350 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2016
    1. As Jeff Smith recommends in his attempt to combat the political passivity of "illegeracy," people "naturally take an interest in things that affect their lives, particularly if they feel it's up to them how those things will be decided.

      DC, IC.

    2. According to Smith, our challenge is to show people how they are already affected by political events and debates.

      Intro, IC.

    3. have attempted to implement this kind of rhetorical approach in my own classroom, although the project is ongoing and far from perfect.
    4. However, we can imagine a dif-ferent kind of investment and care that is habituated in the work of inquiry, not in the work of feeling.
    5. Such a task is not possible, nor is it desirable.
    6. This is not to say that I imagine some way in which feeling is removed from the site of pedagogy or public rhetoric. Such a task is not possible, nor is it desirable.
    7. s, which ultimately

      IC, DC

    8. home, even greate

      DC, IC

    9. , including

      IC, DC

    10. But, more im-portantly, driving past a B P station and into another gas station does not solve the problem of petroleum mining, which led to the Deepwater Horizon tragedy.

      IC, DC

    11. more im-portantly,

      Comma Patterns

    12. , with

      IC, DC

    13. E-mails, Web sites, letters, and even flyers

      W, X, Y, and Z

    14. ,

      DC, IC

    15. engagement, and while

      IC, fanboy IC

    16. As white students, they felt disconnected from the historical details contained in the archives.


    17. Students assured me that they were inter-ested and passionate about other subjects that could also be studied in the ar-chives: campus architecture, other student organizations, or even important historical figures who contributed to campus life.

      X,Y, and Z

    18. However, the conclusions themselves were troubling in the ways they reflected my peda-gogy.

      Intro Element: however

    19. xperiences, learns, understands, and invents

      x,y, and z

    20. The papers them-selves were well-written, creative, and visually masterful.

      X,Y, and Z

    21. Others, meanwhile, were visibly disappointed

      S, , V

    22. home, depending

      IC, IC

    23. During the next class, I once again announced that this focus would be our group's only task

      DC, IC

    24. theorist, Benjamin

      DC, IC

    25. , for


    26. , or


    27. it, h


    28. However,

      Into element and transition

    29. This means that I must plan the classes at least a few days in advance, giving the administra-tive assistant time to copy the handout for me.

      IC, DC

    30. k, I s


    31. In my case

      Into element and transition

    32. Latour suggests that nonhuman actants can redistribute competencies, generate the potential for certain narrative frames, and even shift their own delegation of necessary action

      x, y, and z

    33. s,

      Introductory phrase. IC

    34. , and, consequently,

      IC, fanboys, interrupting phrase thing, DC

    35. ,

      Introductory phrase, IC

    36. , then,

      I don't exactly know what to call this comma pattern. Maybe it's an interrupting phrase? s,, v?

    37. ,

      IC, DC.

    38. ,

      DC, IC.

    39. , "

      DC, IC.

    40. In this case,

      Intro element

    41. consider how human users adjust their practices accord-ing to the particular ways the nonhuman materials work

      Topic sentence- introduces what will be discussed in the paragraph

    42. Rather than

      transition word

    43. After

      transition word

    44. jams, you


    45. humans, Latour

      DC, IC

    46. ," for

      IC, DC

    47. , and

      IC, fanboys IC

    48. , which

      IC, DC

    49. For example, the


    50. For instance,

      Intro element

    51. Many scholars see the job of rhetorical pedagogy


    52. The practice advocated by Wells and Weisser reaffirms


    53. Similarly


    54. then


    55. Many scholars see the job of rhetorical pedagogy as helping students to forge real relationships with publics and counterpublics.

      Topic sentence, introduces her point about scholars in relation to rhetorical pedagogy (their thoughts)

    56. The subject is implicated within the process, and that relational position is also revealed in the act of investigation.

      IC, fanboy IC

    57. No matter how good it feels to drive past a BP station, truly sustainable thinking demands that we think about this crisis across incongruent and asymmetrical networks.

      DC, IC Alex Kommel Madison Shuler Brittany Sturner Natalia Melgarejo

    58. The subject is implicated within the process, and that relational position is also revealed in the act of investigation.

