110 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2019
    1. In any event, there may be an additional injury that Judge O'Connor did not mention. The current iteration of IRS Form 1040 asks an individual if he had minimum essential coverage for all twelve months of the year. If the taxpayer checks "no," he is then required to perform several other calculations. There is no indication yet whether these forms will be amended for 2019. Though, there is reason to suspect that the IRS may still request information about individual coverage, even if there is no penalty associated with it. Such information is essential to calculate penalties under the employer mandate. The time and resourced need to complete these forms may be adequate to articulate an injury for Article III.

      I find this argument more persuasive than the claim that a legal text that is not enforced leads to standing.

    1. Allotments are parcels of land that were originally part of reservations. During the late-19th and early-20th centuries, the federal government decided to break up the reservations. It sold small parcels to tribal members, and transferred “surplus” reservation land to non-Indians. During the allotment era, tribes lost more than 60 percent of their land base. But some allotted land is still owned by the original Native families; under the law, that land remains Indian country.

      This section explains what allotments are and how they were used to destroy reservations.

  2. Dec 2018
    1. brantmej@jmu.edu

      create link

    2. may begin on a "part-time" basis in the spring, "part-time" in the summer, or "full-time" in the fall

      will begin in fall, with shadowing of current faculty associates in spring.

  3. Oct 2018
  4. Sep 2018
    1. "arranging a marriage of de Tocqueville and technology."

      Isn't Twitter a recent version of this? How did it turn out?

    2. franking privilege

      Members of Congress can send mail to their constituents to inform them of whatever is of public concern. Even though they're not allowed to send them campaign literature that way, the mailings help with name recognition and usually don't hurt their standing among constituents. Here is more than you want to know on the topic.

    3. six were passed in election years

      It might be worth to note the racial (AKA racist) dimension of the working of the agency view here: in popular media, criminals were/are often represented as African Americans (see Ghandnoosh); and law-and-order rhetoric is frequently coded racist rhetoric ( see Michelle Alexander); particularly the War on Drugs had racist causes (see Provine).

    4. The way in which the wars on drugs and crime were fought cannot be understood without taking into account the incessant pressure that elected officeholders felt they were under from the electorate.

      In other words, this is an example of the agency model of representation in action!

    5. but far more from the votes that the organizations may be able to deliver and from congressmen's and senators' calculations of how the positions they take in the present may affect their chances of re-election in the future

      Important to note that King see the electoral power of interest groups—particularly groups that represent large numbers of individuals, such as gun owners or senior citizens—as more important than their financial power. While the financial power of interest groups is viewed as corrupt by many people (see comments by aliyahhall and GrantC above), I don't think people would view the mobilization of voters around an issue as corrupt.

    6. dead

      Obviously, not literally dead. But also not necessarily politically dead, since they are likely to continue work as political consultants and lobbyists. Like that, they may become more influential (and more wealthy!) than those politicians who are re-elected.

    7. two different interpretations of the term "democracy."

      These two interpretations roughly correspond to the trustee and delegate models of representation: Trustees focus on what they believe is best for the country and their voters, even if voters think something else is best for them; instructed delegates pursue policies that their voters want, even if they believe they're not good for the country or the voters. See pp. 421, 439/330, 540 (sourcing the models to Edmund Burke) in the Krutz textbook.

    8. enormous

      This statement is puzzling: What are the "enormous" costs? An electoral loss, and loss of a political position? In real life, losing an election comes with an enormous pay raise for members of Congress (note the anachronistic "congressmen" used by King), as most of them become well-paid political consultants and lobbyists (the latter after a fairly short waiting period during which they may not directly lobby Congress).

      I think the cost that King refers to is a political cost, as power in Congress is associated with seniority: the length of time a member of Congress has served in the same position. Members of Congress who get re-elected over many years gain seniority and raise in influence, for example by becoming committee chairs (or ranking committee members) or taking on leadership positions. (This in turn also increases the money they can charge once they are defeated or retired.)

    9. five states have elections in odd-numbered years

      This is somewhat misleading. I suppose he refers to regular state-level elections, but there are additional states with local elections in odd-numbered years: mayoral elections, schoolboards, etc.

    1. Goals

      POSC 225H folks: Please complete this worksheet.

    2. Assessment1

      POSC 225H folks: Please complete this worksheet.

    3. significant

      this is a key term here: what are the significant things that we want students to learn? (Note: if you are studying stats, "significant" means something completely different in that context)

    4. What is important for them to learn and retain, 2-3 years after the course is over?

      I like the 2-3 years time frame.

