such collections only make a positive difference when they are part of school-wide initiatives to integrate information literacy into the school’s approach to standards and curricula.”

      Research Foundation. (2008). School libraries work!. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/content/collateral_resources/pdf/s/slw3_2008.pdf (accessed December 4, 2015)

    13. “The school librarian and sophomore English teacher collaborated to create a semester-long participatory learning experience using social media and cloud computing to cultivate collective knowledge building and inquiry. Using tools ranging from Netvibes to Evernote to Google Sites, students blogged, contributed to group wikis, used social bookmarking, developed learning/research portfolios and presented learnings in a way that demonstrated an ethical use of information and licensed media. The program also was evaluated in terms of meeting Georgia Performance Standards and the American Association of School Librarian’s Standards for 21st Century Learners.”
    14. She has developed a whole manifesto on the topic.

      Valenza, J. (October 2012). Manifesto for 21st century teacher librarian. http://www.teacherlibrarian.com/2011/05/01/manifesto-for-21st-century-teacher-librarians/ (December 4, 2015)

    15. Provide access Provide training Provide a safe environment Build on your motivation to learn

      So it is peeling the onion time. We have the broad narrative established. We have provided data to build credibility. Now we are getting down to more specifics – a framework to help guide us.

    16. spin it in front of your Xbox Kinect

      Zollhöfer, M., Martinek, M., Greiner, G., Stamminger, M., Süßmuth, J. [leresistant] (2011, February 9). 3D face scanning with Kinect [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=llNSQ2u2rT4&feature=related

    17. a few pictures of a 3D object

      http://www.123dapp.com/catch (accessed May 8, 2012)

    18. a MakerBot Thing-o-Matic

      http://www.makerbot.com (accessed December 2, 2015)

    1. “The mission of the school library media program is : to be an integral part of Whittier Elementary School and its surrounding community to provide collaboration with staff to create authentic learning for all students to provide quality resources and instruction to students and staff to encourage staff and students in becoming effective users of ideas and information to promote life-long reading and learning both for pleasure and for information”
    2. “The mission of Tehiyah Day School is to inspire curiosity, a strong sense of community, and a vibrant connection to Judaism. At Tehiyah, we live the curriculum!”

      http://tehiyah.org/welcome/mission/ (accessed December 2, 2015)

    3. “The Library’s central mission is to provide Congress, and then the federal government, and the American people with a rich, diverse, and enduring source of knowledge that can be relied upon to inform, inspire, and engage them, and support their intellectual and creative endeavors.”
    4. “The mission of the MIT Libraries is to create and sustain an evolving information environment that advances learning, research, and innovation at MIT. We are committed to excellence in services, strategies, and systems that promote discovery, preserve knowledge, and improve worldwide scholarly communication…”

      http://libraries.mit.edu/about/ (accessed December 2, 2015)

    5. “The mission of The New York Public Library is to inspire lifelong learning, advance knowledge, and strengthen our communities.”

      http://www.nypl.org/help/about-nypl/mission (accessed December 2, 2015)

    6. Andrew Carnegie built over 2,509 libraries
    7. Growth of titles published worldwide

      This data was compiled from the following sources: Unesco. (1964). Statistical yearbook: Annuaire statistique = Anuario estadistico. Paris: Unesco. Wright, W. E., R.R. Bowker Company & Council of National Library Associations. (1956). American library annual for…. New York: R.R. Bowker. The World almanac and encyclopedia. New York : Press Pub. Co. (The New York World)

    8. Music room of the Free Library of Philadelphia about 1927

      Music Room of the Free Library of Philadelphia, circa 1927. Retrieved from http://libwww.freelibrary.org/75th/SearchItem.cfm?ItemID=75A0262

    9. In 1931, S. R. Ranganathan proposed his five laws of librarianship
    1. “42% of Canadian adults between the ages of 16 and 65 have low literacy skills.”
    2. 36 million [US] adults who can’t read better than the average 3rd grader,”
    3. Yet the public education sector is struggling with an increasingly codified curriculum and an 7% high school drop-out rate (12% in the Latino community and 7.8% of Canadians)
    4. The importance of access is seen in the millions of dollars state libraries are spending on statewide database licenses, giving equal access to these resources to urban, suburban, and rural communities alike.

      An example is NOVELNY run by the New York State Library.