      The two independent clauses are connected by the FANBOY "and". It also has the subject...verb pattern with the subject being "subject" and the verb being "implicated".

    59. I have argued that the exceptional public subject is cultivated through vernac-ular patterns of public talk.

      Here she uses "I" in a professional way even though writers are not supposed to use "I", because she already stated the opinion of others and now she is stating what she believes, and she is expressing HER opinion in a proper way.

    60. changes, and


      IC, fanboys (and), IC

    61. Education will continue to be what Lynn Worsham calls an edu-cation of sentiment

      This is an interesting claim because the definition to sentiment is, "a view of or attitude toward a situation or event; an opinion." How can education be an opinion? Is it because one state may teach something differently from the other state? For example, the south teaches the civil war differently than the north teaches it.

    62. By emphasizing inquiry as a legitimate mode of relating to the world, we can help to cultivate citizens who avoid writing themselves out of the public scene of crisis
    63. I hope that the class also gave them some opportunity to think of themselves as subjects who re-late through question, investigation, and inquiry

      This is similar to what we are doing in our class

    64. Rhetoric is the art, the fine and useful art, of making things mat-ter
    65. inquiry is the endless survey of the networks within which a crisis is embedded
    66. By encouraging subjects whore-late to the world through questions, wonder, inquiry, investigation, archive, we are disallowing subjects who write themselves out of the scene of rhetoric. We are closing down those spaces of exception
    67. but I offer it as a way to provide vocabulary for what actor-network theo-rists call "network tracing"
    68. lot of conversation between young and old people about how the city has changed, or why we live where we do

      There is such a huge generation gap between young and older people. Socially there seems to always be disagreements and differences. Both generations don't seem to be very unified concerning issues that face this country.

    69. cotton ball incident shows that racism is not a dead issue

      This is a similar incident to the banana incident that happened last week at AU. Both situations show that there still is a huge problem of racism and ignoring it will not solve anything.

    70. I know that I cannot simply run downstairs at the last minute to copy a handout for my class because the machine almost always has some problem

      She uses the personal pronouns in this way because it adds anecdotal evidence to her narrative. It allows her to build a story that better connects with the reader.

    71. Of course, none of us wanted

      Intro element, IC.

    72. Furthermore, each of us is situated

      Intro element, IC.

    73. Public writing in the composition classroom, then, is a process of students "speak[ing] in their own skins to a broad audience with some hope of effectiveness
    74. rhetorical pedagogy as helping students to forge real relationships with publics and counterpublics.

      Differences in what rhetorical pedagogy is

    75. Moreover, the telos of network tracing and rhetorical inquiry is located within the process itself. Inquiry is the rhetorical goal.


    76. Western doctors depend upon listening to a patient's complaints, while a non-Western doctor often re-lies upon the (dis)coloration of a patient's skin and eyes.

      Doesn't this have to do with a difference in economies and money allocated for things such as doctors and hospitals?

    77. The popular call for us to boycott B P gas stations fails to place the event within multiple networks, which ultimately would call for us to con-sider much more dramatic changes than where we fill up next time.

      Does this mean that the boycott of BP meant people were unintentionally boycotting other companies?

    78. pedagogical

      definition of pedagogical: of, relating to, or befitting a teacher or education. (Merriam-Webster.com)

    79. he found this assignment easy because he could write about what was interesting to him personally.

      I agree. When you write about something you're passionate about, ideas flow easier. Also, people are more familiar with the topic so, they are more comfortable to write about it.

    80. even flyers asked drivers to pass BP filling sta-tions the next time they needed gas.

      When the outrage occurred, nobody wanted to get gas at a BP gas station, so they would go to the next gas station, or even drive miles to get gas.

    81. People were understandably out-raged by the events that unfolded around the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion.

      This is an effect of the oil spill because it affected many areas like the government, the economy, tourism, the ecosystem of the area, and even the health of the people around. This spill went viral, and because of this outrage, people became mad.

    82. nexus

      definition of nexus- a connection or series of connections linking two or more things.

