124 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2018
    1. Esch, T., & Stefano, G.B. (2007). The neurobiology of love. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 49, 1-18.
    2. Bob, P. (2008). Dissociation and Neurobiological Consequences of Traumatic Stress. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 50, 9-14.
    3. Further studies in this field are needed to pay attention especially to modern a detailed evaluation of brain activity in the group of impulsively aggressive perpetrator
    4. the correlation of increased impulsiveness and hypofrontality in individuals in the second stage of alcoholism,
    5. t is likely that the cognitive deficit related to impulsive forms of aggressive behavior could be located in a single cortical area
    6. possible existence of a neurophysiologic correlate for impulsively aggressive delinquent behavior in the framework of the “uncontrolled affect”.
    7. results suggest a presence of cognitive deficits and/or attentional system deficits, and likely the existence of a specific sensory system in individuals with impulsively aggressive behav
    8. mpulsive agresive behavior may have a different neurophysiological corelates and therefore from the clinical and forensic point of view represent a totally different category from non-impulsive aggressive behavior.
    9. significantly higher occurrence of specific and non-specific EEG changes in offenders of violent criminal activity evaluated as impulsive, non-deliberate, affectively motivated and affectively aggressive
    10. neither specific nor non specific EEG findings as predictors of criminal behavior in general
    11. more advanced recording techniques, higher numbers of electrodes placed, and better artifact control may be responsible for the differences from earlier results
    12. previously reported findings of a general increase in nonspecific EEG abnormalities associated with violent recidivism in general (Pillman et al., 1999) were not confirmed by our investigation.
    13. recidivism

      recommitting a crime

    14. significant EEG abnormalities only in the group of impulsive criminals
    15. mpulsive aggressive offenders shows the most significant difference in EEG abnormalities in comparison to healthy control
    16. the most significant difference is found in total count of EEG abnormalities and alpha abnormalities.
    17. Different statistical significance in delta or theta abnormality was not found even between groups of impulsive criminals and control group

      maybe delta & theta waves do not influence the aggressiveness/whatever drives them to commit crimes?

    18. Total count of abnormalities was found as the most significant differentiating parameter among studied group
    19. 70% of subjects show an EEG abnormality and multiple abnormalities were found in 35%. Non-impulsive delinquents still show higher rate of EEG abnormalities incidence - 30% and multiple abnormalities in 5%. Other groups – thefts and control group show no significant EEG changes.
    20. anamnesis


    21. Four groups of subjects were compared in the study.
      1. offenders of violent criminal activity: impulsive, non-deliberate, affectively motivated, affectively aggressive

      2. control group: no criminal activity and no mental disorder

      3. violently deliberating behaving delinquents: non-impulsive

      4. delinquents performing property criminal activities, non-violent, non-impulsive

    22. to find specific changes in EEG in persons with three types of criminal behavior without psychiatric history in comparison to healthy controls.
    23. impairment of left hemisphere functions may enhance the propensity for violent behavior in a subgroup of offenders

      but why? is there a specific reason?

    24. focal abnormalities, however, especially of the left hemisphere, were related to a significantly higher number of violent offenses

      was there a reason why abnormalities in the left hemisphere in specific affected their violent tendencies?

    25. paroxysmal activity

      sudden recurrence/intensification of symptoms (like spasm/seizure)

    26. the studies suffered from methodological problems.

      what methodological problems? how does thus study differ in method?

    1. Elliot FA. Neurology of aggression and episodic dyscontrol.Semin Neurol1990;10:303–12
    2. Kandel E. Biology, violence and antisocial personality.JForensic Sci1992;37:912–18.
    3. Raine A, Meloy JR, Bihrle S,et al. Reduced prefrontal andincreased subcortical brain functioning assessed usingpositron emission tomography in predatory and aVectivemurderers.Behav Sci Law1998;16:319–32.
    4. Krakowski M, Czobor P, Carpenter MD,et al. Communityviolence and inpatient assaults: neurobiological deficits.JNeuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci1997;9:549–55.
    5. Blake PY, Pincus JH, Buckner C. Neurologic abnormalitiesin murderers.Neurology1995;45:1641–7
    6. Foster HG, Hillbrand M, Silverstein M. Neuropsychologi-cal deficit and aggressive behavior: a prospective study.ProgNeuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry1993;17:939–46.
    7. Pennington BF, OzonoVS. Executive functions anddevelopmental psychopathology.J Child Psychol Psychiatry1996;37:51–87.
    8. Hare RD, McPherson LM. Violent and aggressive behaviorby criminal psychopaths. Special issue: empirical ap-proaches to law and psychiatry.Int J Law Psychiatry1984;7:35–50
    9. Hare RD, Harpur TJ, Hakstian AR,et al. The revisedpsychopathy checklist: reliability and factor structure.Psy-chol Assess1990;2:338–41
    10. Pincus JH. Aggression, criminality, and the frontal lobes. In:Miller BL, Cummings JL, eds,The human frontal lobes:func-tions and disorders. New York: The Guildford Press, 1999
    11. forensically informed, interdiscipli-nary approach that integrates neuropsychiat-ric, neuropsychological, and psychophysiologi-cal methods for the study of brain localisation,social cognition, and emotional processing

