832 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2017
    1. To support this, she states that speakers with an audience are comparable to “the Greek ideal of being a smart rhetorician: knowing how to debate, to marshal evidence, to listen to others, and to concede points.” (67) How does this relate to the creation of the Internet? Well, while public speaking gives individuals an audience, the Internet increases that audience substantially.

      I hope Lunsford is right about t his, and it is not "wishful thinking."

    2. An intriguing argument Thompson makes is that online writing has altered our cognitive behavior. He goes on to explain that online communication has further clarified our way of thinking (51) by writing out vague ideas or half-formed thoughts. In doing so, we are better able to evaluate our ideas objectively and figure out exactly it is we intend to say.

      Good observations - these are key claims.

    3. which he admits might not always be noteworthy but unlike previous forms of communication, has created a new space for discussion, debate, and intellectual conversations to take place.

      Nice overview of his position.

    1. Hi, everyone! I’m Hannah. I’m starting this blog as I begin my final semester at SDSU with a major in Rhetoric and Writing Studies (RWS) and a minor in Studio Art. I’m eager about all the exciting things we will learn in RWS411 this semester and can’t wait to get to know you all a little better

      Thanks for sharing Hannah.

    1. eresting was in the introduction when the Egyptian king claimed writing would weaken people’s memory. If only he knew of the studies that prove that writing something down helps you remember and learn better.

      Yes, Plato was conflicted. His thought is clearly a product of literacy, but at the same time he was suspicious of this new fangled invention.

    2. “enormous rod” (446), the oral transcription described that the “Blacksmiths patriarchs shaped a staff, seven-fold forged”

      Good examples of formulaic expression.

    3. Immediately on page eight, I started to notice the redundancy. Within 14 lines of the mother pleading the King of Nyani, only one word in one line is different, the rest of the lines repeat word-for-word. This makes the story memorable to the listeners (or the readers in this case).

      Good observation - perhaps include some quotes to illustrate and support the point.

    4. Ong explains that oral cultures live in the present so they must forget old memories that do not have relevance in the current day.

      Yes, or what he calls "homeostasis."

    1. In James Herrick’s “An Overview of Rhetoric” I thought it was interesting that he said one of the functions of rhetoric is building community. I found this section exceptionally timely. Especially in the times of today where is seems like everyday there is a new riot or march to b

      Nice - I enjoyed reading this post.

    2. On page 56, Thompson discussed a professor from Douglas College in British Columbia who compared her students writing that they turn in to her versus the writing the produce for a Wikipedia page on the internet.

      OK but I think you need to show how his rebuttals anticipate and respond to arguments that are at odds with his. Rebuttals rebut (argue against) an opposing view.

    3. Writing “improves your memory” (57). This claim was the least persuasive to me because he just talked about the “generation effect” and a study from the 1970s. The author did not expand his idea more than a paragraph while his other claims were much more well-developed.

      Good point. This also seems weak and poorly supported to me.

    4. Thompson points out that this is especially true when writing for an audience.

      Indeed - one of his major claims.

    5. after reading the first couple pages of this passage I’ve realized it was used much less than I’ve been lead to believe.

      Yes most people assume this, and are taken aback by this claim.

    1. In terms of writing, I work at the County of San Diego in the Parks & Recreation department as a marketing assistant. I spend lots of time writing for our social media pages (Facebook and Twitter), our triannual program guide that lists and describes all of the activities in our parks. I also just recently got into journaling at the end of every day. I use social media to keep in touch with friends and family and I also like to use it to discover new things, like places to eat in town, visit and explore. I hope to expand my knowledge and fine-tune my writing skills so I can get a great job in the PR world after graduation.

      Thanks for sharing. You have some excellent experience that I am sure will help inform your work.

    1. Throughout the “Sundiata” text, strong emotions are revealed. When the mother exclaims, “‘Happiness did not pass us by! Magan Konate has risen! Oh! Today! Today is sweet!,’” she is showcasing her emotion and the audience will feel empathetic toward her, (451).

      Good work - a pleasure to read. Strong analysis and an excellent grasp of Ong's framework. Look forward to reading more.

    2. As Ong claims, this is because oral texts are characteristic of the human lifeworld, and the human lifeworld is full of violence, conflict, and agony. As oral texts do not have literal words to clarify action and thought, the texts rely heavily on description of human action, not verbal explanation.

      This section does a nice job exploring some of Ong's more elusive concepts and showing how they apply to the Sundiata text. It is fairly straight forward to discuss repetition, but showing how "closeness t the life world" or "agonism" can be hard.

    3. The entire song follows a repetitive format so as to assist the griots in memorizing the story. Ong states that in oral culture non formulaic thought is simply a waste of time, as there would be no way to remember it without some sort of rhythm, (31). Delivering a proverb in the form of song creates a formula to be traditionally remembered throughout the ages.

      Well put!

    4. redundant, tedious, and even copious, however in oral culture it is entirely necessary to keep the speaker on track. Additionally, Ong claims that hesitation is debilitating, so it is always better to repeat when delivering an oral story.

      Excellent observations.

    5. work is passed on through many generations, and in order to accurately remember details of the stories, repetition is absolutely necessary. According to Ong, the mind tends to move more slowly orally, and the act of repeating words keeps a speaker on track

      Great overview of Ong's claims about repetition and redundancy.

    6. I utilized Ong’s, “Some Psychodynamics of Orality,” as a lens for the story of “Sundiata,” and found many connections between the two texts.

      Nice statement of purpose.

    1. I find it fascinating that rhetoric is full of different appeals, whether it be to the audience’s emotion or an appeal to credibility, rhetoric always has a purpose. That purpose is always to persuade.

      Nice post.

    2. Thompson mentions that although the Internet has fostered many new connections and ideas, it has also given prejudice a stage that it has never had before. It is true that publi

      Yes, it's a good example of T anticipating objections and adding nuance to his argument.

    3. As Thompson mentions, multiple questions and answer sites, such as Quora, have given people the opportunity to bounce ideas off of one another and explore concepts in a way that has never been done before. The answers to thousands of questions can be discovered by mere keystrokes. This new form of conversation that the Internet has created has become vital to public thinking.

      Good discussion of this central claim.

    4. n thoughts and concrete beliefs, which I could argue has made me a “better person.”

      OK, but I'm not sure you are disagreeing with T.

    5. hompson makes the point that, historically, reading has always had more of a moral dimension and the purpose of influencing one to become a better person. I found this point particularly astonishing and would be interested in exploring this further. I

      It is a surprising point. If you want to pursue it I can point you to texts and materials.

    6. This new wave of digital writing is largely due to the emergence of the Internet, which has influenced and encouraged the public to engage with one another’s thoughts daily.

      Well put

  2. kayleighvenne.wordpress.com kayleighvenne.wordpress.com
    1. Hi! My name is Kayleigh Venne and I am a senior majoring in journalism with an emphasis in media studies. I love all things social media and I also enjoy reading and writing. I currently write for the Arts & Culture section of The Daily Aztec covering campus and community events. I am originally from Michigan but I have been living in Southern California for nine years now. Outside of this class, I engage in tweeting and occasionally journaling. I use social media hourly and utilize it as a quick and simple way to get the news and keep up with those around me. I see social media accounts as a way to promote one’s “brand” and showcase one’s best self. I expect that this class will further prepare me for a career in social media in the future and teach me how to analyze writing in various media settings.

      Fascinating. You have some great experiences that should set you up really well. Thanks for sharing.