    83. In fact, it does not matter whether one cares or does not care about the issue at hand. What matters is the challenge of inquiry itself.

      I found the whole idea of inquiry to be questionable. When someone is passionate about a topic, it creates a totally different body of work than someone who works with the same subject and has no interest in it at all. It brings up the question, is work of inquiry as valid or meaningful as work pursed because of caring? Does it depend on the subject and the person? Or maybe what they are writing/creating in result? (As a note: I'm not discrediting the work of inquiry. I'm more interested in looking at the differences between the of work of inquiry vs. work of passion.)

    84. pedagogy

      "the art or science of teaching" (dictionary.com) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/pedagogy

    85. How can our public discourse ethically address the problems of development?

      Since teachers and professors usually have the most impact on future generations, it would be very beneficial for them to bring awareness to the problems of development.

    86. Rhetorical pedagogies have a deep commitment to helping students make connections with public issues, including helping them to understand how those issues affect them
    87. It's always easier to write about something you feel passionately about.
    88. Boycotting BP does not consider how drilling is spread asymmetrically across many networks, including across international networks that often remain invisible. Although the Deepwater Horizon spill gained much attention at home, even greater oil spills in the Niger Delta have been happening for decades without much awareness
    89. , and


    90. purloin


    1. For example, Elise C. Boddie argues that places have racial identities based on their history of or reputation for exclusion, and that courts should consider this racial meaning for purposes of racial discrimination claims.64

      I agree with this claim that today's areas are affected by its history. For example, during the industrialization period in Pennsylvania, transit rails were built to to bring low income workers who lived in the city, out to the suburbs to work for the wealthy in the shops that surround the main town and were closest to the rail line. However, the rail lines were not located near the luxurious, suburban houses or country clubs because the Caucasian supremacists wanted to keep as many black inner city folks away from their living spaces as possible. The country clubs were also very far from the rail line because most people who didn't live in the suburbs, did not have a car and could not easily access them. Country clubs were filled with all white people, and that is still the case; today, only a small percentage of blacks or non- Caucasians can say that they own a country club membership or that they live in a house in the rich suburbs called the Main Line.

    2. ibertarian paternalism

      definition: "Libertarian paternalism is the idea that it is both possible and legitimate for private and public institutions to affect behavior while also respecting freedom of choice, as well as the implementation of that idea." (Wikipedia)

    3. Exclusion through architecture should be subject to scru-tiny that is equal to that afforded to other methods of exclusion by law.

      emphasis on "should be," gives the reader insight into the author's personal opinion rather than stated fact

    4. However, many commu-nities lack sidewalks and crosswalks, making it difficult to cross the street or walk through a neighborhood. Sometimes this is intentional

      Racism intervened in government construction jobs as well as in normal every-day life. Government handles the construction of sidewalks and crosswalks, meaning they made a conscious decision to avoid building them in certain black communities

    5. “traffic logic”: the idea that planners and civil engineers prioritize the flow of pedestrians and traffic through a physical space, with a focus on civil engineer-ing, rather than prioritizing equal access to a physical space for all

      Semi-Colon adds emphasis on the fact that it is a definition the author is explaining.

    6. Although the fence was finally removed in May 2014

      The fence wasn't removed until May of 2014?!

    7. The lack of secure pedestrian infrastructure makes areas more difficult to access in a safe and easy manner.

      Although it is a common problem, there is nothing pedestrians can do because streets were built that way. So, the only way to avoid accidents is by being aware and alert when crossing by.

    8. some, b


    9. ghettos and exclusionary suburbs are spatial entities; . . . access, exclu-sion, confinement . . . are spatial experience

      In the present, people might be categorized or judged because of the "space" in which they live. This might be considered stereotypic.

    10. That a town has a squ

      This architectural shape encourages interaction because of the way the environment is built. Also, it facilitates moving from one place to another.

    11. “small and apparently insignificant [architectural] details can have major impacts on people’s behavior.”

      These small architectural details usually influence a particular "experience", encourages interaction with others, or even have the power to change someone's attitude.

    12. courts, but


      ...courts, but...

    13. ordinances

      Definition of Ordinances: a piece of legislation enacted by a municipal authority.