      can such a large study be done?

    12. neuropsychiatric evaluation of violentpatients should include clinical assessment forfrontal lobe impairment and neuropsychologi-cal evaluation of executive functions,
    13. Accurate measurement of theincreased risk of violence in subjects with pre-frontal dysfunction also requires comparisonwith rates of aggression in appropriate controls

      different brain impairments = different levels of anger?

    14. future studies testing the relation betweenfrontal lobe dysfunction and aggression shouldincorporate controls for known risk factorscontributing to violent behaviour

      good solution, but there's sOOO many factors to consider

    15. The actual frequency of violent behav-iour, however, seems relatively low

      more likely to express aggression due to mental capacities but violence is not likely -- why? perhaps influenced by other factors (upbringing?)

    16. focal orbitofron-tal injury specifically impairs capacities forsocial judgment, risk avoidance, and empathythat inhibit inappropriate or reflexive aggres-sion
    17. Retrospective data strongly support alink between the disinhibited type of frontalnetwork syndrome and aggressive dyscontrol
    18. Retrospective

      looking back on/dealing w/ past situations

    19. Executivefunction deficits, therefore, may increase therisk of violence via direct eVects on impulsecontrol or through associated psychosocialeVects, or both, either interactively or inde-pendently
    20. Resulting educational and social failure likelycontribute to aggressive and antisocial lifeadaptation,
    21. d poverty.4Studies of subjects with acquired frontal lobeinjury support the expected association ofincreased aggression with focal orbitofrontal,or ventromedial frontal injury
    22. few studies attributing violent crime tofrontal lobe dysfunction adequately addressconcurrent psychosocial variables

      do not account for other variables that could attribute to violent crimes

    23. grossmeasures of brain function with low specificityand questionable clinical significance, whilefailing suYciently to relate the clinical data tothe specific aggressive behaviours in question
    24. do not mirror the gen-eral population or even the larger criminalpopulation.
    25. lack of prospective data, small subjectnumbers and lack of adequate controls forknown violence risk factors
    26. Subjects with both traumatic and neurodegen-erative disorders primarily involving the pre-frontal cortex display increased rates of aggres-sive and antisocial behaviour compared withsubjects who have no, or non-frontal braininjury. Studies employing neuropsychologicaltesting, neurological examination, EEG, andneuroimaging have also tended to find evi-dence for increased rates of prefrontal networkdysfunction among aggressive and antisocialsubjects. Prefrontal network dysfunction seemsto be most specifically associated with a recur-rent, impulsive subtype of aggression that maycontribute to some violent behaviour.

      summary of results

    27. The reportedreductions in prefrontal size or activity may,therefore, represent a predisposition to aVec-tive states relevant to aggressive behaviour,without necessarily signifying an incapacity toavoid actual violent acts.
    28. These inconsistenciesmay reflect variation related to experimentalconditions, limitations of imaging technology,or subject selection. Most of the subjects inthese studies had known or suspected psychiat-ric disorders potentially contributing to altera-tions in prefrontal function.
    29. a strong associationbetween increased aggression and reducedprefrontal cortical size or activity
    30. AVective mur-derers had significantly lower prefrontal meta-bolic activity compared with controls, whereasfrontal metabolism in predatory murderersresembled controls

      affective murderers are impulsive, thus they're decision-making would be impaired/they would not think their actions through whereas predatory murderers actively decide and plan to kill

    31. aVective

      affective murderer: impulsive, reactive, & emotional

    32. predatory

      predatory murderer: planned, purposeful, & emotionless

    33. do not represent violent criminals in general.The mere presence of EEG abnormalities orfrontal neurological signs also does not explainwhether, or how, such findings contributed tobehaviour at the time of an alleged crime

      limitations in their studies

    34. clinical signs offrontal lobe dysfunction are prevalent in popu-lations of persons prone to violent and antiso-cial behaviour
    35. Table 1

      summary of psychological study findings (frontal lobe function in aggressive and antisocial subjects)

    36. Table 2

      summary of neuroimaging studies in violent and aggressive subjects

    37. Persistently violent patients, however, hadsignificantly more frontal lobe impairmentthan transiently violent patients and theirbehaviour seemed less responsive to environ-mental factors.

      different types of violence can be connected to different levels of frontal lobe damage/impairment?