    1. In this text, Thompson claims that although we are writing more words every day, the words that do come out are more often bad or grammatically incorrect. He also points out the fact that students cannot write properly

      I think he argues against this idea. See the section where he cites the Stanford writing project.

    1. Hi, my name is Augustin but you can call me Auggie. I am a senior and this would be my last semester before I graduate. I will have a major in IS3D or known as the Inter-Disciplinary program which includes French, History and RWS. I like reading other people’s blogs but this is my first time typing my own personal blog so bear with me if I’m still new at this. Blogging used to be huge in the early 2000’s but I believe we are all transitioning towards vlogs as it is a much faster way to express something. I still don’t really know what to do after graduating but I’d like to start becoming a flight attendant and explore all my possibilities.  

      Thanks for sharing Auggie. Look forward to reading your posts.

    1. For me, personally, I like to brainstorm my thoughts onto paper before writing an essay or article. If I think along the way of my writing, I find myself trying to figure out how to word it. If I write out my exact thoughts on paper first, I can then go back and fix it. It is better for me to organize and plan my notes as it helps prolong my memory.

      Good work - this shows promise. In future homework assignments explain your writing a little more. There are points that start to do good work but are composed in a kind of "shorthand," so as a reader I am sometimes left guessing. Introduce, explain and analyze most quotations. I look forward to reading more.

    2. The sound is as important as any dialogue, story, setting, and characters given. It is better to understand the story when someone tells us about it orally. This could be a reason why Sundiata’s two versions of his story leave a lasting impression amongst its crowd. The use of repetition, by telling the stories over and over again, has helped griots remember the stories for over a hundred years.

      Important points - nice. In future homework assignments try to illustrate and support such points with quotations that you discuss and dissect.

    3. It is easier to understand as we have characters act out a given dialogue. I preferred reading the second version of the text because I was better able to understand it as it was more concise and it had a better flow. The back and forth of the dialogue gave it a more rhythmic flow.

      Very interesting points. But try to focus on how Ong's concepts (repetition, formulas, epithets, etc) can be seen in the text.

    4. The responses of the audience give the story more of an authentic and realistic feel.

      Yes, classic call and response - common in oral performances. Could dwell a little more on this.

    5. . Man’s memory is tested against time; however, by using these helpful systems, our memory can thrive

      Good - but explain what the "systems" are.

    6. “Other people use writings to record the past, but this invention has killed the faculty of memory among them” (443).

      Remember to introduce quotations. I am not sure how this quotation connects to what comes before and after it.

    7. The sounds are just sounds, nothing more.

      Yes, one of the hardest things for us to understand from our perspective in a literate culture.

    1. I would further like to research why Millennials text using abbreviations instead of full sentences. I find myself checking my grammar and spelling before sending a text message. How did texting become that way? Who started it all? The question-answer tool had peaked my interest in the sense of addiction. How do people become addicted so quickly to these public forums? I am also intrigued to learn more about why students use correct writing outside of their classrooms rather than an environment where you should learn, thrive, and succeed in that particular skill.

      It is great you are thinking about projects this early. Let's get together and talk about potential paper topics.

    2. Researchers have found that when a question has been asked online, the audience will most likely respond. These questions tend to elicit a response in writing. Thompson uses Socrates in one of his claims. Thompson finds online writing t

      Watch transitions - as you switch topics I found myself struggling to keep up.

    3. This interesting experiment showed that a child who sat with a parent (audience) beside them was the best at solving puzzles

      Yes, good connection to make.

    4. Another claim relating to the previous one says that having an audience improves one’s writing. This is a persuading claim if we refer back to Andrea Lunsford’s example.

      Good - but try to clarify how the main author draws on secondary authors as support. So talk about how Thompson draws on Lunsford to support his claim X.

    5. Thompson claims that fewer people are writing grammatically correct

      I believe he argues that people are not writing worse, and their grammar (in traditional writing) has not declined.

  3. ramansblogblog.wordpress.com ramansblogblog.wordpress.com
    1. Hey, guys! My name is Raman Sidhu! I am a senior this year with a major in Interdisciplinary Studies. I have always loved to write as it is considered my safe place. I used to be a sports writer for the Daily Aztec. I also used to be a content writer for The Odyssey. In my free time, I like to blog. I have a separate blog page from this one. I use Facebook to share my articles, videos, and thoughts. Career wise, I aspire to work for ESPN and entertainment platforms.

      Many thanks for sharing this!

    1. Ong’s chapter was so interesting to me because he is emphasizing the importance of oral language and speaking, but my generation is built on writing. I write everyday, whether it be emails at work, texts to my friends, or essays for homework. His most relevant line to me was “think important thoughts.” I think he basically means, if what you are going to say, write, or do is not important, it is not worth doing.

      This contains a good grasp of Ong and does some solid analysis. My main suggestion in future homework assignments is to explain the authors' claims a little more before responding, and try to ground your analysis in more discussion of passages from the target text. I look forward to reading more.

    2. Each time they repeated a cry of his mother, it reminded the audience what a disappointment he came across as.

      nicely put - the repetition has a mnemonic and an aesthetic dimension.

    3. “King of Nyani, King of Nyani, will you never rise,” is an example of repetition in the speech.

      Good - but in homework assignments try to use more quotations to support your analysis and give it more depth.

    4. Another way the performance relates back to Ong is because it is extremely repetitive

      Yes, a key element of oral composition and delivery.

    1. reading the actual text she writes. I wonder how many people looked at her blog before it got big, and what kept her going if there wasn’t much attention at first. I thought the small excerpts about her story were so awesome and inspiring.

      This is a solid response. In future responses try to move a little more deeply into the text. Keep bringing in connections to your experience, but linger on the author's claims a little longer before doing that.

    2. hildren that clearly backs up his claim. I think he does a very good job in his rebuttals

      OK, but rebuttals are sections where the author describes objections to her claims (people who disagree), so you need to spell out what these are.

    3. Many years ago, when reading and writing were first introduced, writing was not used as much. Reading was taught to everyone, was told that it was important to human’s success, and taken very seriously.

      Yes, one of his central points. This is surprising to most.

    4. Thompson brought up was the audience effect. I resonated and agreed with this because I have done it myself. If I am writing a text to a friend, I definitely will not be as formal as if I am writing a Facebook post that many people will see. If you know people are watching and critiquing you, your desire to perform better will be much greater.

      Good point, and nice connection to your experience. Try to cover more claims in your reading responses and "unpack" them a bit more.

  4. kellyschwabblog.wordpress.com kellyschwabblog.wordpress.com
    1. During this class I hope to feel more comfortable in my writing, especially in a blog like setting. I am excited to get the semester going and be able to look back on how my writing changes in the next few months.

      I really enjoyed reading this - thanks for sharing Kelly.

    2. It is crazy to me how much I find on Twitter that I probably wouldn’t know if I did not have the app

      Sounds like you are a twitter maestro. Perhaps you can share how you use it in class?

  5. emmarws411.wordpress.com emmarws411.wordpress.com
    1. The poem relates more to oral culture because it is about one person telling the story to an audience in their own point of view, verbally. The first version seems to be more of a written version of the story because it properly introduces and outlines each character and has much more detail pertaining to the events in the story.

      This shows a lot of promise. You understand Ong's concepts well. In future homework assignments try to include more analysis of the text - more quotes and some more detailed investigation of these quotations.

      I look forward to reading more of your blog posts.

    2. The second story relates to oral composition because it is participatory when after each line the audience has to repeat the words “indeed” and “true.”