    14. At the request of white residents, in 1974 the city of Memphis closed off a street that connected an all-white neighborhood to a primarily black one.9

      I have several questions for this action. First, what reason was given for this blatent segregation that was taking place? I mean I get that it was the south in the 70s, but was there any actually reason. Second, what was there any response to the actions of the white community in this city in the form of protest? Lastly, why did the supreme court give no action in the face of this blatant racism?

    15. transit would enable people who live in poorer areas of the cities to easily access these wealthier areas.

      no metro in georgetown - to reduce crime traffic??

    16. gates

      what do these features say when present on college campuses?

    17. libertarian paternalism

      "is the idea that it is both possible and legitimate for private and public institutions to affect behavior while also respecting freedom of choice, as well as the implementation of that idea."

    18. race or cla


    19. s—l

      different use of dashes here than in the previous sentence

    20. police forces

      white vs. color differentiating views of police and their roles in both communities

    21. civil engineering, city planning, urban design, and transit routing.

      How can minorities participate in these activities, if they don't have access to higher education or even the means of accessing institutions/facilities? Do you think it makes a difference that this "board of planners" is not necessarily representative of the population as a whole?

    22. laws restricting the use of eminent domain; however, many of those new laws retained exceptions allowing its use to clear blight.

      semicolon is used to long the 2 IC's. subordinate conjunction "however" is used to continue the idea

    23. This fence, which was constructed by the local housing authority with funding from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), blocked access to and through Rosedale, a contiguous, mostly white neighborhood.

      This fence, which was constructed by the local housing authority with funding from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). It blocked access to and through Rosedale, a contiguous, mostly white neighborhood.

      When splitting the sentence into two sentences, it gives a subtle pause.

    24. The architected urban landscape regulates, and the architecture itself is a form of regulation.

      The architected urban landscape regulates. The architecture itself is a form of regulation. a comma and fanboy is used to make the sentence smooth and appealing to the reader.

    25. Although the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area is known for its car-centric, sprawling development patterns, it has a subway system: the Metro-politan Atlanta Regional Transit Authority (MARTA).

      Emphasis is created through the use of a colon on the name of the subway system, MARTA.

    26. ‘neutral’ design

      Is this implying that there is no design that benefits everyone or all groups of people?

    27. becomes just another part of the landscape

      In some ways, racist thoughts and actions are normalized and blend into our culture. This is similar to unconscious bias where we don't realize that some of our thoughts can be offensive to other groups of people.

    28. Social norms encouraged some to threaten undesirable persons with violence if they were to enter or remain in certain

      Has the government issued any laws or statements recently or in the past to combat this type of violence?

    29. “allows government to shape our actions with-out our perceiving that our experience has been deliberately shaped.”

      This quote represents how manipulative the government is. They can use excuses to why the architecture or environment is changing when in reality their purpose may bet to change society and various cultures.

    30. Similarly, upon seeing a bridge, or a one-way street, or a street sign, many people tend to think that these are just features of a place—innocuous and

      These are common architectural features that we see everyday. At first you would not assume that they were built as a form of exclusion. This article is really eye-opening because it points out many overlooked forms of exclusion in our communities.

    31. Throughout history, people have used varied methods to exclude undesira-ble individuals from places where they were not wanted.

      Back in the 1950's my home town did this by building a park on the proposed sight for an African American housing project. The project was halted in favor of the park.

    32. uding Lessig—have begun to consider the built environment’s regulatory role. Regulation through architecture is just as powerful as law, but it is less explicit, less identifiable, and less familiar to courts, legislators, and the general public

      This allows people in positions of power and wealth to manipulate the city to their advantage. They can legally make the area they occupy more exclusive and only cater to the people they wish to be there.

    33. This happens right here in DC. Georgetown can only be accessed by the metrobus. The metro does not go into that part of the city. Keeping it a more affluent and exclusive part of the city.

    34. he Court could not see

      Sadly, I do not think the Court was oblivious to the message. Cases like this further prove the sad reality of this nation's society and it's racist nature.