    5. gather information about the Situational Factors

      One element of situational factors are the characteristics of the learners (AKA students). What would be some of these factors in our class? (Please keep in mind that these comments are public, so please be careful before divulging sensitive information here; you can also talk to me in person before class about this.)

    6. NOT aligned

      this is a central point in Fink's (and other's—see McTighe/Wiggins Understanding By Design) framework). Learning goals have to be reflected in assignments (which should measure whether students have achieved the goals), which in turn have to be reflected in activities (which prepare students for succeeding in assignments by reaching the learning goals)

    7. learn all the important content

      As a learning goal, this is not very precise. How is important content defined—by guiding questions, by accreditation requirements, by licensing tests, by consensus of academics, or what? Then, what does learning mean: remember? describe? use? critique? (OK, I'm going through Bloom's Taxonomy here.)

    8. teaching/learning activities

      Much of this is my responsibility, as a professor.

    9. feedback and assessment procedures

      For this, I need student input: How can you best show what you have learned? But I also have to use my own experiences as well as literature on teaching/assessment.

      For students, this portion should raise the question: How can I best assess my learning progress? How can I find out what I need to focus on in my learning? Whose input do I need? Teachers, of course. But also peers?

    10. Identify important learning goals

      This is the main task that POSC 225H students and I work on together.

  5. Jul 2018
    1. There are many JMU offices and services that support all aspects of your responsibilities as a faculty member.

      delete

  6. Apr 2018
    1. Shor applies Freire's ideas to working‐class students in the United States, arguing that transformative education must begin with an understanding of the material conditions and culture of our students

      Interesting connection to work that involves students in educational development: getting student input on course design, syllabi, etc. See Cook-Sather.

  7. Feb 2018
    1. Perceptions of Academic Climate (pdf)

      Based on a survey of students.

    2. Perceptions of Institutional Attractiveness (pdf)

      Based on a survey of students; published 1992

  8. Oct 2017
    1. Thomas Ehrlich, a leading scholar in the field, defines civic engagement as a “means of working to make a difference in the civic life of our communities and developing the combination of knowledge, skills, values and motivation to make that difference. It means promoting the quality of life in a community, through both political and non-political processes” (2000, vi).

      Note the focus on education—the development of "knowledge, skills, values and motivation"—as part of civic engagement.

  9. Aug 2017
    1. faculty will: Experience an organized presentation.

      delete colon and bullet point and change this to a simple sentence.

    2. Career Planning Talks, which take place in an informal faculty gathering space, focus on some relevant aspect(s) of faculty professional life and create opportunities for faculty to connect with colleagues with similar interests, concerns, and experience.

      Replace with: Talks provide an informal space in which faculty can focus on aspects of their professional careers and connect to colleagues with similar interests, concerns, and experiences.

    3. Talks

      do not capitalize "talks"

    1. These

      Replace with "Career Planning", then "institutes" (not capitalized).

    2. Experience pedagogy appropriate to the session; and Have the opportunity to actively apply the session content to their career.

      We have to revisit the institute outcomes—this is pretty bland. But this will require broader discussion in another context.

      As to the bulleted list: remove semicolon.

    3. They

      Replace with "Institutes".

    4. nuanced teaching and learning issues that are particular to their fields and/or disciplines

      replace with "broad questions of what motivates their career choices, how the different aspects of their careers are connected, and how they can demonstrate their achievement of career successes."

    1. New Faculty Orientation

      If one clicks on this link, the page that opens has the link list on the left closed.

    1. Appreciatin

      Do we have a style guide for bullet points? For example, when do we end them with commas, when with periods? When do we capitalize them, when not?

    2. faculty roles

      This is the first portion of the text that can be highlighted and copied. I wonder if this interferes with screenreaders? Is the previous text part of the image?

    1. Canvas Resources

      Keep: We'll be using Canvas again!

    2. The CFI will sponsor 2-3 social events during the 15-16 academic year to foster NFA cohort development and provide opportunities to explore the Shenandoah Valley.  Details for each event will be posted on the NFA Canvas site and sent via email with registration details.

      The CFI will help build cohort community beyond NFA workshop and peer mentoring through a variety of optional meetings and fora. Details will be posted on the NFA Canvas site.