    38. EEG

      a test used to find problems related to electrical activity in the brain

    39. abnormal frontal EEG activ-ity, as well as diminished frontal event relatedpotentials, correlating with antisocial personal-ity disorder or histories of aggression
    40. In populations with prior risk of antisocialbehaviour or aggression, the presence ofexecutive function deficits may have value inassessing the future likelihood of aggression
    41. these neuropsychological studiestend to support a significant associationbetween prefrontal executive dysfunction

      "...measured by neuropsychological testing and increased antisocial and aggressive behaviour."

      not necessarily; many of these studies were circumstantial (even more research bias)

    42. psychopathic criminals showed sig-nificant deficits on tests specifically selected toassess orbitofrontal and ventromedial function-ing.

      could signify that psychopaths do, in fact, have a brain injury/mental impairment that should be looked into

    43. A prospective study found that low scores onexecutive function tests significantly predictedself reported aggression in 10 to 12 year oldboys with paternal histories of substancemisuse
    44. comorbid attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) mostlikely accounted for deficits in frontal executivefunction linked with adolescent conduct disor-der, but considered that ADHD might worsenaggression in such cases

      ADHD can cause impaired executive function linked to lack of "adolescent conduct" and ADHD may even worsen aggression

    45. executivefunction

      necessary cognitive processes linked to controlling behaviours and achieving goals

    46. All of these studies were retrospective, andmost did not adequately control for knownviolence risk factors.
    47. focal mediofrontal

      injury specifically in the medial frontal cortex (decision-making)

    48. subjects with lesions limited to thefrontal lobes tended to show more aggressiveand violent behaviours compared with patientswith non-frontal head injury and controlswithout head injury.

      frontal lobe injury can cause impaired judgement, impulse control, and problem-solving

    49. cohorts of warveterans with head injury have also tended tofind an association between frontal lobe lesionsand aggressive or antisocial behaviou
    50. Case reports have described a similarsyndrome of “acquired sociopathy” in personswho had ventromedial prefrontal injury inadulthood.14–
    51. al-though the prevalence of actual violent crimeseems small

      although they exhibit aggressive behaviour, it is not likely they would commit another crime due to their injury or change in behaviour (could be related to their war background?)

    52. ventromedial prefrontal injury

      processing of risk and fear

      • damage to this cortex would mean they have less of a grasp on "social risk", thus more likely to do "morally-wrong" actions
    53. gross dysregulation of aVect and behaviourmay occur while cognitive, motor, and sensoryfunctioning remain relatively intact.

      can be compared to Phineas Gage

    54. orbitofrontal cortex


    55. (1)studies relating clinical focal frontal lobe disor-ders to violent behaviour; (2) studies reportingneuropsychological measures of frontal lobefunction in aggressive and antisocial subjects;(3) studies of clinical neurological findings inviolent and criminal populations; and (4) neu-roimaging studies of aggressive and violentsubjects

      (2) and (4) are empirical research

    56. “Violence” refers to actions that inflict physicalharm in violation of social norms.
    57. aggression as anythreatening or physically assaultive behaviourdirected at persons or the environment
    58. clinical, laboratory, or neuropsycho-logical test data relating frontal lobe function toaggression, crime, or violence

      secondary research; due to the database search, this could completely eliminate studies that contradict it, thus skewing the articles in favor of the hypothesis (research bias)

    59. the strength of this hypothesised associ-ation has yet to be established

      lack of empirical research in the field supporting this hypothesis; based on beliefs?

