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  1. Oct 2017
    1. somethings can relate with. I am big on Instagram and Facebook when it comes to sharing photos and achievements with my family and friends. I have come to realize that it is an easy platform to share photos and information on, whilst reaching almost all the friends and family I need to! I use twitter to stay updated with breaking news happening around the world. From this class I’m mostly excited to see how advertisements, social media sites, blogs, images and media influence my life. I am really excited for a great semester!

      Thanks for sharing Hailey.

  2. emmarws411.wordpress.com emmarws411.wordpress.com
    1. ahead and read the comment section on Chris Matthew’s report on infowars.  I looked for comments that could relate to Miller’s key points that she discussed in her article. It was fairly easy to recognize Miller’s points while reading the comments since most are liberal or conservative views. In many of the comments the “in” group of referred to as the republicans, they are

      This is promising but could do with development. It needs more explanation of RM's claims and the rhetorical characteristics she assigns demagoguery, as well as more analysis of the details of the target text.

    1. However, Miller’s weakness is that his argument would be much more valid if he used pathos, or emotional appeal, so the reader would feel a sense of connection with this topic,

      Interesting discussion of Miller. Good overview of claims and some useful evaluation. This part of the evaluation seems a bit general (he could have used more pathos).

    2. This just goes to show how important it is to look up resources and question credibility of articles found on the internet.

      Yes, good point. Good discussion of sources. You pose many important questions. I think there is more that could be said about these sources, but this shows good evaluative instincts.

    3. ne’s value whether they smoke cigarettes or not. I thought his article was very strong in arguments and properly used rhetorical strategies to convince the reader to believe his opinion. I do not think he had any weaknesses in his a

      Smart discussion of Shieh. Nice.

    4. ut it.

      But could go further and address RR2 questions regarding critical digital literacy.

    1. Although I think Boyd made an incredible argument, I think she could have mentioned more general benefits of the internet age and how it is positively affecting both youth and adults. She could have compared learning and living in both this youth, and the times when adults now were young. It would have been interesting to compare the use of rhetoric between the two. Although I would have liked to read that, I did not think that Boyd left anything else out. she did a great job in explaining her argument and teaching about the new internet and digital ag

      This is stronger reading response. You provide a more detailed, precise account of the author's claims, making important distinctions as you proceed. You also cover of the reading response questions - nice job.

    2. digital rhetoric in different emerging technologies. It blurs the lines of people who may not have access to certain technologies and people who have different levels of learning and understanding. This rhetoric just reinforces inequalities at a digital and technologica

      Excellent - you capture this central insight well.

    3. ortant to understand the nature of websites such as these two and understand true credibility in order to be successful in understanding rhetoric and the internet, and often youth do not do that.

      Good - but need to explain why she reverses the usual way of valuing Wikipedia and Google.

    4. Another important claim that Boyd makes is comparing wikipedia to google, although very different websites.

      Need to formulate this as a claim - this seems to describe a comparison.

    5. He mentions it is important to understand that both youth and adults have much to learn. There is no relationship between age and skill.

      Well put. This is indeed one of her main claims.

    6. He


    7. They are confused and feel like they do not understand the new generation and what our live’s are centered around. Like a new world that they are new too. I found this term interesting because it made me consider ho

      Nice intro - I like the way you find so many personal connections to illustrate Boyd's claims.

    1. quality and contains a lot of expression, it does not compare to the other writer’s prose

      I don't recall him comparing Okolloh with novelists.

    2. He argues that although people may be writing more, the quality of writing may not be better when compared to before the age of the internet

      I don't think this is quite his point. He admits a lot of the new writing is bad, but he suggests that 90% most things are bad, and we are seeing an explosion of good writing.

    1. This post is only one example of the common dogmatic nature of anonymous message boards. It is not about being conservative, liberal, democratic, republican or anywhere in between. Using demagoguery as a way to bully people into your viewpoint leaves no one more intelligent about the situation. In fact, the closed mindedness is a way to stifle the overall intelligence of the article in question. Relegating us back to screaming and throwing tantrums to get our way.

      This is an interesting, promising discussion of the 4Chan "pol" discussion group. You point out some troubling dimension of these texts, weak reasoning, conspiracy theories, etc. Your homework could do more to connect Roberts Miller's key concepts to the target texts.

    2. I used this list as a lens to view the arguments of 4chan.org/pol/ otherwise known as politically incorrect.

      You are a brave man.

    3. Man is least himself when he talks in his own person. Give him a mask, and he will tell you the truth.”

      Nice quote!

    1. er than he should be able to smoke because he didn’t learn it’s bad young enough.

      Interesting and promising - you just need to evaluate these texts more deeply and in more detail. You have good evaluative instincts. Give yourself more time to make the case.

    2. nformation by a man on campus with a sign, giving me statistics with a slightly raised voice and little facts to back up his claims. Miller used sources vaguely like, ‘A study in the British Medical Journal reports…’, or, ‘renowned Cato Institute, a lib

      Good point about some problems with the use of sources in Miller.

    3. el bad that he comes from a country where they don’t know that smoking is harmful.

      Don't think he is from China, just visited

    1. ouraged to learn C++ or Latex as a coding module. I do not think this extreme measure is needed for the average student, but I was surprised to see that nowhere is a digiatal literacy course required at SDSU. By the time I graduated, I could know an almost dead programming software front and back, but never learn Microsoft Office. It seems that a fundamental learning objective is put on the back-burner of colleges, much like learning taxes in high school was.

      Interesting - I enjoyed reading this thoughtful, provocative connection between Boyd and your own experience. This response was fun to read. I think you could have explained what Boyd meant by critical digital literacy (see also the other reading response questions) in more detail.

    1. end for themselves in terms of how they receive information. Further amplifying the idea that the way we learn new concepts is through practice.

      Your final paragraph starts to tackle Boyd's main claims, but this seems a little late. This response also does not address the main reading response questions, and could discuss the text in more detail.

    2. The younger generation is more apt to use tools to further their informational reach than the adults that solely trust an encyclopedia for all their information

      Not sure this gets at the heart of Boyd's argument.

    3. oyd’s text mentions the creativity and progression of MySpace. Growing up during the time that MySpace started, I remember the progression of my friend’s pages. They started small, adding a music player or collage. Soon the pages were out of control with streamers, auto playing videos and 3 dimensional pictures on a website that was made to load on NetZero’s internet bandwidth. T

      Interesting connection to Boyd's discussion of MySpace. I remember some similar stories.

    1. fend for themselves in terms of how they receive information. Further amplifying the idea that the way we learn new concepts is through practice.

      Your final paragraph starts to tackle Boyd's main claims, but this seems a little late. This response also does not address the main reading response questions, and could discuss the text in more detail.

    2. he younger generation is more apt to use tools to further their informational reach than the adults that solely trust an encyclopedia for all their information.

      Not sure this gets at the heart of Boyd's argument.

    3. Boyd’s text mentions the creativity and progression of MySpace. Growing up during the time that MySpace started, I remember the progression of my friend’s pages. They started small, adding a music player or collage. Soon the pages were out of control with streamers, auto playing videos and 3 dimensional pictures on a website that was made to load on NetZero’s internet bandwidth.

      Interesting connection to Boyd's discussion of MySpace. I remember some similar stories.

    1. Walter Ong writes about the sounded word being of power and action. The nine different methods talked about can be summarized as: aggregative rather than analytic, redundant or ‘copious’, conservative or traditionalist, close to human lifeworld, agonistically toned, empathetic and participatory rather than objectively distant, and situational rather than abstract. These characteristics can contrast the two versions of the same story both written and orally reproduced.