    3. The New Faculty Academy (NFA) concept emerged from JMU’s response to the COACHE survey of 2012 and the subsequent COACHE Task Force report and recommendations. Key data points and task force recommendations focused on the need to improve the mentoring of new faculty and to provide additional career development support. The NFA concept recognizes the need for new faculty orientation to go beyond one day before the fall semester and focus more comprehensively on professional development while also providing faculty with the information they need, when they need it, during their first year and to provide early career support for their progress toward promotion and tenure.  The NFA Task Force, in collaboration with Academic Council, and the Faculty Senate determined the inclusion criteria, which are applied by the academic deans resulting in the nomination of new faculty to the each academic year's NFA Cohort.

      Revision: The New Faculty Academy (NFA) concept emerged from JMU’s response to the COACHE survey of 2012 and the subsequent COACHE Task Force report and recommendations. Key data points and task force recommendations focused on the need to improve the mentoring of new faculty and to provide additional career development support. The NFA concept recognizes the need for new faculty orientation to go beyond one day before the fall semester and focus more comprehensively on professional development while also providing faculty with the information they need, when they need it, during their first year. This includes early career support for their progress toward promotion and tenure—or consistent re-appointment, in the case of RT faculty. The NFA Task Force, in collaboration with Academic Council and the Faculty Senate, established criteria for the selection of NFA participants from among new faculty members. Applying these criteria, the academic deans nominate new faculty to each year's NFA cohort.

  10. Mar 2017
    1. institutionalracism refers to particular and general instances of racialdiscrimination, inequality, exploitation, and domination inorganizational or institutional contexts, such as the labormarket or the nation-state.

      definition of institutional racism

    2. a socialconstruct. Although biologically meaningless when applied tohumans–physical differences such as skin color have nonatural association with group differences in ability or behavior–race nevertheless has tremendous significance in structuringsocial reality

      Definition of race.

    3. racism is“an ideology of racial domination”(Wilson,1999: p. 14) in which the presumed biological or culturalsuperiority of one or more racial groups is used to justify orprescribe the inferior treatment or social position(s) of otherracial groups.

      Definition of racism. Interesting: as an ideology, it is defined as a cognitive phenomenon, not a structural or institutional phenomenon (though ideology can be part of an institution). See racial discrimination or inequality below for concepts that relate to institutional or structural racism.

    4. perceived patterns of physicaldifference–such as skin color or eye shape–are used todifferentiate groups of people, thereby constituting them as‘races’;

      Definition of "racialization"

  11. Feb 2017
    1. Racist isn't another word (UI "bad white people,"just as patriarchy iSH 't a bit of nasty code for "men." ON,ressio1l and dominance name social realities that we can participate in without being oppressive or dominat~ing tJeQple. And feminism isn't an ideology organized around being lesbian or hating men.

      Worth copying and quoting.

    2. It's become almost impossible, [01 example, to say sexism or male pri.vilege withollt most men becom­ing so uncomfortable and defensive that cUHversaLion is impos~sible.

      Part of the reason for this is that these words can be used as insults as well. And that's related to an understanding of racism, sexism, etc. as always intentional discrimination. Once we understand that these types of discrimination can be structural, then naming them is not automatically an insult. (Even though there are plenty of racist blighters who deserve the occasional insult...)

    3. The simple truth is that

      What follows is a good description of structural "everyday" inequalities that are not intentional but still examples of racism and sexism.

    4. The historical root~of mod­ern racism, for example, are primarily economic, and while racism is a problem that involve., all white people, how it plays out in white people's lives varies depending on their social class. In some ways, for example, the ,o;;ocial advantage of being white will tend to be more significant for lower-and working-dass whites than it will for whites in lhe middle and upper classes. A la.ck of class privilege can make it more important to draw upon white privilege as a form of compensation. Without taking such patterns into accountl it's difficult 10 know just what something like "race privilege" means
    5. I've been drawn to forms of difference that are the most pervasive. that affect the greatest number of people, and that produce the most harm, Also, like any author, I tend to stick to what I know best. A5 a resultl I focus almost entirely on gender, race, social class, and, in a less extensive way, sexual orientation.

      Criteria for focusing on specific differences: pervasiveness (of discrimination, I assume), number affected, harm. I'm not sure number is a good criterion, though: large groups of people tend to be better able to defend themselves than small numbers.