    5. If you would like to reserve books to borrow? 55 Euros.
    6. click over to the National Library of Medicine and search the PubMed database

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed (accessed May 8, 2012)

    7. THOMAS Database

      http://thomas.loc.gov/home/thomas.php (accessed May 8, 2012)

    8. The Digital Public Library of America is a partnership of more than 1,300 libraries, museums, and cultural heritage institutions across the U.S. to provide, among other things, access to seven million digital items (pictures, maps, photos, art work, etc.) and a suite of tools to capture and share the heritage of a nation to classrooms and homes.
    9. Digital Public Library of America
    10. StoryCorp
    11. every day Americans
    12. It is the library of William McIntyre Elkins, a rich investment banker of Philadelphia at the turn of the twentieth century and noted collector of books.

      Shaffer, E. (1956). Portrait of a Philadelphia collector: William McIntire Elkins (1882–1947). Retrieved from http://libwww.freelibrary.org/dickens/Elkins_Portrait_Essay.pdf

    13. In fact 90% of public libraries offer “basic digital literacy training, and a significant majority support training related to new technology devices (62 percent), safe online practices (57 percent) and social media use (56 percent).”
    14. In Vermont, the state government help build a gigabit fiber optic network that connects rural libraries across the state, making each library an access point for village businesses and homes.
    15. A 2014 survey found that 98% of U.S. public libraries provide free public Wi-Fi access.
    16. In fact, public libraries did not collect fiction or any popular material because folks at the time did not connect general literacy, or “the love of reading” as we talk about it today, with learning.

      Kruk, M. (1998). Death of the public library: From 'people's university' to 'public-sector leisure centre'. The Australian Library Journal. 47(2), 157. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ572213&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ572213

    17. The library not only helps an individual member, they help that member help others in the community.

      http://dclibrary.org/labs/dreamlab (accessed December 8, 2015)

    18. Cuyahoga’s “Encore Entrepreneurs”

      http://ccplencore.org (accessed December 8, 2015)

    19. Toronto’s “Business Inc.”
    20. “Chef Katie” was able to create a successful catering business and the whole town benefited.
    21. Transform U. project

      http://www.transformuportal.org (accessed May 8, 2012)

    22. libraries are an important consideration when students select a university or college, and, as a result, academic libraries can help institutional admissions boost enrollment.”

      Oakleaf, M. for the Association of College and Research Libraries. (2010). The value of academic libraries: A comprehensive research review and report. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/issues/value/val_summary.pdf

    23. For example, recent studies show libraries actually lead to more book buying.
    24. Toronto Public Library creates over $1 billion in total economic impact.”
    25. 2006

      Carnegie Mellon University Center for Economic Development. (2006). Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh: Community impact and benefits. Retrieved from http://www.clpgh.org/about/economicimpact/CLPCommunityImpactFinalReport.pdf

    26. 2005

      Kamer, P. M. (2005). Placing an economic value on the services of public libraries in Suffolk County, New York. Retrieved from http://scls.suffolk.lib.ny.us/pdf/librarystudy.pdf

    27. 2006

      Levin, Driscoll & Fleeter. (2006). Value for money: Southwestern Ohio’s return from investment in public libraries. Retrieved from http://9libraries.info/docs/EconomicBenefitsStudy.pdf

    28. 1999

      Holt, G. E., Elliott, D. & Moore, A. (1999). Placing a value on public library services. Retrieved from http://www.slpl.lib.mo.us/libsrc/resresul.htm

    29. 2008–2009

      The University of North Carolina at Charlotte Urban Institute. A return on investment strategy of the Charlotte Mecklenburg Library. (2010). Retrieved from http://ui.uncc.edu/sites/default/files/pdf/Library_ROI_Study_2010_Final_FullReport.pdf

    30. 2006–2007

      State of Vermont Public Libraries. (2006-2007). The economic value of Vermont’s public libraries. Retrieved from http://libraries.vermont.gov/sites/libraries/files/misc/plvalue06-07.pdf

    31. 2005

      The School of Library and Information Science, University of South Carolina. (2005). The economic impact of public libraries on South Carolina. Retrieved from http://www.libsci.sc.edu/SCEIS/exsummary.pdf

    32. 2007

      Griffiths, J., King, D. W., Aerni, S. E. (2007). Taxpayer return-on-investment (ROI) in Pennsylvania public libraries. Retrieved from http://www.palibraries.org/associations/9291/files/FullReport.pdf

    33. 2007

      Indiana State Library. (2007). The economic impact of libraries in Indiana. Retrieved from http://www.ibrc.indiana.edu/studies/EconomicImpactofLibraries_2007.pdf

    34. 2008

      NorthStar Economics, Inc. (2008). The economic contribution of Wisconsin public libraries to the economy of Wisconsin. Retrieved from http://dpi.wi.gov/pld/pdf/wilibraryimpact.pdf