    35. Throughout history, people have used varied methods to exclude undesira-ble individuals from places where they were not wanted.

      It's so sad to think that the same country that was built upon the belief that "all men are created equal," still condones racism and segregation, today.

    36. Although exclusion is perhaps the most important stick in the bundle of property rights, and although certain forms of exclusion can have beneficial results


      ..."rights, and although...

    37. This Article examines the sometimes subtle ways that the built environ-ment has been used to keep certain segments of the population—typically poor people and people of color—separate from others

      Now days, there are many neighborhoods that are all build up by the same colored people because of this "segregation". Many just felt comfortable living with people that will not treat each other differently because of racism. There are many neighborhoods that are "colored people" only in effect of the built environment.

    38. primarily the poor and people of color—to access job opportu-nities located in those suburbs.

      This is an example of the disadvantages colored people had just because of their skin color.

    39. This design decision meant that many people of color and poor people, who most often relied on public transportation, lacked access to the lauded public park at Jones Beach.

      This is an example of how racism/segragation occurred during those times. Many people had less opportunities and disadvantages because of the color of their skin.

    40. constrains the behavior of those who interact with it, often without their even realizing it

      In countries like Honduras, where violence is predominant, certain neighborhoods have gone as far as building walls with armed security and bulletproof cars surrounding their houses, in order to isolate themselves from the rest of the population.

    41. We often experience our physical environment without giving its features much thought.
    42. author.

      What does this section tell us about the writing process?

    43. The placement of highways so as to intentionally displace poor black neighborhoods is even more familiar.152 Policymakers “purposeful[ly]” decided to route highways through the center of cities, often with the intent “to destroy low-income and especially black neighborhoods in an effort to reshape the physical and racial landscapes of the postwar American city.”153

      After reading this point, I looked up the history of US highways and when many were created. The Interstate Highway System was created in 1956, so the idea of the policymakers deciding to route highways to avoid black neighborhoods seems very probable. I also wonder if there was a safety side to making the highways that way since highways are big, congested, and can be quite dangerous for citizens. Also, highways might have been built in those routes because most people driving on them were traveling to the center of cities for work (less looking to go into smaller neighborhoods or non-white communities - especially since most people who bought cars back then were wealthy whites).


    44. Residents and policymak-ers in those areas have rejected proposals to bring Atlanta’s rapid transit net-work (MARTA) into their communities, which would have allowed inner-city workers easy access to these suburban jobs via public transit.

      I wonder what that exact reasons were for rejecting that proposal. Is the author inferring that our communities still actively and intentionally put up barriers to keep people out? I feel like the absence of the exact proposals and rejection reasons makes this point weak.

    45. the yale law journal124:1934 2015 neighborhoods.115 Katyal notes that traffic measures implemented in North London resulted in a neighborhood transformed “from a noisy and hazardous ‘red light’ district into a relatively tranquil residential area.”116 The possibility of transformation as a result of architecture raises a related question: where did the people who were using these streets prior to the architectural intervention go? Presumably, they were pushed to a different—possibly less affluent—part of town.117 This suggests that the area from which they were expunged may have had residents with sufficient political capital to organize and make this change happen. B. Transit Communities also engage in architectural exclusion in the way they design and place public transit and transportation infrastructure. The siting of bus stops and subway stations changes the built environment. These routing deci-sions and patterns have a dramatic impact on the mobility of individuals through, and the accessibility of, different areas of the community.118 Further, transit siting and infrastructure decisions are often implemented with the in-tention of making it more difficult for certain groups of people to access certain parts of the community.11

      This article seems to critizes architectural exlusion without providing potential solutions to these problems. Subway and busses allow people to move around the city freeley, how ca this be considered exclusion? How can this be fixed?

    46. Local governments also take affirmative steps to install exclusionary archi-tecture themselves. Often, cities use barriers and blockades to mold traffic pat-terns. For example, the concrete barriers and bollards that exist throughout the streets of Berkeley, California, were installed to calm traffic

      Though these barriers can be viewed as restiricting, aren't they neccisary for saftey? Examining the example regarding barriers on highways, aren't those barriers put in place in order to prevent traffic accidents and potential disasters not to blockade and exclude the community? Is there an actual way to keep the city safe while also making it inclusive.