      Good overview of Ong's main claims. Your comparison of the two versions of the story is thoughtful and smart. This overview of Ong happens at the end, and these concepts could be connected to the specifics of the second version. Going forward, try to add more analysis of the specifics of texts in your homework assignments. I enjoyed reading this.

    2. king’s palace, the second versions food, culture and names can be interchanged to fit other regions in their narrative. By painting a picture of the story so well, we are not able see outside of the situation that is currently in front of us.

      Found this part of your analysis a little hard to follow.

    3. The fact that most of the lines are dialog between two or more people further emphasizes the empathy that we as an audience are meant to feel

      Yes, good example of the participatory character of oral performances.

    4. he first version, a work by D. T. Niane describes the tale in written form to be read by their audience. The second version is transcribed to text by John William Johnson as a spoken, call and response story told verbally to an audience.

      Nice overview of the differences between these two texts.

    1. hustle of the city life. Generally, I don’t have a lot of free time between work, school, and family but I do enjoy watching movies or playing video games with friends. I do not particularly like social media and rarely find it a good idea to post your location or personal information online for free. I hope to learn more about critical thinking and logic in writing, even though I do not normally blog.

      Thanks for sharing James. Nice first post.

    1. uring the primary race for South Carolina Trump said, “My opponents lie …Especially Cruz. He’s the single biggest liar I’ve ever seen.”  He continued to effectively trademarked the name “Lying Ted Cruz” doing significant damage to Cruz’s election chances.

      Good example of insulting language. The examples are interesting and reveal ad hominem (a fallacy RM associates with demagogues) but I'm not sure they are dehumanizing or demonization.

      Interesting, lively analysis of Trump's rhetoric using RM as a lens. I do think you could zero in more on the characteristics she stresses. However, this is thoughtful and shows promise.

    2. There is often an incredible amount of animosity between republicans and democrats and this is divide expands with demagogic rhetoric.

      Yes, and I think these two dynamics reinforce each other.

    3. iller describes demagoguery as, “is polarizing propaganda that motivates members of an in-group to hate and scapegoat some outgroup(s), largely by promising certainty, stability, and … “and escape from freedom.”

      Excellent account of Roberts-Miller's definition of demagoguery (watch typos).

    1. While I could not find a source to confirm or deny the statistics Shieh gave on second hand smoke, many sources adamantly deny his claim that second hand smoke is harmless.  However the majority of sources posting about the dangers of second hand smoke are special interest groups like the ones Miller talked about, so it is important to acknowledge their bias, and take their warnings with a grain of salt

      Good work on claims and appeals for both texts.

      I think you could push your evaluation of evidence, sources and strategies further. For example, you seem to accept Miller's claims that there is a monolithic "anti smoking lobby/special interest group," rather than lots of research from many different organizations.

      You do start to look at Shieh's use of sources but this doesn't get far, and you could dig deeper into Miller's.

    2.   While I whole-heartedly agree that these skills are necessary to become a fully involved citizen, Boyd does little to teach these skill.  Boyd focuses on why digital literacy is crucial to our new society, but it would be helpful for her to give ways to learn, or teach these skills.

      Indeed. Although given how long books take to publish there may have been a strategic decision to outline a framework and leave it to others to fill in the details.

      That is a project that could be investigated in this class.

    3. She argues that mere internet access may allow you to participate, but without a certain level of technical acumen, you will not be able to be a fully engaged citizen.  The other main skill Boyd promotes is the ability to differentiate between good and bad sources of information.

      These two skills are certainly important, but she does mention other skills.

    4. She compares the need for media literacy today to that of post-WWI Britain, and the United States in the 60’s. 

      Yes - she suggest we face a comparable set of challenges, although one could argue the need is even greater today.

    1. The ability to use technology to find information can only get you so far if you don’t understand where or who the information is coming from.

      Good point, and surely one Boyd would endorse.

    2. By telling students what sources to use or not use, you remove the need for a student to analyze a writing, and the biases and motives that may have influenced the data within it.  Students should learn that sources coming from the most popular sites may hold extreme biases and may not be reliable even if they are the first result you can find doing a basic search.

      Good discussion. Make sure to frame your discussion and analysis so it's clear when you are giving your view vs. describing Boyd's. Some "framing" language will help.

    3. He


    4. The phrase digital literacy describes a person’s ability to seek out information, and weed out information that may be either irrelevant or inaccurate. 

      Need to explain whose definition this is. Some use this - but Boyd thinks it is inadequate.

    5. digital literacy is to break down the term, “digital natives”, and the connotations the phrase has

      Yes, but I'd add another part of her purpose is to challenge its use and suggest we need new terms for talking ab out digital literacy.

    1. Ong’s claims coincide with the claims of Young and Sullivan in that they both acknowledge that memory is the limiting factor of spoken word.

      Yes, the texts clearly reinforce each other. The math example is used to support their claim that without writing their are important kids of thinking we cannot achieve.

    2. You can also see that the spoken word is much more concise than the written story.  The written version gives much more background to the story, and includes much more detail in the young king’s activities.  This is because when speaking the audience can only retain so much in their memories.  It is important for spoken word to minimize superfluous details, so that the audience can focus on relevant points.   The written text allows for in depth descriptions of settings and characters because the reader is able to go back and re-read anything they did not retain.

      Thoughtful discussion of Ong and the Sundiata text. I think you could discuss both in more detail. This starts to get interesting but finishes as the analysis takes shape. Give yourself more time in future homework assignments.

    3. This supports Ong’s viewpoint that oral rhetoric holds more gravity than written word.

      A bit vague - wasn't sure how this connects to Ong.

    4. this kind of redundancy isn’t used solely to make the audience remember the words.  This repetition adds an increased sense of drama and accomplishment when Sundiata finally is able to stand on his final attempt.  While this kind of repetition would seem cumbersome in standard writing, this style would not seem so out of place in spoken word.  This supports Ong’s viewpoint that oral rhetoric holds more gravity than written word.

      Good point - there is a functional, mnemonic dimension and also an artistic one.

    1. Ong’s claims coincide with the claims of Young and Sullivan in that they both acknowledge that memory is the limiting factor of spoken word.

      Yes, the texts clearly reinforce each other. The math example is used to support their claim that without writing their are important kids of thinking we cannot achieve.

  3. ianlub.wordpress.com ianlub.wordpress.com
    1. My name is Ian Lubliner, but a since i can remember most people call me Lub.  I’m studying to receive IS3d focused on Kinesiology, and plan on graduating next may.  I grew up in San Jose CA, and am a diehard bay area sports fan.   When i was eight years old i picked up the two hobbies i have stuck with ever since.  I my  got my first drum set for my 8th birthday and had a passion for rocking out ever since.  The same year i picked up a lacrosse stick for the first time, which has consumed most of my free time for the last 14 years.  I rarely write for my own sake, but believe literacy is as important as ever with the limitless stream of information available which brings me to digital rhetoric.

      Great intro Ian. Thanks for sharing.I like your blogs title!

    1. at was backed up with another opinion rather than a fact that would help strengthen their argument. Although, Shieh has some strong ideas an arguments it wasn’t enough for the reader to be persuaded. As far as the sources Shieh could have used more in order to reply to counter-arguments.

      Your evaluation of both texts shows promise and some good insights. I do think you could make your discussion of strengths and weaknesses more concrete through more in-depth investigation of evidence, sources and strategies. But this is good, solid work.

    2. He should include who the authors are in order for the readers to know why we should accept that the information they are providing holds truth.