      Good - a key element of the performance.

    3. text because this text is used in the form of storytelling and poetry and used as a representation of many different examples of what Ong may be referring to.

      A little awkward - I think you just need to say that it is an example of an oral composition.

    4. They have no visual presence of words. Without writing words are just events.

      Yes, this is hard for literate folks to imagine.

    1. sole purpose of writing is to persuade

      Small quibble - persuasion is usually the "main purpose," not always the "sole" one.

    2. Thompson also mentioned that this does not change anything about writing because even before the internet, the same thing happened. The internet just gave this “a new stage” (78).

      Well put!

    3. Some of the world’s greatest literature such as novels and poems were written before the age of the internet. Although the internet makes people write more often, I do not think his argument is valid regarding writing before the internet

      Good point, but I believe Thompson is talking about how often ordinary people wrote for fun. he talks about how professionals and "creative types" have always written a lot, and these people have over-estimated how much ordinary people wrote (as opposed to read).

    4. I found this very interesting because I can relate to it. I do not do much writing unless it involved the internet and social media. Even then, when I do write for my audience, I think long and hard about what I want to say, because I know who will be reading it

      Nice connection to your own experience

  6. emmarws411.wordpress.com emmarws411.wordpress.com
    1. Hello! My name is Emma Schultz and I am a senior majoring in Interdisciplinary Studies with my three focuses being: history, RWS, and Education. I am from St. Paul, Minnesota, and moved to San Diego when I was a freshman. I use social Media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Tumblr. I typically use these websites to communicate with family and friends and post pictures. I really enjoy using social media because it keeps me up to date about what is going on in my friend’s and family’s lives both in Minnesota and California. I am very excited to learn more about the different forms of digital literacy that are happening in social media today!

      Thanks for sharing this Emma!

    1. This text structure in “Sundiata,” represents the effect of an “improvised call-and-response format” (

      Excellent observation! This is central to the performance of the story.

    2. a redundant manner or formula so that it becomes ingrained in memory. In the “Sundiata” text, redundancy is utilized with repetitive words and phrases. For instance, the word “And,” as well as the phrase, “If he be the man,” are two examples of this redundancy used in the text. This repetition creates a rhythm that is infectious and therefore easily remembered.

      This is good and shows promising. Try in the homework assignments to delve a little more deeply into textual analysis. "Spell out" your analysis more fully and provide more examples.

    3. For instance, the “Sundiata” transcription focuses on proverbs and phrases that are short and affective in provoking the audience to feel the emotion being illustrated

      Yes, and are also easier to remember when composing and performing.

    4. That is to say, the importance of structure, such as the rules of grammar, is not valued as it is in written cultures.

      I would say this slightly differently. Both forms of communication have a grammar, but they are different. As Ong says, oral composition (and speech generally) tends to be "paratactic," and written communication is (or is more likely to be) "paratactic."

    5. A few of these claims that can be applied to “Sundiata” are: “Additive Rather Than Subordinative,” “Redundant or Copious,” and lastly, “Empathetic and Participatory Rather than Objectively Distanced.”

      Good - these are indeed central aspects of oral composition and culture.

  7. kellyschauermann.wordpress.com kellyschauermann.wordpress.com
    1. Vocalizing creates a new vulnerability that challenges all my premeditated comfort zones, and begs me to connect with people in the physical realm. It asks me to respond and be responded to, to give feedback and receive it, speak and be spoken to, and thus, engage in this arcane world of rhetoric in a whole new wa

      This is an excellent homework assignment. It was a joy to read. Keep up the great work!

    2. When I consider these texts, and the exhaustive study that Ong has done on primary oral cultures, I cannot help but think of music. I consider my experience in Malawi, where music was at the core of nearly everything they did. Every person, from toddler to aging adult, male and female, communicated through song and dance. It wasn’t reserved for concert halls and clubs; it was a language in itself, a necessary practice in a world obsessed with 140 characters. For them, writing was an accessory to other communication. Education was scarce, an issue which necessitates an entirely different discussion, but in the absence of their formal education, they taught me something I didn’t even know that I needed to learn: how to communicate without a pen. They are not a primary oral culture, although they likely were at some point, but they were delightfully ignorant of the power we inject into our daily babbling. Power, for them, was found in moving, speaking, and singing, together.

      Wonderful - I love that the post comes full circle in this way. Some (like Young and Sullivan) suggest we ought to let kids dwell longer in a more musical, performative space in their early years of education. You make me wonder if they might have a point.

    3. Throughout Johnson’s text, one can see the use of repetition and epithets to invoke emotion, and facilitate memory. The “blacksmith patriarchs” could just be the “blacksmiths”, or the “patriarchs”, but they are repeated together throughout the story. Couscous becomes “sacrificial couscous”, and “Fata Magan” becomes “Fata Magan, the Handsome”.

      Great examples - you apply Ong's concept of the epithet perfectly.

    4. Memory is driven by a thoughtful, exhaustive reading of the text, rather than by the sound of the text. This may serve a chirographic society, but read aloud to an audience, without any typographic reference point, this text would be nearly impossible to remember.

      Well put!

    5. One can quickly read these short phrases and surmise that a story is beginning to be told, and it is probably about a woman, or women. The intentional use of a pause, followed by an exclamation (Indeed!), demands that the reader (and certainly the listener), be a part of the story, staying present to the shifts in tone and rhythm as to know when to respond, thus transcending the listener from bystander, to participant. It is in this process that power is created. One can feel the sounds leave their mouth, and can hear the boom of “Indeed!” reverberate through the crowd, understanding that there is something big and important being shared. Without a more dramatic use of audible language and variegated sounds, the story becomes dense with words that may or may not help the teller make their point clear.

      This is fascinating. You have tackled what is perhaps the most elusive and complex aspects of oral culture - power and participation - and provided a thoughtful analysis.

    6. Ong alludes to this very idea while citing Malinowski, “…that among ‘primitive’ (oral) peoples generally language is a mode of action and not simply a countersign of thought” (32), recognizing that words were entire “events”, rather than “out there on a flat surface” (32). “Sound,” Ong says, “cannot be sounding without the use of power” (32). Johnson’s Sundiata, reflects this notion that sound is indeed a driving force of the work, using a more dramatic call-and-response to hyperbolize the simple words he was saying:

      Beautifully put.

    7. I remember so vividly the earthy resonance of their feet pounding the red dirt: bum buhhhh, bu bum bu, buhhhh. Young Malawian girls circled around me, giggling and smiling as they showed me, an American woman, their native dancing. There was intermittent singing punctuated by claps, hip thrusts and an amazing aerobic display that left me with a euphoric feeling that is hard to capture in words. I felt like I had just tapped into some primitive sensation, or feeling, or emotion that I had never known before. It was, like Ong stated, “dynamic” (32). I could sit here all day and try to communicate the sensation in words, but it would never be fully understood because you cannot feel it

      What a great experience to connect to the Ong text. Thanks for sharing.

    1. Can some truths be absolute, and some created by rhetoric? It’s an idea I’m still sifting through myself and look forward to exploring more as the semester goes on.

      Excellent. These are ideas one can spend a lifetime chewing over.

    2. It is this very idea that I find interesting, that we can use an ancient art to help us sort out modern day issues.

      Yes many rhetoricians hope that new media will provide new opportunities for growth and for taking center stage in the humanities. I share their hope but I'm somewhat agnostic on the likelihood.