    6. But as a sociologist, I also know that it's possible to understand the world and myself in relation to it in ways that get past the defensive feellngs and give us all a common ground from which to work for chauge,

      Important point: it's not about guilt and blame, it's about understanding the world and changing it

    1. Overall, young people’s ability to reason about the information on the Internet can be summed up in one word: bleak

      In the spirit of information literacy, it should be noted that if all was just fine, the Stanford History Education Group would find it more difficult to justify the work presented here. Not to say there's no problem or the work presented here isn't worth it (it is!), but it is also necessary to look at how the studies are precisely designed and how the resulting data are analyzed.

    2. Student correctly identifies the item as an ad or non-ad but provides limited or incoherent reasoning.

      Oops, yeah: this does not deal with the situation where a student uses correct reasoning (biased article because sponsored) but disagrees with the researchers' definition of "advertisement."

    3. his suggests that many students have no idea what “sponsored content” means and that this is something that must be explicitly taught as early as elementary school

      I agree that this is something that needs to be taught. I possible problem with this part of the assessment – which may have been addressed by the researchers at some point in the process – is whether there was a common understanding what advertisements are. What if students (particularly those who noted that this was sponsored content) identified this as a news story with a high level of (likely) bias (for example in favor of a product)? How was such a response coded?

    4. because we thought they would be too easy

      I find that's a common experience in teaching: we easily mis-estimate (under/over) student competencies.

    5. powerful tools for classroom instruction.

      that's great - some of the assessments here look like good information literacy exercises

    6. For example, one of our tasks sent high school and college students to MinimumWage.com

      The description here does not explain how the researchers made sure that this "exercise designed by adults [was] interpreted similarly by a group of" high-school and college students.

    1. Another woman accused Tonya of stealing it. A fight ensued. Tonya shot the woman who had accused her. She got 20 years for the murder and two for the gun. After the trial, the truth came out. The host had hidden the money, but was so high that she’d forgotten.

      Interesting choice of example: Coates's argument is not that the incarceration crisis is due to the over-punishment of non-violent crime but that the crisis is due to excessive sentences imposed for violent crimes.

    2. .
    3. after Detroit had exploded into riots
    4. the drunk-driving arrest of Marquette Frye, an African American man in Los Angeles, had sparked six days of rioting in the city, which killed 34 people, injured 1,000 more, and caused tens of millions of dollars in property damage

      The so-called Watts riots. More background here at Publishing the Long Civil Rights Movement.

    5. Irving Kristol’s magazine The Reporter

      Irving Kristol, who later would become one of the leading figures of American neoconservatism, was somewhat of a liberal at the time. See e.g. his obituary in the New York Times, particularly here.

    1. Back in New York at the end of 1958, Mr. Kristol worked for a year at another liberal anti-Communist magazine, The Reporter, then took a job at Basic Books, rising to executive vice president. In 1969 he left for New York University, and while teaching there he became a columnist for The Wall Street Journal.It was during this time that Mr. Kristol became uncomfortable with liberalism, his own and others’. He supported Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey in his 1968 presidential campaign against Richard M. Nixon, saying that “the prospect of electing Mr. Nixon depresses me.” But by 1970 he was dining at the Nixon White House, and in 1972 he came out in favor of Nixon’s re-election. By the mid-’70s he had registered as a Republican.

      Kristol's move towards conservatism in the 1960s.

    1. fusion of institutional and systemic discrimination, personal bias, and social prejudice in a complex web of relationships and structures that most aspects oflife in our society.

      Definition/description of oppression. Important: highlights that this is not just about whether people are well- or ill-meaning, have discriminatory intent, and the like. It's about systemic oppression that's part of institutions but also part of individual psychology.

    2. social justice is both a process and a goal. The goal of social justice is full and equal participation of all groups in a society that is mutually shaped to meet their needs. Social justice includes a vision of society in which the distribu­tion of resources is equitable and all members are physically and psychologically safe and secure. We envision a society in which individuals are both self-determin­ing (able to develop their full capacities) and interdependent (capable of interact­ing democratically with others).

      Definition of social justice that I've seen cited in a number of texts. What I find interesting is, among other things, that interdependence is one of the characteristics of social justice – at first sight this is in contrast to the American ideal of independent individualism, though upon further reflection, non-radical versions of this individualism will have to acknowledge the interdependent nature of society. But what I find interesting here is that interdependence is not just a condition that's acknowledged, something that exists and needs to be dealt with, but it's viewed as a condition for democracy that would have to be established if it did not exist.

    1. natural minds

      What are natural minds? Rousseau?