      Good point. It may also be relevant that the authors are not medical researchers and so do not have relevant expertise.

    3. To popular belief caused by government researchers as well as drug free campaigns, people who inhale smoke in the air from other smokers is in danger.

      Not sure I follow this.

    4. I also agree that these skills should be taught to young people because it sets the next generations up in becoming better digital writers.

      Hear hear.

    5. It is important to not only evaluate your own digital writing, but the creations of others online. It is important to analyze and figure out accuracies, assumptions, as well as biases that may hold truth. Speaking of truth, because the Internet and media can be available to anyone, people are able to also provide the public with untrue facts.

      Yes, these two elements are an important part of Boyd's argument.

    1. This would help me be informed on how to critically analyze the information I look up and use.

      I like the way you bookend your response with personal connections. It gives the response a nice symmetry.

    2. Boyd puts it, “sophisticated internet participants.” Social media shouldn’t be their only outlet to media literacy. Skills and active learning are needed to develop this digital age, which would help better engagement and technical skills that will cultivate the technological advanced world we have shifted towards.

      Another good account of a key claim

    3. For example, teens may have the access to computers funded by schools, but the time spent associated may not make them skillful at navigating technological tools. She claims that the “unevenness of skills, literacy, and socially meaningful access” contribute to the raised concern of the “technology advanced” generation.

      This is a strong, thoughtful account of Boyd's argument

    4. Boyd also claims that there is digital inequality and that digital natives mask the notion that there aren’t different degrees of access and skills alongside emerging technologies experienced by different youth.

      Good observation - this is one of her key claims.

    5. n particular, as I read this topic, it felt completely relatable to my views and values on credible search engines. My teachers throughout middle school and high school had also advised students that Wikipedia wasn’t a reputable source to use. I agree with her claims that teens have been in the habit of not fully utilizing these types of technological tools.

      Interesting connections to Boyd's argument.

    1. Writing is able to give us structure in the way we communicate effectively and helps jot down thoughts and messages that we want to send to others.

      Nicely put.

    2. Writing has become “dispensable” in a sense that we are shifting into the electronic age where newspapers and books are being replaced by television and radio. The way we communicate has definitely changed over the years, where it has become more accessible and convenient for society. The attack of writing argues that these shifts in today’s society has put some type of devalue in rhetoric.

      Diverges from the text a little - not sure these are Y&S's claims

    3. Why Write? A Consideration they argue that writing is usually attacked because it can induce forgetfulness and doesn’t stimulate practice their memory.

      Not quite - they quote Plato as doing this. They think Plato is wrong but was asking interesting questions.

    4. The “Sundiata” text illustrates the oral culture and it’s qualities that solidify Ong’s statements. The text consists of two versions of a story that are orally composed. Throughout the text, you can clearly see where emotion or expression is exemplified. As Ong mentions, this type of writing is able to emphasize meaning for the readers and helps them follow what the story is trying to effectively convey.

      This seems interesting but a little vague. You might find it easier to talk about concrete elements such as repetition, formulas, participation (call and response) etc.

    5. Oral culture and expression in writing gives more meaning and helps aid readers to distinguish important information from the context.

      Again, a little hard to follow. Try to unpack and elaborate such complex relationships.

    6. Ong begins with explaining orality qualities and suggests that these words are power-driven. It is compared to typographic writing and writers who focus more on names and labels.

      OK - but stylistically, watch for consistency of referents (elements that establish coherence)

    7. ng also explains and compares how orality and literacy can be linked through oral cultures and chirography.

      This is a little hard to follow. Try to unpack and elaborate such complex relationships.

    8. To further the understanding of the impact of the oral culture Ong states that within oral cultures you only know what you can “recall” where as in literate cultures you know what you can look up

      Yes, one of his central claims. It is a fairly simple claim but one he believes has important implications.

  4. jbgardnerblog.wordpress.com jbgardnerblog.wordpress.com
    Homework 2 Demagoguery is a term I have known for a while but not one I would call my myself familiar with before these articles. The concept, as it is explained in the articles is now clearer than ever to me all over American rhetoric. In politics, in comments sections, it is all but impossible for me to not see it everywhere. One thing I found particularly interesting was all the subcategories within the two fields of thought. Miller notes of the polarization that there can be many beliefs, even some more subtle than the main idea that is presented as the representation of the group. As he discussed slavery there were many thoughts on the matter that were “rounded up” essentially to the most radical framework. If you didn’t fully support it, then you were against is, a sympathizer. The exact same can be seen in the arguably pro-gun majority within the comments on the Chris Matthews piece. While the interview would seem to suggest in the brief clip that there are issues to be discussed, i.e. the other views within the topics of pro-gun and anti-gun, the comments would suggest otherwise. Anyone not firmly on the stance of having any gun you want is labeled as a Dem, commie, woman, or other member of the outgroup. They attack the very few people who speak up against them. On the pro-gun side there are some clear subgroups in the seemingly responsible owners and the ones who appear to be only a couple paychecks away from actually buying a tank. Then there are the commenters who seem to mock the idea of actually owning a tank. People ramp up what they actually believe in at times in order to gain acceptance and feel as if they will be listened to and get there way. This also goes along with Miller’s idea that there is often not a demagogue, rather a set of opposing viewpoints. While there is a face of pro-gun supporters in the NRA, they get a lot of “support” from the Constitution. The ingroup here would have you believe that the arms mentioned in the Constitution need not ever be reevaluated. Certainly at the time of writing there was no thought of what a fully automatic assault rifle could do, or that such a thing could exist. They even go so far as to attack Chris Matthews’ appearance and belittle him due to his beliefs, though clearly anyone who doesn’t agree with them is wrong. They just scapegoat the other group, whoever they may be. The ingroup says that if only everyone had guns, mass shootings like this wouldn’t happen. Emotion also play big role. While the pro-gun said ofter says that their opposition shouldn’t politicize a tragedy, they use it as proof for their side. They say we need guns because of the Las Vegas shooting. They themselves start to make people feel scared and help perpetuate the terrorism agenda, to scare people. This uses emotion, not logic to appeal to people, especially those who may be under informed on the real issues or those on the fence.
    1. subtle than the main idea that is presented as the representation of the group. As he discussed slavery there were many thoughts on the matter that were “rounded up”

      Interesting, but I suggest you outline Roberts-Miller's main claims and some key concepts before getting too far into discussion.

    2. his uses emotion, not logic to appeal to people, especially those who may be under informed on the real issues or those on the fence.

      OK, but RM says that emotion isn't necessarily demagogic.

    3. They just scapegoat the other group, whoever they may be

      Good - but give RM's definition of scapegoating, then present evidence showing how it works in the target text.

    4. This also goes along with Miller’s idea that there is often not a demagogue, rather a set of opposing viewpoints.

      Not sure this captures RM's claim. You could do more to explain her notion of a culture of demagoguery.

    5. he concept, as it is explained in the articles is now clearer than ever to me all over American rhetoric.

      Yes, we seem to live in an age in which demagoguery is highly visible.

  5. jbgardnerblog.wordpress.com jbgardnerblog.wordpress.com
    1. Both arguments use a lot of emotional appeal  to try and connect with people outside of those who would immediately agree with them.  The “Smoker’s Plea” article uses logic by citing article as well.  As with most articles of this nature, though they claim to be unbiased there is always a bias towards the authors point of view.  He cites older sources of information about smoking that may be out of date with current medical and research technology.  Also no counter articles are presents.  For instance anti-smoking articles that he might be able to find fault with.  The author only uses reports that directly go along with exactly his point of view.