    3. The psychology behind the way people act on the internet versus in-person, is a topic that fascinates me. I would love to learn more about the way digital media, and the connections, made through it, have changed the way we interact with humans in general. Has it made us better communicators? Are we more distracted, and if so, how does that affect personal relationships? Have we really been able to solve more issues with the advent of digital communication, or just created more confusion?

      Great questions. You could certainly explore these in a paper or project. I have some texts and ideas I can share.

    4. . I don’t think this is a reason to take away online discussion, but I also feel that it’s an issue that needs to be better explored.

      Yes, Thompson has been criticized for downplaying this. This part of his argument has not aged as well as other parts.

    5. Today’s online writing meets Socrates halfway. It’s printish, but with a roiling culture of oral debate attached.”

      This is an interesting claim, one I would like to have seen him develop. We sometimes hear arguments that social media is bringing new hybrid forms to life, forms that blend conventions from traditional print literacy and spoken communication. Some even claim Trump is our "first social media president" (the way he uses it, not merely that he uses it).

    6. Due to the public nature of blogs and social media, we are thrust into an environment which forces us to really consider what we write, how we write and who our audience is. We are, in effect, forced to distill our ideas, either by catering to our audience, or through the lively discussions that ensue from a particular post. This consistent writing has also served to create more thoughtful writers, even ones who have become more adept at the art of rhetorical discourse.

      Wonderful. You eloquently capture one of Thompson's key arguments.

  8. kellyschauermann.wordpress.com kellyschauermann.wordpress.com
    1. I keep a website. I like to write. That’s a good start if you want to know me during this journey through Fall 2017 semester. To read more, check out my site. This post is the first from that blog, and a more exhaustive, personal look into what makes me tick. I look forward to getting to know you all!

      This is a wonderful piece of writing. Witty, smart, entertaining and edgy. Have you thought of joining the writing communities on the Medium.com platform? There appear to be a number of sub-communities of writers who focus on particular writing styles.

  9. hillarysarabiarws411.wordpress.com hillarysarabiarws411.wordpress.com
    1. The use of expressive language is also greatly used in the oral community, which Ong expanded on in his chapter. Being expressive can create more imagery in a listeners head, which is why this language is used more in oral communities. Description also helped the listener with memorization. The Sundiata tale was made in two versions. The first version is my D.T. Niane, who created a translation for Western readers. The difference in Niane was less expressive, but stating what happen with no deep description. The the language used in oral communities, described by Ong, does have certain devices which is seen in Johnson’s translation.

      I enjoyed reading this. You show a good understanding of Ong and the Sundiata text. You should include more detailed textual analysis in homework assignments, and make these a bit more "polished" (more precise language, slightly deeper analysis). Look forward to reading more.

    2. There is less grammatical structure in Johnson’s version of the Sundiata Tale, but is said in a more poetic and artistic tone. Ong said this device also makes this story more memorable because it provides more meaning

      Again, I think I see where you are going with this but it could be more precisely formulated.

    3. repetition in name and action, creating a build up in the story.

      I think I see where you are going with this but it would be more precisely formulated.

    4. resonates deeper in listers minds.

      Watch spelling and precision of analysis in homework assignments (not so important in reading responses).

    5. Ong points out these devices because they are used to make stories more memorable because knowledge is only passed down through memory and speech, not though written research and description

      Well put .

  10. hillarysarabiarws411.wordpress.com hillarysarabiarws411.wordpress.com
    1. I would want to further discuss the use of these outlets and how they affect our communication today. I would be interesting in understanding how powerful the use of social media is and analyze the language that is being used. Further research would be the topic of fake news and how this affects our students today with getting informed mainly through social media.

      All great topic areas. Come chat with me about ways of turning these into papers - I'd love to hear your ideas.

    2. Thompson needed improvement on was writing improves cognitive memory. I felt this claim and support did not fit in cohesively in his conversation of public thinking. There could have been more improvement in the evidence

      I agree it is not the best supported claim.

    3. He showed explained how Coats manages their comments so negative and non relatable thoughts are taken out of the public view so these issues can’t affect the community who wants to analyze and create ideas and conversion.

      Again - follow what you are trying to say but aim for a little more precision.

    4. The claim that failed network in communication kill ideas, but successful ideas create a catalyst was relevant and persuasive to today’s audience.

      I see what you are trying to say here but it's a little awkwardly expressed. Try for a little more precision in your analysis of claims.

    5. most persuasive claim from the chapter was how having an audience can affect people to think more analytical and create deeper connections from the support and evidence given in the chapter.

      Yes I agree this is the claim that seems most plausible and has some of the strongest support.

    6. The main claims that were discussed in the chapter were writing today is directed toward some type of audience, writing improves analytical thinking and cognitive skills, and communication through the online community can kill or build ideas

      Nice overview of his main arguments.

    7. ideas throughout the ages.

      Not quite all ages (make your analysis as precise as possible).

    1. To split the oral and literate down the middle brings up an interesting point, when it comes to orality, Ong speaks of the importance arguing “writing slows down creativity (34),” whereas, in the Sundiata, storytelling relied on memory. Pictures are another interesting illustration which occur mentally in the Sundiata if receiving the story orally, compared to, reading and analyzing Ong’s Psychodynamics. Pictures hold representation and individual value, yet in a literate society, name values are placed. Lastly, although seemingly obvious, oral culture depended upon being able to recall, whereas, the literate culture is able to record and revisit information verbatim

      This is a strong general discussion of Ong and his main claims, and of differences between oral and written cultures. I enjoyed reading it. But the goal was to apply Ong's concepts to the Sundiata text - to point to examples of repetition, formulas, epithets, etc., and discuss how these exemplify Ong's argument about oral composition. So include more textual analysis of the "target" text next time the homework calls for analysis.

    2.  For instance, children of oral communities learned by trial and error because an oral culture had no concept of a written and pro-literate instructional system. 

      Well put. This is a key difference.

    3. Ong references the creation story to support this (32). Of course, the progression of agriculture received the blame for propelling the written language, as urban farmers implemented a written records system for business purposes and it evolved from there.

      Yes, "tokens" in clay envelopes, then imprinted on the clay as writing, were the first forms of written communication.

    4. The text elaborates how unimaginable to exist in a society which is exclusively oral. 

      Yes, Ong really wants to stress this - how alien, different, but beautiful and rich oral cultures are/were. The rest of his book is worth reading for the way he helps us understand this world.

    1. The readjusting of my life, time management and priorities since becoming a student have completely changed my world view, expanding it to greater empathy. Taking up writing as a college major has also contributed to the changes I have endeavored, for example, I plan to use this as a tool to teach and contribute to education. The goal of teaching sparks emotion and creativity which keeps me motivated on days in the valley, pushing me forward. The insanity of metamorphizing as a student and when all seems to be unbearable, I dance.

      What a rich, honest, lyrical piece of writing. Thanks for sharing!

    1. Sundiata and understand the two different versions of the ancient story.

      I enjoyed reading this. You capture some of Ong's key claims nicely and begin to explore the Sundiata text using Ong's framework.

      In future homework try to include more examples from the text and some close analysis of those examples to help extend and support your points.

      Keep up the good work.

    2. Version I looks as if it could be a short story or fable like story due to its length and introduction, while Version II looks as if it could be a poem or song because the verses are short.

      Yes, this is correct. One has been transformed into the conventions of (literate) prose narrative, and the other is a transcript of a performance by an oral poet/singer.

    3. Formulas are put in place as a type of rhetorical device that strategizes on how a sentence sounds to is intended to sound like by the author for readers.