    47. Street grid design, one-way streets, the absence of sidewalks and crosswalks, the location of highways and transit stops, and even residential parking permit requirements can shape the demographics of a city and isolate a neighborhood from those surrounding it, often intentionally.

      Does this mean that the necessities of a city isolate the city? How could the city become un-isolated and still be able to provide for its civilians?

    48. Consequently, it makes even more sense to apply the concept of regulation through architecture to the built environment than it does to apply it to the Internet or structuring decisions.

      Using upfront propaganda is so much more difficult to control than physical environments, especially in ever-changing cultures and societal norms. When a physical location is built, it is difficult, costly, and time consuming to change. But a built environment on the internet can be changed, altered, and updated at the click of a button.

    49. that behavior may be regu-lated or constrained, in part, by “architecture.

      While this states that behavior can be regulated and constrained by architecture, we can think about language in the same way. In regard to the conversation we had in class about the changing of meaning with Independent Clauses and their connectors, we can compare that to the architecture of cities. The architecture of the sentence can change the meaning. Changing the meaning can change the whole entire purpose. This is the same with cities.

    50. Wealthy communities have declined to be served by public transit so as to make it difficult for individuals from poorer areas to access their neighborhoods.

      Thinking about Washington, D.C. and the way public transportation works, is this true for the areas of Washington? Do poverty and violence stricken areas of the city have easy access to public transportation? Is this intentional? Do people of political power hope to keep public transportation away from their areas to avoid easy access to them? Did this contribute to drug dominated areas during the crack-era in S Street Rising?

    51. Throughout history, people have used varied methods to exclude undesira-ble individuals from places where they were not wanted.

      This is similar to how, in City of Rhetoric, the north side of Chicago is almost completely separate from the south side. The north side is more African American female-headed families, and they had nothing to do with the southerners. The same thing is being described in this quote. The African Americans were deprived of their rights because of their skin color.

    52. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge to this action, stating that the road closure was just a “routine burden of citizenship” and a “slight inconvenience.

      If the U.S. Supreme Court was letting all of these racist events happen with no consequence, how do they expect the rest of the country to act? It's evident that at some point the African Americans will stop standing up for themselves because they know they'll just get shut down.

    53. Moses directed that these overpasses be built inten-tionally low so that buses could not pass under them.4

      This is vert interesting to me because I've lived in Long Island for the past 10 years, about 20 minutes from Jones Beach.I never thought to research the history of the beach, or Robert Moses beach, for that matter. Maybe now that I know how discriminatory the founder was, I won't be as eager to go to that beach all of the time,

    54. features of the built environment that function to con-trol human behavior or hinder access
    55. Decisions about infrastructure shape more than just the physical city; those decisions also influ-ence the way that residents and visitors experience the city

      I believe this is a very important sentence because it talks about something similar to what was said in class. In class we looked at sentence structure and learned that if a sentence has no structure it doesn't have any meaning. The same applies to the infrastructure of a city. If the city does not have a strong infrastructure, it doesn't have a meaning to the residents and visitors.

    1. Problems with how the attorney general’s office enforced the Drug-, Firearm-, or Prostitution-Related Nuisance Abatement Act were detailed in a recent Post investigation

      This situation most likely came about due to the drug crisis detailed in S Street Rising. Many of these evictions appeared unjust and helped to worsen the city's image back then and now.

    1. The typical U.S. worker now needs to earn $52,700 a year to be able to afford the monthly payments for a home worth the national median of $240,700, according to a recent report released by HSH.com, a mortgage information website.

      The high cost of housing is particularly difficult in traditionally poor neighborhoods where developers have constructed high-priced apartments that local residents have no way of affording. This can be seen in many places across the US, especially in communities with a higher cost of living.

    1. prompting merchants in the mid-1980s to fear the “Georgetownization of Adams Morgan,” as The Post put it.

      Similar to the plan to "revitalize" Cabrini Green in City of Rhetoric, the plan to change Adams Morgan could not only affect the residents, but also the rich history of the area.