      This establishes you understand the "gist" of both authors. But the response is very general, and does not delve deeply into either text. Try to quote the texts, use textual evidence to substantiate your analysis, and construct a more robust response.

    1.  (AJ Willingham and Saeed Ahmed, 2017).

      Good research work

    2. While, that was just one comment in particular that stood out to me, there were a lot more (761 total comments) that employed similar tactics and resorted to language identical to nomark’s. This plethora of demagogic remarks emphasizes another point made by Roberts-Miller (which is seen in connection to the notion of an “in-group,”) and that is this goal of homogeneity (8). Without the support of other like-minded people, their argument seems weak and becomes less credible. Part of their persuasion in focusing in on homogeneity is the idea that having a lot of supporters who believe the same thing, must mean their argument is logical. This is not always the case. Just because someone has a lot of supporters doesn’t necessarily mean they are supporting the right choice.

      This is powerful analysis of the weaknesses of the writer's claims. You do a great job exposing weaknesses and absurdities. I do think you could do a little more to use RM's concepts as a lens - polarization, motivism, demonization, etc.

    3. understand their reasoning.

      Nice overview, but could explain her theory and claims more fully before moving to analysis.

    4. dmit they have a motive and if they are to admit it, their motive is often “something admirable or at least complicated”

      The problem is also that motivism allows rhetors to dismiss opponents without listening to their arguments, reinforces polarization, and makes policy debates (which RM thinks are crucial) difficult.

    5. She notes that even though demagogic arguments aren’t fully logical sometimes, they rely heavily on motivism, “the assertion that people don’t really have reasons for what they do, but they are motivated by something els

      Great point. Motivism is central to her account of demagoguery, and a big part of highly polarized, "tribalized" rhetorical situations.

    1. Additionally, he cleverly titled his article in a way that depicts this issue as a community and campus problem since it’s limiting “on-campus diversity.” Thus, he is building his credibility.

      Yes, and establishing connections with the values of those who may not initially agree with his position.

    2. This claim appeals to his audience and is very persuasive because it utilizes logos effectively

      I see where you are going. Let's talk about this formulation.

    3. Good work. You raise an important objection tothe 1975 study, and I like how you discuss the title. It does seem at odds with the tenor of the rest of the article, which is not about personal experience.

    4. that the individual smokes their cigarette outside by themselves or with other individuals in the household who may smoke thus, they don’t actually expose their spouses to the cigarette smoke

      Excellent point - raises a fascinating objection.

    5. Overall, I think Boyd does an excellent job summarizing the skills necessary that encompass critical digital literacy.

      This is a strong articulation of Boyd's notion of critical digital literacy.

      I do think you could take this further and delve into the "other digital literacy skills she doesn't mention that you think young people need"

    6. “pick up the language of technology the way they pick up a linguistic tongue (178).

      Yes, this is a key part of how the analogy works, and also why it is problematic.

    1. . I believe these are useful skills for everyone in our society to have especially considering the overwhelming amount of false information and manipulative rhetoric that exists within media

      Thoughtful discussion and analysis of Boyd - good work.

    2. There becomes a shift in mindset when you embrace the digital natives’ rhetoric which presumes that digital knowledge will just develop on its own over time, which Boyd states is most certainly not the case. Rather, she suggests that we should focus on empowering our youth and adults to be sophisticated and responsible internet participants.

      Nice - this captures the essence of her central claim.

    3. Which means, they too are partly responsible for their limited knowledge and place in the digital divide.

      I think Boyd would agree with this. But perhaps her focus here is on training and critical digital literacy.

    4. at is, diverse levels of skills have developed and this variation in skills is “linked in part to differences in access to computers” (195).

      Nice - this gets at one of her main claims.

    5. generalization is flawed because true digital natives are those with critical media literacy and technical skills.

      I think this partly captures her point. She does think critical digital media and robust technical skills need to be part of a more adequate account of digital literacy. But she is also skeptical that there are "true digital natives" as this divides things based on generation.

    6. a teen who uses a library computer with filtered access for an hour a day has a very different experience with the internet than one who has a smartphone, laptop, and unrestricted connectivity” (194

      Yes, an important distinction that a number of studies have recently noted.

    1. An interesting observation I noticed within the two versions of the Sundiata text is that certain aspects of the story changed. For instance, characters names were different, the type of tree the mother requested changes, and details about how the main character receives the tree are also adjusted.

      Yes, although it may also be that the compilers of the story extracted a prose version from multiple griots to create a "master" narrative, while the oral version is just one performance.

    2. cultures might view this “formulary baggage” as perplexing or confusing, oral cultures view them as meaningful messages that should not be altered for once a “formulary expression has crystallized, it had best be kept intact” (34). Ong elaborates further and explains that these oral cultures focus on repetition to engrain information but also to establish a “highly traditionalist or conservative set of mind” (35). This is because they believe that knowledge is hard to come by and precious. As such, they believe only a select few should specialize in conserving it.

      Wonderfully lucid, precise account of Ong's claims. Impressive. But again, would be even stronger if supported with textual evidence.

    3. Niane’s version clearly highlights the focus on syntax while Johnson’s recount is much more pragmatic and formulaic.

      Yes, this is a key point. Your observation would be even stronger if it included an example.

    4. forms of rhythmic sounds that make retaining information easy and physiologically possible.

      Perhaps you are demonstrating the power of repetition here? (The paragraph is repeated).

    5. .


    6. The first notion Ong discusses is the process of recalling something, whether it be an object, formula, or event, he claims is only possible through the utilization of mnemonic patterns.

      I think that is mostly right. He might add that there are ways of moving elements to long term memory, but they are limited by constraints of oral memory, which is highly dependent on mnemonics.

    7. Sundiata: Two Versions of an Oral Tale, by D.T. Niane and John William Johnson.

      Nice introduction, overview of Ong, and project statement.

  6. Sep 2017
    1. Repetition in orally culture is indeed important, Ong mentions “Not everyone in a large audience understands every word a speaker utters, if only because of acoustical problems. It is advantageous for the speakers to say the same thing, or equivalently the same thing, two or three times” (Ong, 34). As it is stated at the beginning of the Sundiata text, Niate’s version is meant to be read as a story whereas Johnson’s is meant to be performed.

      Nice reading of the text with some good textual examples. I think you could have included other concepts (formulaic expression, agonism, etc.) to delve more deeply into the Sundiata text. You perform good analysis but I was left wanting more.

    2. In Niane’s version, the woman says, “Look you, I have a calabash full. Help yourself, you poor woman. As for me, my son knew how to walk at seven and it was he who went and picked these baobab leaves” (445).

      Good observations.

    3. He also mentions that much more work and reflection is needed to deepen understanding of orally based thought (Ong, 32). After reading the Niane version of the story, I found myself struggling with the one written by Johnson.

      OK, but useful to explain Ong's main claims before moving to analysis of Sundiata using Ong's concepts.

    1. We as students when we attempt to explain something to another student we tend to make sure that what we are about to tell him/her is true, which leads us to check twice before actually writing or saying anything.

      Good - but try to provide examples and quotes to illustrate and support your analysis.

    2. Later on he mentions that when we are trying to communicate some sort of information to someone else, we begin to think more precisely; thus learning more (50). He also mentions that public thinking works best in situations where people are not worried about “owning” ideas (63).

      Nice overview of T's argument.

    3. One of them being the one where he claims that Literacy in North America has always focused more in reading than writing. He claims that producing is as important as consuming (50).

      Yes - some theorists hold much hope that this shift will democratize cultural production and give voice to many more people.