      Bit hard to follow - doesn't seem to capture how formulas work.

    4. al cultures also relies heavily on formulas, which according to Ong, “help implement rhythmic discourse and also act as a mnemonic aids in their own right”(31)”. The formulas in the rhythm of languages are what help establish the formulas in language.

      Good, this gets to the heart of several of Ong's key claims.

    1. Without Rhetoric we would not have structure in writing and would not be able to think critically about our writing or the writing of other’s.

      Nicely put!

    2. I find Thompson’s rebuttals to be very persuasive and accurate because he interviews bloggers, scholars, references popular shows, and social media outlets to back up his arguments.

      OK - but stronger if you include an example of how he rebuts an opposing view.

    3. He interviewed Standford Univeristy English Professor, Andrea Lunsford, who states that, “

      There you go - this is nice framing of primary and secondary author.

    4. became very disciplined. Knowing I had these people reading me, I was self -conscious to build my arguments, back up what I wanted to say. It was very interesting. I got a sense of obligation”

      Nice - key quotation. This is an important piece of evidence for T's argument.

    5. Okolloh states in her article

      Small point - more typical to frame discussion of primary author in terms of how s/he draws on secondary one. Even though I understand perfectly what you are saying, more typical to say "Thompson uses Okolloh's experience to illustrate his argument about the audience effect. He notes she said she "became very disciplined..."

    1. Maybe some of that community and understanding could be brought back to our isolated lands. Maybe we could use that to connect us face to face rather than from a fancy phone

      It is interesting that both Ong and Young and Sullivan argue we should try to bring back some elements of oral culture, and that it may be "healthy" for us to do so.

    2. Now we have books and excerpts from all around that can easily pass information, which is why we have the highest literacy rates in all of human history but maybe something is lost. Maybe that sense of community and coexistence is gone and we are searching for it but can’t seem to find it. Who knows hypotheticals are silly. Sundiata was a textbook example of an oral story as understood through the lenses of Ong’s description. Oral traditions can give a new perspective to stories we have all heard since we were children.

      This is good, insightful commentary. But try to make use of textual analysis as a way of illustrating and anchoring your discussion of texts.

    3. it is interesting none the less that we only know that Plato disliked writing because someone else wrote it down.

      I wish we had time to go through Plato's Phaedrus. It is fascinating to examine the way it responds to the shift from an oral culture to a written one.

    4. or native tongue the poem has even greater flow and works more like a communal song with the audience participating with the speake

      That is how I imagine it. The call and response structure gives us a glimpse into what the performance must have been like.

    5. This would have been necessary for the people to better remember this tale.

      Yes, and it's also part of composing - if you have no way of writing things down as you compose, you need to create "chunks" that can be memorized, and in you will likely use lots of repetition when performing the story.

    6. epetition is seen to close out each stanza.

      Yes, when you count all the instances it is remarkable. There is so much repetition.

    1. Beyond that, I found this article incredibly informative and a wonderful read.

      I enjoyed this post. Keep up the good work. Try to capture authors' claims a little more precisely and give some more quotations to illustrate your analysis. Look forward to reading more.

    2. I am also curious as to the current status of Ushahidi

      So am I - perhaps you could investigate in your paper? If you are interested in the ways social media are used for social change and activism it could be something to include.

    3. As a writer with poor grammar, it definitely shocked me

      I was also surprised, but the work by Lunsford (and others) is pretty persuasive.

    4. However once could argue that anyone could dismiss any of his findings as nonsense

      Not sure I follow.

    5. some of the riches that an interconnected world can give to us.

      Yes it's a good story to anchor his argument.

    1. When we attempt to commit something to memory, some- like myself- rely on the method of muscle memory, where constantly and physically rewriting cements the fact into our minds. This method, however, was not uncommon in oral culture. Rather than writing out facts via written text, though, oral

      Interesting connection.

    2. Another claim of Ong’s oral culture can be seen through another form of redundancy, but in a formulaic way. Whenever a character is being addressed to in the second text, the pronoun of that character is often repeated over and over again in each stanza. By doing so, readers can follow the storyline without the need of directly addressing the character within each line. This is seen in both Sundiata’s lines and his mother’s. T

      Good - this would be clearer if you provided quotes and textual evidence.

    3. Ong states that an oral culture is one that exists without depending on written texts. Such examples of this can be seen in history, via storytelling, songs, poems, etc. that have survived throughout history. They are often known to hold certain characteristics, such as repetition and redundancy, oral patterns throughout the oral style, formulaic for memory support, enrichment in definition and detail, empathetic and intimate.

      Nice introduction and overview of Ong.

    1. Hand-waving: basically wanting to share something, and then having said thing either malfunction or not work at all ‘Blogging forces you to write down all your arguments and assumptions.” – Weinberg Audience effect – the shift in our performance when people are watching effects do not require a huge physical audience to kick in; it proves true online “Once thinking is public, connections take over”; think the theory of multiples, but in the case of ideas, breakthroughs are often seen in more than one individual “Failed networks kill ideas, but successful ones trigger them” Public thinking can be powerful but exhausting Tummeling – mix of persuasion, listening, good hosting; essentially the ‘distration method’ (“Look over here, now look over there!”) Read the room Depends on the human factor examples of where it goes wrong – newspapers and Youtube; constantly unsupervised, trying to grow their community and business, rather than dealing with smaller issues and letting them grow (i.e. comment sections on Youtube) Sharing location online – turns geography into a messaging board More modes of digital media = more sites for public thinking (i.e. eBooks)

      Nice - good set of notes. Captures key elements of the text.

    2. sense rather than to the direct individual. His rebuttals are persuasive, but do hold more of a bitter tone in my opinion.  What interested me the most was seeing him connect both the “old” and “new” ways of public thinking, considering that there is a big audience that likes to separate the two from each other.

      The are some good insights and thoughtful comments in this post. It does seem general, and to move quickly from the text to general response Try to move more deeply into the texts you are analyzing and give a precise account of their claims (with examples from the text) before moving to discussion.

    3. Least persuasive, however, was when he argued against the statement that the “old way” of thinking and doing things will cease to exist under the new age of media and such

      This is interesting but I am not sure which part of his argument you are referring to. Are you talking about the past when people wrote less? If you bring in quotations to illustrate your points that may help in future posts.

    1. Hand-waving: basically wanting to share something, and then having said thing either malfunction or not work at all ‘Blogging forces you to write down all your arguments and assumptions.” – Weinberg Audience effect – the shift in our performance when people are watching effects do not require a huge physical audience to kick in; it proves true online “Once thinking is public, connections take over”; think the theory of multiples, but in the case of ideas, breakthroughs are often seen in more than one individual “Failed networks kill ideas, but successful ones trigger them” Public thinking can be powerful but exhausting Tummeling – mix of persuasion, listening, good hosting; essentially the ‘distration method’ (“Look over here, now look over there!”) Read the room Depends on the human factor examples of where it goes wrong – newspapers and Youtube; constantly unsupervised, trying to grow their community and business, rather than dealing with smaller issues and letting them grow (i.e. comment sections on Youtube) Sharing location online – turns geography into a messaging board More modes of digital media = more sites for public thinking (i.e. eBooks)

      Nice - good set of notes. Captures key elements of the text.

    2. sense rather than to the direct individual. His rebuttals are persuasive, but do hold more of a bitter tone in my opinion.  What interested me the most was seeing him connect both the “old” and “new” ways of public thinking, considering that there is a big audience that likes to separate the two from each other.