    60. Methods

      critical review; compiled information from research articles and studies is used to provide evidence for the connection between frontal lobe dysfunction and violent/aggressive behavior

    61. To establish the link betweenfrontal lobe dysfunction and violent andcriminal behaviour, based on a review ofrelevant literature.
    62. Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction inviolent and criminal behaviour

      definitely relates to how i want to incorporate neuropsychiatry (more accurate than neurobiology) into my project

    63. Neuropsychiatry

      difference between neurobiology and neuropsychiatry:

      neurobiology: study of cells in the nervous system, and how the nervous system affects neurological function and behaviour

      neuropsychiatry: medical specialty for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders relating mental disorders to disordered brain function

    1. Aim of this research was to determine whether differences in clinical picture of psy-chopathy (on the basis of which subtypes of psychopathy are identified) reflect differences in pathology of personality organization (integration)



    1. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 19: 109–124 (2009)DOI: 10.1002/cbmFamily factors inthe intergenerational transmission of offending


    1. discovering the exact origin and process in devel-oping this skill remains elusive but an important topic for future research
    2. But thatuntrained and inexperienced chemistry students can produce relatively accu-rateprofilesarguesthatinvestigativeexperienceisnottheonlyroutetodevel-oping this skill

      profiling experience can be obtained by simply looking at the case from an analytical point of view

    3. Thepolicedetectivesinourgroupdidnothaveanyspecifictrainingat profiling and, as such, may have had only raw knowledge from experiencethat, for whatever reason, was not effectively applied to this case

      but what is the reason????

    4. erroneous

      wrong, incorrect

    5. arebasedonprejudiceorotherbiasestheyhavelearnedovertheyearsandnotconsistent with the actual relationships in the real world.

      detectives possess biases due to their experience in the field

    6. the more experience youget investigating crime, the more that experience gets in the way of makingsense of the data regarding a crime under investigation and so the worse youdo at profiling
    7. Per-haps, the true cause of effective profiling may be something correlated withthe attainment of or willingness to pursue higher education

      thus what the detective said earlier was wrong, education can argue against experience

    8. The most apparent common element to all of these groups istheir current enrollment in or completion of a degree within a university
    9. Thegroupsthatseemedtodothebestinourstudywereuniversitystudentsand the police recruits, all of whom were currently enrolled in a universitydiploma program
    10. Indeed, the sampledrecruits were selected under a new police recruitment program that requiresthat all recruits to enroll in and complete a university diploma.
    11. Thus, the observed trend in perfor-mance may, to some degree, be a derivative of the evolving criteria for policerecruitment and training
    12. One possibility relates to the varying generations from whicheach of the sampled police groups actually originate.
    13. these findings not support the role of investigative experienceas the key to effective profiling
    14. congruent

      in agreement

    15. Indeed, the profiler training program of the FBI iden-tifies seniority and accomplishment in policing as essential prerequisites forits training program


    16. Although entrance to profiling training programs such as the oneoffered by the FBI requires seniority and accomplishment as a police officer,we wonder based on these results whether this policy is worth reexamining
    17. the chemistry students equaled or outperformed allpolice groups on all but the cognitive responses measure of accuracy.
    18. performance was inversely related to experience
    19. Homicide detectives answered significantly fewer questions correctlyabout social history and habits of the offender than did the police recruits


    20. we anticipated that homicidedetectives would outperform senior detectives, who would outperformtrainee detectives, who would outperform police
    21. Second, we recruited a group of college students majoring in chemistry tocompletetheprocedure
    22. Weemployed two control groups as a performance standard. First, as in our pre-vious study, we asked a group of people to fill out the questionnaire withoutproviding them any information whatsoever about the specific case except itstype (i.e., murder).
    23. This allowed for the examination of the accuracy of the four groups com-pared to the accuracy obtained by luck or simple knowledge of the social ste-reotype of the typical murder.

      why is the control group random people? :/

    24. Participants

      is this a representative sample?

    25. First, a group of senior police detectives who possessedsubstantial experience in criminal investigations participated. Second, werecruited a group of detectives who specialized in the investigation of homi-cide. Third, to contrast investigative experience to general experience as apolice officer, a sample of trainee detectives who possessed significant expe-rience in police general duties but only a marginal amount of experience incriminal investigations was obtained. Finally, a sample of police recruits wasalso used.
    26. In the current study, the accuracy of four distinct groups of police person-nel was examined.
    27. he importance of investigativeexperience is premised on the quantity of experience being correlated withprofiling performance.
    28. the unex-pectedly poor performance of the police deserves further examination
    29. the police were no more accurate than anyone else in their depiction oftheoffender
    30. several skillsthat they regard as necessary for effective profiling, among them being anunderstanding of the criminal mind, investigative experience, an ability tothink logically and objectively, and intuition.
    31. Psychological profiling is the investigativetechnique of analyzing crimebehaviors for the identification of probable offender characteristics
    32. empirical research

      research that derives experience from actual experience rather than theories/beliefs