    2. genius

      The use of this term is revealing, since the argument drives towards an expression of heroic individualism that I very much disagree with. Genii are rare, and not necessarily good for humanity. They come with a lot Romantic baggage. And I doubt even genii reach their full potential in isolation from other learners - genii or non-genii.

    3. foster student enthusiasm,involvement, and self-reliance

      And loneliness, considering the hostility to interaction? (Sorry, I seem to be on a cranky roll here... Interesting and stimulating ideas here, even though I find quite a bit to be affected by a skewed view of what education does and what students need.)

    4. teach and reward initiative, curiosity,the habit of self-motivation, intellectual involvement

      This. We're getting somewhere.

    5. inhuman
    6. where specialists trade fields

      ...after having extensively studies with expert teachers...

    7. Condescension

      I'm slightly annoyed by these grandiose generalities, which are made with just as much condescension as the author ascribes to the "system."

    8. an learn anything practically on his own,

      Great! Then I'm going to learn Berg's violin concerto.

    9. The human mind is born free

      Is this statement supported, e.g. by current research on how the brain works? What are the consequences if this is not the case?

    1. An educational framework integrated across social change methodologies would offer depth of content and breadth of experience, providing opportunities for students to develop their citizenship skills and hone their entrepreneurial abilities so that they can think and act effectively within systems. To develop such a framework, faculty, staff, and industry professionals will have to become changemakers themselves. We will need to understand the contexts of our diverse fields and institutions, build coalitions, and expand on each other’s experiences in new and creative ways as we support our students in pursuing social change.
    1. H-LAM/T [Humans using Language, Artifacts, and Methods in which they are Trained] system

      If I understand correctly, this is ambitious: computer technology not just as a tool to make some things easier but as something that has the same status and integration into our life as language, ubiquitous tools, routine and habitualized behaviors.

    2. some three feet on a side

      I find the breathless geekiness of this example endearing as well as annoying: Why the heck does the screen have to be "some three feet on a side" instead of 2 feet in front of the architect, with the model on the side; why is it not enough that the architect uses a keyboard: it has to be a "small keyboard"? Is my response due to the fact that I look back at E's partly goofy, partly prescient, futurism and not forward as a fellow geek in search of an imaginable future?

    1. A reflective writing technique that encourages personal reflection, provides opportunities for all voices to be heard, and leads to deeper, more thoughtful conversations

      Shared Writing: This seems particularly useful for online conversations that are asynchronous, as it is based on reading statements, commenting on them, and passing the comments around.

    2. Hatful of Quotes

      Like this one, particularly if quotes are well-chosen, especially in a larger group that otherwise has not done much reading/thought about questions of privilege, discrimination, and marginalized experiences.

    3. circLE oFobJEcts

      I like this activity if the aim is to make personal connections and get to know the individuals involved in a learning group. As a result, probably best for a small group. Requires some preparation as participants have to be asked to bring an object to the meeting.

    4. 80Identity Groups

      Interesting activity. Question: Is this useful in a larger group, or only in a smaller group? The calling-out portion enables people to participate without talking, which accommodates larger numbers; but the exposure can be intimidating – particularly for students, who then may just stay put. Maybe start with "easy" identity groups – sports team supporters? – that people are willing to show? Or would this undermine what the conversation should be about?

      The discussion portion may get out of hand in a larger group; may need subgroup formation.

    5. Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ)

      This looks like something that instructors should have prepared - create a form with prompts, make enough printouts, pull it out when a class meeting gets confusing or confusingly heated.

    1. Vor allem aber werden die europäischen Fördergelder missbraucht. Man kann schreiben, dass deutsche SteuerzahlerInnen die Einstellung von Nép­sza­badság mitfinanziert haben. Es hört sich populistisch an, ist aber die Wahrheit. Ungarn ist nach Polen der zweitgrößte Profiteur des europäischen Strukturfonds. Das Geld fließt in große Infrastrukturprojekte. Dort versickern unheimliche Summen in den Taschen regierungstreuer Unternehmer. Für diese Selbstbereicherung bringen sie Gegenleistungen. Zum Beispiel kaufen sie die Medien des Landes auf – und bringen sie stramm auf Linie.

      Autoritaristische Strategie: Plündern per Politik, Geld bring Macht

    2. Orbán will sicherstellen, dass die Mehrheit der Banken, Handelsketten und Medien im Land in ungarische Hand gelangen, ausländische Investoren sollen verdrängt werden. Dazu werden Sondersteuern für bestimmte Akteure und Gesetze gegen unliebsame Konkurrenz erlassen.