  7. miblogretorico.wordpress.com miblogretorico.wordpress.com
    1. I am Sergio Zavala and I am a Rhetoric and Writing studies major in San Diego State University.  Writing is, of course, the one hobby I enjoy doing the most, especially creative writing. I have written a few short stories by using the creative writing method Flash fiction, which is a fun and not that hard to learn method to use. I am interested in publishing my first fictional novel; I only have around 12,000 more words to write. Then I guess I will keep writing and see what else I can get out of my head.

      Thanks for sharing Sergio. it is wonderful you are writing a novel, and even more impressive you are almost finished. Have you thought of joining the Medium.com writing community? I wonder if it is worth looking them up.

    1. I am Sergio Zavala and I am a Rhetoric and Writing studies major in San Diego State University.  Writing is, of course, the one hobby I enjoy doing the most, especially creative writing. I have written a few short stories by using the creative writing method Flash fiction, which is a fun and not that hard to learn method to use. I am interested in publishing my first fictional novel; I only have around 12,000 more words to write. Then I guess I will keep writing and see what else I can get out of my head.

      Thanks for sharing Sergio. it is wonderful you are writing a novel, and even more impressive you are almost finished. Have you thought of joining the Medium.com writing community? I wonder if it is worth looking them up.

    1. you understand the context.  You get to see this in both texts in the Niane text it is when they say “take my bow” three times as well when they are saying what a beautiful day it is. The Johnson text has a more blatant examples of this having the first two paragraphs end in with the same exact line.

      This is good, and you clearly understand Ong well. Try in future homework assignments to provide more detailed analysis and use quotations to illustrate and support your interpretation. I look forward to reading more.

    2. mnemonics form the substance of thought itself.

      Yes, as Ong puts it, "you know what you can recall."

    1. . I remember growing up with my mom and dad telling me stories of how they use to write in journals

      yes perhaps he fails to account for various kinds of writing that were "invisible." Your example of journaling perhaps points to this.

    2. are surrounded by words and sentences on a daily basis with social media and the internet, we still struggle to even construct sentences correctly.

      Yes but he claims we can switch codes when the context calls for it (see section on Lunsford).

    3. In the article, “Public Thinking”, Thompson argues that with the emergence of technology, like the internet that people are now writing more than they have before.With us being in the social media age, we have become more connected and engaged in communicating with others on a daily. This is not solely through just talking like previously done. This communicating is often done in a fast paced manner mainly digitally.

      Nice overview of his argument.

    1. So now, I’m going to talk about why we are here and that’s writing. I don’t really have much experience writing out side of school work because i have never seen the need to up until this point. I do use social media a little bit but only when i have nothing else to do. I would say i use Facebook the most but mainly to share pictures i think are funny, like i have not posted a picture of myself in I would say a year. I just haven’t seen i need to. What i really hope to get out of this class is I hope to be able to understand why people chose the rhetoric  they do in terms of technology. I also want to know want to know the different types of rhetoric creators use as well. Enough, about me I’m ready to get this semester going and can’t wait to get to know each of you through your

      Many thanks for sharing this Nathan. I look forward to reading your blog.

    1. So now, I’m going to talk about why we are here and that’s writing. I don’t really have much experience writing out side of school work because i have never seen the need to up until this point. I do use social media a little bit but only when i have nothing else to do. I would say i use Facebook the most but mainly to share pictures i think are funny, like i have not posted a picture of myself in I would say a year. I just haven’t seen i need to. What i really hope to get out of this class is I hope to be able to understand why people chose the rhetoric  they do in terms of technology. I also want to know want to know the different types of rhetoric creators use as well. Enough, about me I’m ready to get this semester going and can’t wait to get to know each of you through your writings.

      Many thanks for sharing this Nathan. I look forward to reading your blog.

    1. ommunities should extend farther than just your individual geographical entity, unpacking how rhetoric plays a part of widening one’s sense of community is of particular interest to me.

      This is an excellent post - well done. I enjoyed reading it and look forward to your future posts.

    2. To conclude, the part of rhetoric that I look forward to learning more about is something that both Herrick and Thompson touched on, and that is rhetoric’s ability to build a sense of community.

      This could be a great topic to explore in a paper. Talk to me if you are interested in pursuing this.

    3. Thompsons rebuts by crediting Andrea Lunsford’s research. Lunsford, an English Professor at Stanford University, found that “error rate has barely risen at all” (66


    4. To support this claim, Thompson utilizes logos by directing his readers to the studies that examined such theory, like the 2008 published study by Vanderbilt University (55). This study involved showing small children patterns of colored bugs and asked them to predict which would be next in the sequence. Some of the children were asked to perform silently, while a second group asked the children to explain their thought process into a tape recorder, and a third group tasked the children with explaining their process to an audience—their mothers. The results showed that the children who solved the puzzles silently did worst of all while the children who performed in front of an audience did best because it allowed the children to clarify their process more than if they were to just speak aloud—like the children who used the tape recorders.

      Great analysis of T's claim about the audience effect.

    5. To support this, she states that speakers with an audience are comparable to “the Greek ideal of being a smart rhetorician: knowing how to debate, to marshal evidence, to listen to others, and to concede points.” (67) How does this relate to the creation of the Internet? Well, while public speaking gives individuals an audience, the Internet increases that audience substantially.

      I hope Lunsford is right about t his, and it is not "wishful thinking."

    6. An intriguing argument Thompson makes is that online writing has altered our cognitive behavior. He goes on to explain that online communication has further clarified our way of thinking (51) by writing out vague ideas or half-formed thoughts. In doing so, we are better able to evaluate our ideas objectively and figure out exactly it is we intend to say.

      Good observations - these are key claims.

    7. which he admits might not always be noteworthy but unlike previous forms of communication, has created a new space for discussion, debate, and intellectual conversations to take place.

      Nice overview of his position.

    1. Hi, everyone! I’m Hannah. I’m starting this blog as I begin my final semester at SDSU with a major in Rhetoric and Writing Studies (RWS) and a minor in Studio Art. I’m eager about all the exciting things we will learn in RWS411 this semester and can’t wait to get to know you all a little better

      Thanks for sharing Hannah.

    1. eresting was in the introduction when the Egyptian king claimed writing would weaken people’s memory. If only he knew of the studies that prove that writing something down helps you remember and learn better.

      Yes, Plato was conflicted. His thought is clearly a product of literacy, but at the same time he was suspicious of this new fangled invention.

    2. “enormous rod” (446), the oral transcription described that the “Blacksmiths patriarchs shaped a staff, seven-fold forged”

      Good examples of formulaic expression.

    3. Immediately on page eight, I started to notice the redundancy. Within 14 lines of the mother pleading the King of Nyani, only one word in one line is different, the rest of the lines repeat word-for-word. This makes the story memorable to the listeners (or the readers in this case).

      Good observation - perhaps include some quotes to illustrate and support the point.

    4. Ong explains that oral cultures live in the present so they must forget old memories that do not have relevance in the current day.

      Yes, or what he calls "homeostasis."

    1. In James Herrick’s “An Overview of Rhetoric” I thought it was interesting that he said one of the functions of rhetoric is building community. I found this section exceptionally timely. Especially in the times of today where is seems like everyday there is a new riot or march to b

      Nice - I enjoyed reading this post.

    2. On page 56, Thompson discussed a professor from Douglas College in British Columbia who compared her students writing that they turn in to her versus the writing the produce for a Wikipedia page on the internet.

      OK but I think you need to show how his rebuttals anticipate and respond to arguments that are at odds with his. Rebuttals rebut (argue against) an opposing view.