      The are some good insights and thoughtful comments in this post. It does seem general, and to move quickly from the text to general response Try to move more deeply into the texts you are analyzing and give a precise account of their claims (with examples from the text) before moving to discussion.

    3. Least persuasive, however, was when he argued against the statement that the “old way” of thinking and doing things will cease to exist under the new age of media and such

      This is interesting but I am not sure which part of his argument you are referring to. Are you talking about the past when people wrote less? If you bring in quotations to illustrate your points that may help in future posts.

    1. My name is Ian Lubliner, but a since i can remember most people call me Lub.  I’m studying to receive IS3d focused on Kinesiology, and plan on graduating next may.  I grew up in San Jose CA, and am a diehard bay area sports fan.   When i was eight years old i picked up the two hobbies i have stuck with ever since.  I my  got my first drum set for my 8th birthday and had a passion for rocking out ever since.  The same year i picked up a lacrosse stick for the first time, which has consumed most of my free time for the last 14 years.  I rarely write for my own sake, but believe literacy is as important as ever with the limitless stream of information available which brings me to digital rhetoric.

      Great intro Ian. Thanks for sharing.I like your blogs title!

    2. You can also see that the spoken word is much more concise than the written story.  The written version gives much more background to the story, and includes much more detail in the young king’s activities.  This is because when speaking the audience can only retain so much in their memories.  It is important for spoken word to minimize superfluous details, so that the audience can focus on relevant points.   The written text allows for in depth descriptions of settings and characters because the reader is able to go back and re-read anything they did not retain.

      Thoughtful discussion of Ong and the Sundiata text. I think you could discuss both in more detail. This starts to get interesting but finishes as the analysis takes shape. Give yourself more time in future homework assignments.

    3. This supports Ong’s viewpoint that oral rhetoric holds more gravity than written word.

      A bit vague - wasn't sure how this connects to Ong.

    4. his kind of redundancy isn’t used solely to make the audience remember the words.  This repetition adds an increased sense of drama and accomplishment when Sundiata finally is able to stand on his final attempt.

      Good point - there is a functional, mnemonic dimension and also an artistic one.

    1. Lock sheds light on the “order and clearness” rhetoric is useful for. Locke deems rhetoric to be important and provides writing structure. Herrick refers to different scholars and professionals in literary studies to support his claims. I agree with Herrick’s claims and believe that rhetoric is important writing that gives us structure and discipline to organize our language effectively.

      Good first reading response. You provide a thoughtful reading of both texts and make some useful connections to your own experience. In future posts try to capture the authors' claims a little more precisely and draw on quotes to support your reading. I enjoyed reading this - nice work.

    2. eel like this holds truth because it is difficult for me to formulate what I want to say in my head, but when brainstorming “half-formed thoughts on the page,” it enables me to begin writing

      Good point and good connection to the text.

    3. as well as felt more skeptical of publishing

      Perhaps it' more there were few outlets.

    4. Social media has been able to encourage society to write and share their thoughts on issues

      Yes, one of his key points.

    5. Although people are writing more, he also discusses how the quality of writing has decreased in some ways.

      I'm not sure he argues it has declined in quality (later when discussing Lunsford's work he suggests it has improved.) He merely concedes that a lot of it is bad, but it is better that more people are writing and so improving, if only a little, when in the past most people did not write at all.

    1. Alike Ong, I think both versions communicate their point in understanding and intellectual manners. I believe for myself personally, that Johnsons version would be more beneficial for myself because I find it easier to comprehend and recall the information in that sort of format. I also think that I can relate better to this type of writing because I am use to writing how I speak. Therefore I am able to understand others better when its written in more of a vocal climate than the other. Neither culture is considered better than one another, just more or less a different way of learning and communication.

      Again, I enjoyed reading this post. There is some insight and useful observations about Ong and SUndiata. But the response is general, and tends to bounce quickly to your own comments. I suggest in future posts you try to focus on the assignment questions, capture authors' claims more precisely, and discuss quotes from the texts.

    2. Growing up I wasn’t big on writing, and even now I find myself struggling with it sometimes. However, I just picked up this habit of journaling and I have found to love it. I also am a frequent “tweeter” but my tweets aren’t political or serious, mostly just dumb thoughts that I feel other 20-somethings can relate with. I am big on Instagram and Facebook when it comes to sharing photos and achievements with my family and friends. I have come to realize that it is an easy platform to share photos and information on, whilst reaching almost all the friends and family I need to! I use twitter to stay updated with breaking news happening around the world. From this class I’m mostly excited to see how advertisements, social media sites, blogs, images and media influence my life. I am really excited for a great semester!

      Thanks Hailey - very interesting.

    3. One of the most interesting parts of the text that I found was the comparison of Rhetoric and Community. Its not a common thought of mine that rhetoric builds communities and that a lack there of can be devastating to a community. I think this is very applicable in the world right now, where everyone is throwing there opinions on the internet and instead of having an intellectual debate using rhetoric, people are choosing to make a division. This division is caused by rhetoric of each other and the lack of understanding and willingness to try and see the other side. I found this concept very interesting and applicable in our lives currently.

      There is a lot of good insight in this post. You make some useful observations about Thompson and Herrick. But the response is very general, and tends to bounce off the texts pretty quickly into your own comments. I suggest in future posts you try to focus on the response questions and the key claims advanced by each author, and you ground both in textual evidence.

    1. Sundiata is additive, aggregative, repetitive, and overall rather formulaic. Such features ultimately help carve out a rhythm within the story. This rhythm imprints the story into the griot’s memory and allows him to continuously repeat it over time and pass it on to members of the culture and other storytellers.

      This is really impressive. Your analysis of repetition, redundancy, formulaic language, epithets, and aggregative style is very strong. You make wonderful use of textual evidence and read both texts with care and insight.

      Great work!

    2. e three times he tries to do this, the description reads: “He put his right hand o’er his left,/And upwards drew himself/And upwards drew himself” or some slight variation of this (“Sundiata: Two Versions” 449-450). Through these similar descriptions, the audience can see that Sundiata is attempting the same action over and over again (with unsuccessful results the first two times and successful results the third time), and also through them, as at other points throughout the narrative, the griot must remember less words overall.

      Good - like the way you consider both the mnemonic and dramatic/aesthetic dimensions of the performance.

    3. Sundiata successfully walks with the help of a staff, his mother runs toward him gleefully, and the narration reads: “Running, his mother came forward,/And clasped his legs/And squeezed them,/ And squeezed them” (“Sundiata: Two Versions” 450-451). Two different past-tense verbs are used (clasped and squeezed) that both end in -ed, and they are both used with introductory “ands.” This parallel structure is rhythmically pleasing and congruent, which allows the griot’s mind to retain the phrases without much effort

      This is good, careful, incisive close reading.

    4. Sundiata, both of which add rhythm to the story, enhance the griot’s ability to recall it.

      Excellent paragraph- gets to the heart of Ong's concepts and their realization in the Sundiata text.

    5. Sundiata, which relays the tale of the Manding Empire’s founder (“Sundiata: Two Versions” 443). A specific version of Sundiata by John William Johnson is a record of a griot’s performance of the tale that was preserved without alteration for a Western audience (“Sundiata: Two Versions” 443). This analysis will examine Johnson’s version of Sundiata and Ong’s features of “Orally Based Thought and Expression” that it satisfies.

      Another great metadiscourse section

    1. because writing digitally can be classified as a newer type of Rhetoric that is worthy of further examination and study.