    35. 2004

      Griffiths, J., King, D. W., Lynch, T. (2004). Taxpayer return on investment in Florida public libraries: Summary report. Retrieved from http://dlis.dos.state.fl.us/bld/roi/pdfs/ROISummaryReport.pdf

    36. 2009

      Steffen, N., Lietzau, Z., Curry Lance, K., Rybin, A. & Molliconi, C. (2009). Public Libraries—A wise investment: A return on investment study of Colorado libraries. Retrieved from http://www.lrs.org/documents/closer_look/roi.pdf

    37. “The total economic contribution of Wisconsin public libraries to the Wisconsin economy is $753,699,545. The return on investment in library services is $4.06 for each dollar of taxpayer investment.”

      NorthStar Economics, Inc. (2008). The economic contribution of Wisconsin public libraries to the economy of Wisconsin. Retrieved from http://dpi.wi.gov/pld/pdf/wilibraryimpact.pdf

    38. Academic library salaries and expenditures generate an additional $112 million in economic activity in Indiana.

      Indiana State Library. (2007). The economic impact of libraries in Indiana. Retrieved from http://www.ibrc.indiana.edu/studies/EconomicImpactofLibraries_2007.pdf

    39. Let’s take a service called Freegal.

      http://www.freegalmusic.com/homes/aboutus (accessed November 30, 2015)—Check out the Librarian in Black for a perspective on the service http://librarianinblack.net/librarianinblack/just-say-no-to-freegal/ (accessed November 30, 2015)

    40. “It would have cost the 645 libraries participating in the TexShare database program $84,158,212 to purchase the database subscriptions that were purchased by the TSLAC for $7,286,620.”

      Texas State Library and Archives Commission, “Facts at a Glance,” last modified on June 24, 2015, https://www.tsl.texas.gov/texshare/facts_ataglance.html

    41. In 2012 Harvard that their costs for these journal subscriptions have gone up 145% from 2006-2012 and indicated that such increases will soon put materials out of reach for the richest university in the world
    42. table put together by the University of Iowa that shows how much it costs for the University
    43. “On the one hand information wants to be expensive, because it’s so valuable. The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two fighting against each other.”
    44. It also increased the library staff and allowed students to access the resources of the library 24/7
    45. Boston Globe
    1. Did you know “one out of every six people in the world is a registered library user” and “Five times more people visit U.S. public libraries each year than attend U.S. professional and college football, basketball, baseball and hockey games combined.”
    2. The field of librarianship represents an annual investment of nearly $26 billion in North America and well over $40 billion worldwide.
    3. Libraries and librarians stood at the center of a growing Egyptian empire in the third century BC and the expansion of mathematics in Arabia in the fourteenth century
    4. “recapture the spirit of openness and scholarship of the original,”
    5. an additional 6,000 injured

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_revolution —Yes, a librarian and university professor just cited Wikipedia. I do it a lot throughout the book. There is nothing inherently wrong or non-credible in Wikipedia. In fact, it is more transparent in the construction of information than most published encyclopedias. I cite it because it is easy for the reader to get to, it is a great jumping-off point through references to other works, and I have verified the information in other sources…like we all should do.

    1. The New Librarianship Field Guide

      Lankes, R. D. (2016). The New Librarianship Field Guide. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press

    2. The Atlas of New Librarianship

      Lankes, R. D. (2011). The Atlas of New Librarianship. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

  4. May 2017
    1. The field of librarianship represents an annual investment of nearly $26 billion in North America and well over $40 billion worldwide.
  5. Jan 2017
    1. Enter three Witches

      We know that the current King of England (James I) was really strongly against witches and often started witch hunts. Is this a jab at the king?

  6. Apr 2016
    1. What I don’t hear much about, though, is what a citation represents for the scholar writing a research article

      Just to flag that I do some work on this in my book, Open Access and the Humanities: Contexts, Controversies and the Future (Cambridge UP, 2014), pp. 26-29.

      An opening taster: "For instance, the uses of preceding work through citation in both the humanities and the sciences remain broadly the same: (1) to inform the reader of the existing body of work upon which the new research rests, along with its applicability to or difference from the new material; (2) to refute existing work when inaccuracies of fact are alleged or disagreements over interpretation have arisen; (3) to credit the preceding work and author(s) with value and novelty or to discredit through dissent; (4) to create a chain of verification whereby the claims upon which the new work rests can be checked. It is worth unpacking these statements so that some of the purposes of scholarly communication and ‘publication’ of research can be defined for this discussion."

      See also Anthony Grafton's book on the Footnote.