    3. Writing “improves your memory” (57). This claim was the least persuasive to me because he just talked about the “generation effect” and a study from the 1970s. The author did not expand his idea more than a paragraph while his other claims were much more well-developed.

      Good point. This also seems weak and poorly supported to me.

    4. Thompson points out that this is especially true when writing for an audience.

      Indeed - one of his major claims.

    5. after reading the first couple pages of this passage I’ve realized it was used much less than I’ve been lead to believe.

      Yes most people assume this, and are taken aback by this claim.

    1. In terms of writing, I work at the County of San Diego in the Parks & Recreation department as a marketing assistant. I spend lots of time writing for our social media pages (Facebook and Twitter), our triannual program guide that lists and describes all of the activities in our parks. I also just recently got into journaling at the end of every day. I use social media to keep in touch with friends and family and I also like to use it to discover new things, like places to eat in town, visit and explore. I hope to expand my knowledge and fine-tune my writing skills so I can get a great job in the PR world after graduation.

      Thanks for sharing. You have some excellent experience that I am sure will help inform your work.

    1. Throughout the “Sundiata” text, strong emotions are revealed. When the mother exclaims, “‘Happiness did not pass us by! Magan Konate has risen! Oh! Today! Today is sweet!,’” she is showcasing her emotion and the audience will feel empathetic toward her, (451).

      Good work - a pleasure to read. Strong analysis and an excellent grasp of Ong's framework. Look forward to reading more.

    2. As Ong claims, this is because oral texts are characteristic of the human lifeworld, and the human lifeworld is full of violence, conflict, and agony. As oral texts do not have literal words to clarify action and thought, the texts rely heavily on description of human action, not verbal explanation.

      This section does a nice job exploring some of Ong's more elusive concepts and showing how they apply to the Sundiata text. It is fairly straight forward to discuss repetition, but showing how "closeness t the life world" or "agonism" can be hard.

    3. The entire song follows a repetitive format so as to assist the griots in memorizing the story. Ong states that in oral culture non formulaic thought is simply a waste of time, as there would be no way to remember it without some sort of rhythm, (31). Delivering a proverb in the form of song creates a formula to be traditionally remembered throughout the ages.

      Well put!

    4. redundant, tedious, and even copious, however in oral culture it is entirely necessary to keep the speaker on track. Additionally, Ong claims that hesitation is debilitating, so it is always better to repeat when delivering an oral story.

      Excellent observations.

    5. work is passed on through many generations, and in order to accurately remember details of the stories, repetition is absolutely necessary. According to Ong, the mind tends to move more slowly orally, and the act of repeating words keeps a speaker on track

      Great overview of Ong's claims about repetition and redundancy.

    6. I utilized Ong’s, “Some Psychodynamics of Orality,” as a lens for the story of “Sundiata,” and found many connections between the two texts.

      Nice statement of purpose.

    1. I find it fascinating that rhetoric is full of different appeals, whether it be to the audience’s emotion or an appeal to credibility, rhetoric always has a purpose. That purpose is always to persuade.

      Nice post.

    2. Thompson mentions that although the Internet has fostered many new connections and ideas, it has also given prejudice a stage that it has never had before. It is true that publi

      Yes, it's a good example of T anticipating objections and adding nuance to his argument.

    3. As Thompson mentions, multiple questions and answer sites, such as Quora, have given people the opportunity to bounce ideas off of one another and explore concepts in a way that has never been done before. The answers to thousands of questions can be discovered by mere keystrokes. This new form of conversation that the Internet has created has become vital to public thinking.

      Good discussion of this central claim.

    4. n thoughts and concrete beliefs, which I could argue has made me a “better person.”

      OK, but I'm not sure you are disagreeing with T.

    5. hompson makes the point that, historically, reading has always had more of a moral dimension and the purpose of influencing one to become a better person. I found this point particularly astonishing and would be interested in exploring this further. I

      It is a surprising point. If you want to pursue it I can point you to texts and materials.

    6. This new wave of digital writing is largely due to the emergence of the Internet, which has influenced and encouraged the public to engage with one another’s thoughts daily.

      Well put

  8. kayleighvenne.wordpress.com kayleighvenne.wordpress.com
    1. Hi! My name is Kayleigh Venne and I am a senior majoring in journalism with an emphasis in media studies. I love all things social media and I also enjoy reading and writing. I currently write for the Arts & Culture section of The Daily Aztec covering campus and community events. I am originally from Michigan but I have been living in Southern California for nine years now. Outside of this class, I engage in tweeting and occasionally journaling. I use social media hourly and utilize it as a quick and simple way to get the news and keep up with those around me. I see social media accounts as a way to promote one’s “brand” and showcase one’s best self. I expect that this class will further prepare me for a career in social media in the future and teach me how to analyze writing in various media settings.

      Fascinating. You have some great experiences that should set you up really well. Thanks for sharing.

    1. In this text, Thompson claims that although we are writing more words every day, the words that do come out are more often bad or grammatically incorrect. He also points out the fact that students cannot write properly

      I think he argues against this idea. See the section where he cites the Stanford writing project.

    1. Hi, my name is Augustin but you can call me Auggie. I am a senior and this would be my last semester before I graduate. I will have a major in IS3D or known as the Inter-Disciplinary program which includes French, History and RWS. I like reading other people’s blogs but this is my first time typing my own personal blog so bear with me if I’m still new at this. Blogging used to be huge in the early 2000’s but I believe we are all transitioning towards vlogs as it is a much faster way to express something. I still don’t really know what to do after graduating but I’d like to start becoming a flight attendant and explore all my possibilities.  

      Thanks for sharing Auggie. Look forward to reading your posts.

    1. For me, personally, I like to brainstorm my thoughts onto paper before writing an essay or article. If I think along the way of my writing, I find myself trying to figure out how to word it. If I write out my exact thoughts on paper first, I can then go back and fix it. It is better for me to organize and plan my notes as it helps prolong my memory.

      Good work - this shows promise. In future homework assignments explain your writing a little more. There are points that start to do good work but are composed in a kind of "shorthand," so as a reader I am sometimes left guessing. Introduce, explain and analyze most quotations. I look forward to reading more.

    2. The sound is as important as any dialogue, story, setting, and characters given. It is better to understand the story when someone tells us about it orally. This could be a reason why Sundiata’s two versions of his story leave a lasting impression amongst its crowd. The use of repetition, by telling the stories over and over again, has helped griots remember the stories for over a hundred years.

      Important points - nice. In future homework assignments try to illustrate and support such points with quotations that you discuss and dissect.

    3. It is easier to understand as we have characters act out a given dialogue. I preferred reading the second version of the text because I was better able to understand it as it was more concise and it had a better flow. The back and forth of the dialogue gave it a more rhythmic flow.

      Very interesting points. But try to focus on how Ong's concepts (repetition, formulas, epithets, etc) can be seen in the text.

    4. The responses of the audience give the story more of an authentic and realistic feel.

      Yes, classic call and response - common in oral performances. Could dwell a little more on this.

    5. . Man’s memory is tested against time; however, by using these helpful systems, our memory can thrive

      Good - but explain what the "systems" are.

    6. “Other people use writings to record the past, but this invention has killed the faculty of memory among them” (443).

      Remember to introduce quotations. I am not sure how this quotation connects to what comes before and after it.

    7. The sounds are just sounds, nothing more.

      Yes, one of the hardest things for us to understand from our perspective in a literate culture.