      Indeed, and Herrick seems to believe that digital media are fertile grounds for a rebirth of rhetoric.

    2. Even though Rhetoric is so closely associated with persuasion, the planned aspect of Rhetoric shows that persuasion does not necessarily equal Rhetoric and vice versa.

      Yes, that does indeed seem an implication of Herrick's position. I suspect a number of scholars would be troubled by Herrick's definition for just this reason - unplanned persuasive communication would not be rhetorical.

    3. It would be fascinating to see if any studies have been done on what number of followers is most manageable.

      Great discussion and analysis of Thompson. Keep it up! This is thoughtful, comprehensive, and smart.

    4. ge groups of people, claiming “conversation works best when it’s smaller” and “conversation doesn’t scale” (80). He specifically cites YouTube and Newspapers as having so many people contributing to their comments sections

      Great analysis of Thompson's argument!

    5. ue to the “audience effect” (51-54)

      Nicely put.

    6. f Thompson had explained how exactly he had come to that 36 million book estimate

      Agree entirely. This seemed sloppy and a little fishy.

    7. Lunsford is a professor at a well-respected college

      Yes, it doesn't get more prestigious than Stanford.

    8. “writing” and “production” instead of just “reading” and “consumption”-

      Yes, this is central to Thompson's argument, and key to changes in mass literacy.

    9. This response will include a summary and evaluation of and some reflection on Thompson’s main claims and rebuttals in his “Public Thinking” piece. It will also contain a brief discussion of certain intriguing parts of Herrick’s “An Overview of Rhetoric.”

      Nice overview of your analysis.

    1. Ong understands that the audience has no initial investment in your story so you must be quick, simple, and precise; continuity, rhythm, and repetition work in unison to have a captive audience and move your story forward

      This is starting to get interesting! But I feel this analysis ends too early. I wanted to see you explain Ong's claims about oral composition, and then apply this to the Sundiata text. It seems you just got into this. Don't leave me hanging in future posts (;-)

    2. Ong’s writing is the pinnacle of prepetition ending each of his major points with repetition

      Perhaps you mean the Sundiata text contains a lot of repetition?

    1. Thomson’s writings had many legitimate claims but I feel that the claim that social media and internet benefit all forms of writing had the best ideas and supporting details. Social media has given us the opportunity to go back to the traditional way of communication, openly addressing any topic, regardless of how controversial allowing for the safe analysis and communication among all those willing to have a civil conversation. Being able to communicate through conversational and informal means benefit writing a whole, it allows for thought and the development of ideas.

      There is a lot of interesting discussion. Good to see you grappling with Thompson's claims. A few passages are a little hard to follow and could give the reader a more precise account. Something to consider in future responses.

    2. sharing written works because social media inherently takes possession of any ideas posted in its sited.

      I think I see where you are going but this could capture his claim a bit more precisely.

    3. ccess to all sorts of audience members, who then can give directs commentary and ins

      Yes, and "authentic" audiences, as opposed to the "artificial" ones found in school.

    4. things suck

      Freudian slip? (just kidding)

    1. the takeaway from this is that we can get away with not writing to exercise memory, but there is still a limit to how much we can retain before we find the need to write things down.

      Yes - I would just extend that slightly to echo Y & S's claim that without writing there are various kinds of high-level, rigorous thinking that are impossible.

    2. “wicked” or evil queen hindering the protagonis

      Indeed, that is an evocative comparison.

    3. baggage” over concision (33). In Niane’s version of Sundiata, Sassouma is described as “malicious” and “wicked” (444) to retain her negative persona throughout the

      Great observation. That was an example that jumped out at me also.

    4. Ong’s characteristics of a primary oral culture can be seen in the two versions of the Sundiata tale. His first characteristic is that a primary oral culture tends to be additive rather than subordinative. In version II of Sundiata, written by John William Johnson, there are plentiful lines where is this illustrated: “Ah! Bemba!/And found some custard apples trees,/And cut one down,/And trimmed it level to her breast,/And stood as if in prayer” (450). This allows a sense of flow and seamless continuation of narrative in Johnson’s version of the Sundiata tale.

      Good example, and a good connection to Ong. Perhaps just explain a bit more fully how the quote illustrates additive style (and repetition).

    5. haven’t really been prioritizing my time correctly, and therefore haven’t gotten much effective studying done since school started. I started my new job at Starbucks, and commuting to and from Escondido everyday, along with living in a moderately demanding household, is tiring.

      Hang in there...and keep writing regularly, even if you don't have a lot of time. Writing it like exercise - you have to keep doing it to build those muscles.

    6. think it would be interesting to delve more into this – to encourage society to write more rather than be merely consumers. I

      Great - perhaps a topic for your paper?

    7. Thompson addresses people who potentially disagree with him particularly in the subject of Ta-Nahesi Coates. Coates went out of his way to moderate his blogs and delete any abusive comments and posts. H

      Yes, although I think Thompson discusses to address the objection that much of new online writing is nasty and hateful. Coates (and tummeling, as you say) shows you can set up environments where such nastiness is is unable to take over.

    8. I find this interesting because it emphasizes collaboration over competition; mainly focusing on sharing and expanding ideas seems to be a more productive use of time and knowledge rather than fighting over who owns the idea.

      Yes, this was one of his more provocative ideas.

    9. Another of Thompson’s claims involves public thinking, in which today’s Internet encourages talking and writing about the same thing simultaneously

      I know what you mean by this, but could include a more precise account of public thinking.

    10. Unleashing ideas in any type of format, whether it be verbally or in typed or written words, helps to express ideas, for “the effort of communicating to someone else forces you to think more precisely, make deeper connections, and learn more” (55

      Yes, this is what Thompson calls the "audience effect."

  11. hafsabadsha.wordpress.com hafsabadsha.wordpress.com
    1. Ong’s essay is helpful in highlighting the ways that oral communication thrives and these characteristics substantiate themselves in the story of Sundiata.

      You have given a concise, thoughtful account of Ong's main concepts and done a nice job applying these to the text. I enjoyed reading this - keep up the good work.

    2. n this narrative, we see a participatory dialogue emerging; the audience is given as much of a voice as a narrator and asserts their authority to contribute. This is characteristic of oral culture’s ability to showcase originality, one where “originality lodges not in making up new stories but in managing a particular interaction with the audience at the same time.”

      Smart observation. In this sense originality perhaps comes closer to creative "remix" and delivery.

    3. “Go to that cripple child of yours,” is repeated in the first few verses and its repetition is key in inspiring empathy towards the other figure; with each house she is belittled at, we are reminded her suffering is constant. The refrain, “and upwards he drew himself” evokes suspense and thrill in the reader, hoping that the narrative’s underdog will succeed.

      Good - like the way you consider both the mnemonic and dramatic/aesthetic dimensions of the performance.

    4. We see this use of fixed, rhythmized expressions in the second version of the Sundiata legend. Conveyed by a griot, it establishes a marked departure from Western conventions of storytelling. It is written in the form of a free verse ballad, giving the words an immediate musical quality.

      Excellent observation. "Musicality" is a good word - it is central to oral composition and performance.

    5. here are many avenues that digital world has given these fandoms; collectives where there can engage in intense debate, creative works such as stories and art forms, podcasts and shows of their own.

      Good - perhaps suggest a project that addresses this.

    6. has seen a rise in digital writing in the last few years. While we must prize the luxury of free speech, we also must understand how its tenets are abused by those who would spread racism, xenophobia and homophobia in its name

      This is indeed the part of his text that aged least well since he wrote it four years ago.