    1. I would further like to research why Millennials text using abbreviations instead of full sentences. I find myself checking my grammar and spelling before sending a text message. How did texting become that way? Who started it all? The question-answer tool had peaked my interest in the sense of addiction. How do people become addicted so quickly to these public forums? I am also intrigued to learn more about why students use correct writing outside of their classrooms rather than an environment where you should learn, thrive, and succeed in that particular skill.

      It is great you are thinking about projects this early. Let's get together and talk about potential paper topics.

    2. Researchers have found that when a question has been asked online, the audience will most likely respond. These questions tend to elicit a response in writing. Thompson uses Socrates in one of his claims. Thompson finds online writing t

      Watch transitions - as you switch topics I found myself struggling to keep up.

    3. This interesting experiment showed that a child who sat with a parent (audience) beside them was the best at solving puzzles

      Yes, good connection to make.

    4. Another claim relating to the previous one says that having an audience improves one’s writing. This is a persuading claim if we refer back to Andrea Lunsford’s example.

      Good - but try to clarify how the main author draws on secondary authors as support. So talk about how Thompson draws on Lunsford to support his claim X.

    5. Thompson claims that fewer people are writing grammatically correct

      I believe he argues that people are not writing worse, and their grammar (in traditional writing) has not declined.

  9. ramansblogblog.wordpress.com ramansblogblog.wordpress.com
    1. Hey, guys! My name is Raman Sidhu! I am a senior this year with a major in Interdisciplinary Studies. I have always loved to write as it is considered my safe place. I used to be a sports writer for the Daily Aztec. I also used to be a content writer for The Odyssey. In my free time, I like to blog. I have a separate blog page from this one. I use Facebook to share my articles, videos, and thoughts. Career wise, I aspire to work for ESPN and entertainment platforms.

      Many thanks for sharing this!

    1. Ong’s chapter was so interesting to me because he is emphasizing the importance of oral language and speaking, but my generation is built on writing. I write everyday, whether it be emails at work, texts to my friends, or essays for homework. His most relevant line to me was “think important thoughts.” I think he basically means, if what you are going to say, write, or do is not important, it is not worth doing.

      This contains a good grasp of Ong and does some solid analysis. My main suggestion in future homework assignments is to explain the authors' claims a little more before responding, and try to ground your analysis in more discussion of passages from the target text. I look forward to reading more.

    2. Each time they repeated a cry of his mother, it reminded the audience what a disappointment he came across as.

      nicely put - the repetition has a mnemonic and an aesthetic dimension.

    3. “King of Nyani, King of Nyani, will you never rise,” is an example of repetition in the speech.

      Good - but in homework assignments try to use more quotations to support your analysis and give it more depth.

    4. Another way the performance relates back to Ong is because it is extremely repetitive

      Yes, a key element of oral composition and delivery.

    1. reading the actual text she writes. I wonder how many people looked at her blog before it got big, and what kept her going if there wasn’t much attention at first. I thought the small excerpts about her story were so awesome and inspiring.

      This is a solid response. In future responses try to move a little more deeply into the text. Keep bringing in connections to your experience, but linger on the author's claims a little longer before doing that.

    2. hildren that clearly backs up his claim. I think he does a very good job in his rebuttals

      OK, but rebuttals are sections where the author describes objections to her claims (people who disagree), so you need to spell out what these are.

    3. Many years ago, when reading and writing were first introduced, writing was not used as much. Reading was taught to everyone, was told that it was important to human’s success, and taken very seriously.

      Yes, one of his central points. This is surprising to most.

    4. Thompson brought up was the audience effect. I resonated and agreed with this because I have done it myself. If I am writing a text to a friend, I definitely will not be as formal as if I am writing a Facebook post that many people will see. If you know people are watching and critiquing you, your desire to perform better will be much greater.

      Good point, and nice connection to your experience. Try to cover more claims in your reading responses and "unpack" them a bit more.

  10. kellyschwabblog.wordpress.com kellyschwabblog.wordpress.com
    1. During this class I hope to feel more comfortable in my writing, especially in a blog like setting. I am excited to get the semester going and be able to look back on how my writing changes in the next few months.

      I really enjoyed reading this - thanks for sharing Kelly.

    2. It is crazy to me how much I find on Twitter that I probably wouldn’t know if I did not have the app

      Sounds like you are a twitter maestro. Perhaps you can share how you use it in class?

  11. emmarws411.wordpress.com emmarws411.wordpress.com
    1. The poem relates more to oral culture because it is about one person telling the story to an audience in their own point of view, verbally. The first version seems to be more of a written version of the story because it properly introduces and outlines each character and has much more detail pertaining to the events in the story.

      This shows a lot of promise. You understand Ong's concepts well. In future homework assignments try to include more analysis of the text - more quotes and some more detailed investigation of these quotations.

      I look forward to reading more of your blog posts.

    2. The second story relates to oral composition because it is participatory when after each line the audience has to repeat the words “indeed” and “true.”

      Good - a key element of the performance.

    3. text because this text is used in the form of storytelling and poetry and used as a representation of many different examples of what Ong may be referring to.

      A little awkward - I think you just need to say that it is an example of an oral composition.

    4. They have no visual presence of words. Without writing words are just events.

      Yes, this is hard for literate folks to imagine.

    1. sole purpose of writing is to persuade

      Small quibble - persuasion is usually the "main purpose," not always the "sole" one.

    2. Thompson also mentioned that this does not change anything about writing because even before the internet, the same thing happened. The internet just gave this “a new stage” (78).

      Well put!

    3. Some of the world’s greatest literature such as novels and poems were written before the age of the internet. Although the internet makes people write more often, I do not think his argument is valid regarding writing before the internet

      Good point, but I believe Thompson is talking about how often ordinary people wrote for fun. he talks about how professionals and "creative types" have always written a lot, and these people have over-estimated how much ordinary people wrote (as opposed to read).

    4. I found this very interesting because I can relate to it. I do not do much writing unless it involved the internet and social media. Even then, when I do write for my audience, I think long and hard about what I want to say, because I know who will be reading it

      Nice connection to your own experience

  12. emmarws411.wordpress.com emmarws411.wordpress.com
    1. Hello! My name is Emma Schultz and I am a senior majoring in Interdisciplinary Studies with my three focuses being: history, RWS, and Education. I am from St. Paul, Minnesota, and moved to San Diego when I was a freshman. I use social Media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Tumblr. I typically use these websites to communicate with family and friends and post pictures. I really enjoy using social media because it keeps me up to date about what is going on in my friend’s and family’s lives both in Minnesota and California. I am very excited to learn more about the different forms of digital literacy that are happening in social media today!

      Thanks for sharing this Emma!

    1. This text structure in “Sundiata,” represents the effect of an “improvised call-and-response format” (

      Excellent observation! This is central to the performance of the story.

    2. a redundant manner or formula so that it becomes ingrained in memory. In the “Sundiata” text, redundancy is utilized with repetitive words and phrases. For instance, the word “And,” as well as the phrase, “If he be the man,” are two examples of this redundancy used in the text. This repetition creates a rhythm that is infectious and therefore easily remembered.

      This is good and shows promising. Try in the homework assignments to delve a little more deeply into textual analysis. "Spell out" your analysis more fully and provide more examples.

    3. For instance, the “Sundiata” transcription focuses on proverbs and phrases that are short and affective in provoking the audience to feel the emotion being illustrated

      Yes, and are also easier to remember when composing and performing.

    4. That is to say, the importance of structure, such as the rules of grammar, is not valued as it is in written cultures.

      I would say this slightly differently. Both forms of communication have a grammar, but they are different. As Ong says, oral composition (and speech generally) tends to be "paratactic," and written communication is (or is more likely to be) "paratactic."

    5. A few of these claims that can be applied to “Sundiata” are: “Additive Rather Than Subordinative,” “Redundant or Copious,” and lastly, “Empathetic and Participatory Rather than Objectively Distanced.”

      Good - these are indeed central aspects of oral composition and culture.

  13. kellyschauermann.wordpress.com kellyschauermann.wordpress.com
    1. Vocalizing creates a new vulnerability that challenges all my premeditated comfort zones, and begs me to connect with people in the physical realm. It asks me to respond and be responded to, to give feedback and receive it, speak and be spoken to, and thus, engage in this arcane world of rhetoric in a whole new wa

      This is an excellent homework assignment. It was a joy to read. Keep up the great work!

    2. When I consider these texts, and the exhaustive study that Ong has done on primary oral cultures, I cannot help but think of music. I consider my experience in Malawi, where music was at the core of nearly everything they did. Every person, from toddler to aging adult, male and female, communicated through song and dance. It wasn’t reserved for concert halls and clubs; it was a language in itself, a necessary practice in a world obsessed with 140 characters. For them, writing was an accessory to other communication. Education was scarce, an issue which necessitates an entirely different discussion, but in the absence of their formal education, they taught me something I didn’t even know that I needed to learn: how to communicate without a pen. They are not a primary oral culture, although they likely were at some point, but they were delightfully ignorant of the power we inject into our daily babbling. Power, for them, was found in moving, speaking, and singing, together.

      Wonderful - I love that the post comes full circle in this way. Some (like Young and Sullivan) suggest we ought to let kids dwell longer in a more musical, performative space in their early years of education. You make me wonder if they might have a point.

    3. Throughout Johnson’s text, one can see the use of repetition and epithets to invoke emotion, and facilitate memory. The “blacksmith patriarchs” could just be the “blacksmiths”, or the “patriarchs”, but they are repeated together throughout the story. Couscous becomes “sacrificial couscous”, and “Fata Magan” becomes “Fata Magan, the Handsome”.

      Great examples - you apply Ong's concept of the epithet perfectly.

    4. Memory is driven by a thoughtful, exhaustive reading of the text, rather than by the sound of the text. This may serve a chirographic society, but read aloud to an audience, without any typographic reference point, this text would be nearly impossible to remember.

      Well put!

    5. One can quickly read these short phrases and surmise that a story is beginning to be told, and it is probably about a woman, or women. The intentional use of a pause, followed by an exclamation (Indeed!), demands that the reader (and certainly the listener), be a part of the story, staying present to the shifts in tone and rhythm as to know when to respond, thus transcending the listener from bystander, to participant. It is in this process that power is created. One can feel the sounds leave their mouth, and can hear the boom of “Indeed!” reverberate through the crowd, understanding that there is something big and important being shared. Without a more dramatic use of audible language and variegated sounds, the story becomes dense with words that may or may not help the teller make their point clear.

      This is fascinating. You have tackled what is perhaps the most elusive and complex aspects of oral culture - power and participation - and provided a thoughtful analysis.

    6. Ong alludes to this very idea while citing Malinowski, “…that among ‘primitive’ (oral) peoples generally language is a mode of action and not simply a countersign of thought” (32), recognizing that words were entire “events”, rather than “out there on a flat surface” (32). “Sound,” Ong says, “cannot be sounding without the use of power” (32). Johnson’s Sundiata, reflects this notion that sound is indeed a driving force of the work, using a more dramatic call-and-response to hyperbolize the simple words he was saying:

      Beautifully put.

    7. I remember so vividly the earthy resonance of their feet pounding the red dirt: bum buhhhh, bu bum bu, buhhhh. Young Malawian girls circled around me, giggling and smiling as they showed me, an American woman, their native dancing. There was intermittent singing punctuated by claps, hip thrusts and an amazing aerobic display that left me with a euphoric feeling that is hard to capture in words. I felt like I had just tapped into some primitive sensation, or feeling, or emotion that I had never known before. It was, like Ong stated, “dynamic” (32). I could sit here all day and try to communicate the sensation in words, but it would never be fully understood because you cannot feel it

      What a great experience to connect to the Ong text. Thanks for sharing.

    1. Can some truths be absolute, and some created by rhetoric? It’s an idea I’m still sifting through myself and look forward to exploring more as the semester goes on.

      Excellent. These are ideas one can spend a lifetime chewing over.

    2. It is this very idea that I find interesting, that we can use an ancient art to help us sort out modern day issues.

      Yes many rhetoricians hope that new media will provide new opportunities for growth and for taking center stage in the humanities. I share their hope but I'm somewhat agnostic on the likelihood.

    3. The psychology behind the way people act on the internet versus in-person, is a topic that fascinates me. I would love to learn more about the way digital media, and the connections, made through it, have changed the way we interact with humans in general. Has it made us better communicators? Are we more distracted, and if so, how does that affect personal relationships? Have we really been able to solve more issues with the advent of digital communication, or just created more confusion?

      Great questions. You could certainly explore these in a paper or project. I have some texts and ideas I can share.

    4. . I don’t think this is a reason to take away online discussion, but I also feel that it’s an issue that needs to be better explored.

      Yes, Thompson has been criticized for downplaying this. This part of his argument has not aged as well as other parts.

    5. Today’s online writing meets Socrates halfway. It’s printish, but with a roiling culture of oral debate attached.”

      This is an interesting claim, one I would like to have seen him develop. We sometimes hear arguments that social media is bringing new hybrid forms to life, forms that blend conventions from traditional print literacy and spoken communication. Some even claim Trump is our "first social media president" (the way he uses it, not merely that he uses it).

    6. Due to the public nature of blogs and social media, we are thrust into an environment which forces us to really consider what we write, how we write and who our audience is. We are, in effect, forced to distill our ideas, either by catering to our audience, or through the lively discussions that ensue from a particular post. This consistent writing has also served to create more thoughtful writers, even ones who have become more adept at the art of rhetorical discourse.

      Wonderful. You eloquently capture one of Thompson's key arguments.

  14. kellyschauermann.wordpress.com kellyschauermann.wordpress.com
    1. I keep a website. I like to write. That’s a good start if you want to know me during this journey through Fall 2017 semester. To read more, check out my site. This post is the first from that blog, and a more exhaustive, personal look into what makes me tick. I look forward to getting to know you all!

      This is a wonderful piece of writing. Witty, smart, entertaining and edgy. Have you thought of joining the writing communities on the Medium.com platform? There appear to be a number of sub-communities of writers who focus on particular writing styles.

  15. hillarysarabiarws411.wordpress.com hillarysarabiarws411.wordpress.com
    1. The use of expressive language is also greatly used in the oral community, which Ong expanded on in his chapter. Being expressive can create more imagery in a listeners head, which is why this language is used more in oral communities. Description also helped the listener with memorization. The Sundiata tale was made in two versions. The first version is my D.T. Niane, who created a translation for Western readers. The difference in Niane was less expressive, but stating what happen with no deep description. The the language used in oral communities, described by Ong, does have certain devices which is seen in Johnson’s translation.

      I enjoyed reading this. You show a good understanding of Ong and the Sundiata text. You should include more detailed textual analysis in homework assignments, and make these a bit more "polished" (more precise language, slightly deeper analysis). Look forward to reading more.

    2. There is less grammatical structure in Johnson’s version of the Sundiata Tale, but is said in a more poetic and artistic tone. Ong said this device also makes this story more memorable because it provides more meaning

      Again, I think I see where you are going with this but it could be more precisely formulated.