    7. Thompson is aware of the misgivings that individuals may possess about digital writings, but through an amalgamation of research and facts, manages to deconstruct them.

      Well put!

    8. against the rise of digital literacy

      Not sure this is the most accurate way to frame opposing views - they don't all center on digital literacy.

    9. n this way, the digital era borrows from the knowledge forming processes of the past, while simultaneously witnessing its evolution.

      Nicely put - this sentences captures an essential element of T's argument.

    10. all over the Internet who speak to our personal passions, interests and goals.

      Yes in some sense his text is a call to action.

    11. Chennai, India, bringing daily lives to a standstill and endangering thousands. Rescue teams, supplies and funding were conducted online for a large part, with people utilizing their blogs, social media platforms and digital campaigns to ensure aid reached those in need.

      Interesting connection. Perhaps such events suggest the need for other, similar apps.

    12. validated.

      Slight overstatement of his position

    13. our cognitive thought processes; in terms of the way we write, respond and cater to an audience. Writing is no longer a contained activity reserved for a few; an era where there is little constraint on who can publish means that a plethora of voices have sprung forward. While Thompson concedes that not all writing can be considere

      Nice overview of Thompson's project and overall argument.

    1. Walter Ong writes about the sounded word being of power and action. The nine different methods talked about can be summarized as: aggregative rather than analytic, redundant or ‘copious’, conservative or traditionalist, close to human lifeworld, agonistically toned, empathetic and participatory rather than objectively distant, and situational rather than abstract. These characteristics can contrast the two versions of the same story both written and orally reproduced.

      Good overview of Ong's main claims. Your comparison of the two versions of the story is thoughtful and smart. This overview of Ong happens at the end, and these concepts could be connected to the specifics of the second version. Going forward, try to add more analysis of the specifics of texts in your homework assignments. I enjoyed reading this.

    2. king’s palace, the second versions food, culture and names can be interchanged to fit other regions in their narrative. By painting a picture of the story so well, we are not able see outside of the situation that is currently in front of us.

      Found this part of your analysis a little hard to follow.

    3. he fact that most of the lines are dialog between two or more people further emphasizes the empathy that we as an audience are meant to feel.

      Yes, good example of the participatory character of ral performances.

    4. The first version, a work by D. T. Niane describes the tale in written form to be read by their audience. The second version is transcribed to text by John William Johnson as a spoken, call and response story told verbally to an audience

      Nice overview of the differences between these two texts.

  12. ottocolomsblog.wordpress.com ottocolomsblog.wordpress.com
    1. King of Nyani”, and “Will you Rise” that extends in the next stanza. By telling the story of the King of Nyani through the use of repetitions in a rhythmic poem, the power of the words is not only able to project visual images that paints the poem into a story but also it allows those hearing the poem to remember the story, which is then orally passed down generation to generation

      Nice post. You provide a thoughtful overview of some of Ong's main claims. You also start to apply Ong's concepts to the Sundiata text in a very interesting way. It does seem that your analysis gets started and then is over - I would like to have seen you explore more of both texts as your work on repetition shows much promise. This is what I would like to you focus on in future homework assignments - fuller exploration of arguments and more detailed textual analysis.

    1. Laugh of the Medusa,” a manifesto for women to write women, a call-to-(writing)-arms if I may. Another point Young and Sullivan make is that “the reason we write is to enable ourselves to engage in a kind of thinking that would otherwise be beyond us, that is extended thinking” (216). Writing absolutely helps me organize my thoughts.

      Thoughtful response to Y & S. This is another model post. I enjoyed reading it very much. Keep up the good work.

    2. pically complex prose story for an audience.

      Yes, important point. Ong is sometimes criticized for overgeneralizing about oral cultures and imagining a "great divide." There is some truth to this. Sometimes one also hears him criticized for over-privileging literate culture, but I think this is not the case. As you note, he makes it clear that both are rich and complex. He also suggests much is lost in the transition to mass literacy, and suggests we re-acquaint ourselves with more of it, perhaps drawing on some elements. I also wish more oral performances were available to see or witness.

    3. Kònaté,” and other epithets, untranslated. The most striking difference between oral and chirographic cultures is that the audience’s responses to the storyteller are included in the transcription, emphasizing the participatory nature of orality, that “the audience must be brought to respond…vigorously” (Ong 41), versus the “objectively distanced” nature of the written word (45).

      Exemplary analysis.

    4. allows the audience and griot to keep their place in the story, but also emphasizes the emotions the storyteller is trying to evok

      Yes, both important features of oral delivery.

    5. cultures are “agonistically toned” in that they are steeped in themes of physical prowess and violence, as well as effusive praise, which creates a “highly polarized, agonistic, oral world of good and evil, virtue and vice, villains and heroes” (45).

      This is impressive writing and analysis. You clearly and identify the distinctive characteristics Ong argues are part of oral composition. You do this with precision and elegance. This paragraph also sets up your analysis of Sundiata very nicely.

  13. tylerchalmers.wordpress.com tylerchalmers.wordpress.com
    1. very immaculate

      not sure I follow

    2. This is very true when there are larger audiences, Ong states that not everyone understands every single word that a speaker is saying but it does not stop them from moving towards the next thing said. Copia is an idea that rhetoricians use to explain that when you’re speaking it is better to move on or repeat what you said previously instead of stopping, this is done to keep the listener(s) captivated. Another aspect that was brought up by Ong was the idea that when you are reading something your mind is open to a different type of speculation of how something may have happened. In the oral culture, there is much less speculation because every story is unique and is told certain ways to insinuate and certain happening at the time. This could be done many ways but can be done the way they articulate the story and the emotions the speaker may have. These can all influence how you may view and hear a story.

      Good points - better still if you can connect to the Sundiata text.

    3. With more repetition comes a more accurate representation of the oral story told to the next person.

      Partly true - Ong talks about "homeostasis" in Oral tales, the "drift" that takes place, the adaptation to a new context, and the fact that things just get deleted if they are no longer relevant, since remembering is hard. But repetition does help in the creation and delivery of texts, and through practice tales take shape, which is perhaps what you are getting at here.

    4. “Sundiata.” At the end of most of the lines, there are chimes that create a receptive element to the story.

      Yes, this is easily the most characteristic stylistic element. It's great you mention this.

    5. learn info much quicker and m

      This is rather vague and imprecise (homework assignments should be a bit more formal - a general response if fine for reading responses).

    6. Rhythm is one thing that Ong discusses as a very important part of learning something orally. Repetition, patterns, breathing processes and gestures are all things that make it easier for people to learn something orally.

      Good - these are key points Ong makes, and directly relevant to the composition of the Sundiata text.

      Remember to support your analysis with textual evidence and textual examples.

    7. He compares it to picture and video saying that sound could never be stopped like a movie could into pictures.

      Yes, that is one of his most compelling analogies. We can imagine doing a "freeze frame" on video, and analyzing the composition, and visual texts more broadly make possible stasis. But (until recently) oral texts exist momentarily and can't be frozen, and thus dissected and manipulated and arrayed in space.

    1. writing for an audience,” not only encourages people to write more

      Yes, central to his argument.

    2. Thompson claims that in today’s age, there are a lot more writers than before, he adds that the usage of Internet and social media platforms have modified the way that writers carry themselves

      Excellent - this is indeed one of Thompson's key points. (Perhaps "carry themselves" could be a bit more precise).