678 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. Queer

      Why is queer the preferred word here? Would "homosexual" or something along those lines be a more accurate and politically correct word?

    2. Nobody feels comfortable getting naked in front of strangers—especially teenagers.”

      This is essentially what I said in an earlier annotation. Locker rooms are a big part of bullying and anxiety, and they have no place in a modern system that values students' mental and physical health so greatly.

    3. At least in part, “men who are supporting this are reasserting a protective role.”

      The fact that the fear of rape is being used as an excuse is crazy. If women are scared of being raped in public restrooms, perhaps the real issue is lack of police enforcement and protection in these environment and not the people using them.

    4. These numbers suggest nervousness about fluid gender identities—and that America isn’t even close to a consensus that men and women should choose the way they act.

      Again, these sound like older times when people would prefer that blacks stick with their jobs and whites with the others. The refusal of people integrating and accepting others is downright horrific in a society as modern as America.

    5. they wear their gym clothes under their regular clothes so they never have to be naked at school; or they’re late for class because of the time they spend looking for an empty restroom.

      These honestly sound like problems that anyone would have with other people in general. I, personally, don't care if a person looking at me identifies as something else sexually, I don't like being seen naked at all. I'm sure many other students feel this way, and perhaps it's time for a change in how schools have people change clothes and get naked regardless of identification.

    6. a way of thinking about the Bible as the word of God.”

      It's also interesting to note that the Bible contains stories of same-sex relations as well, including the Romans. While many Christians may claim the Bible lays the foundation for traditional values, it also lays the frame for homosexuality as well.

    7. conviction rather than bigotry.

      In the older times, people would tend to claim that there are actual biological differences between Africans and Whites, which helped to justify their separation. Similar treatment is present here, which helps people try and cover up bigotry with phony reasoning.

    8. While these bathroom bills may be a temporary flare-up, the divisions underlying them are foundational, and unlikely to be resolved by the Supreme Court or the Justice Department.

      It is interesting to not that race relations began with trivial matters such as train cars and bus rides, but eventually moved on to bigger issues. Perhaps the focus of these smaller things is to initiate a change, regardless of how small they are.

    9. “religion.”

      Religion has no place in government, as the separation of church and state is a major principle of US government, The fact that religion is essentially the sole reasoning against these laws is a bit preposterous and should be addressed.

    10. The idea that someone might not identify with the gender that corresponds to the sex assigned to them at birth directly contradicts those categories. “Anything that challenges that idea, of the clarity of gender, is really suspect. It’s anxiety-producing, and it makes people angry,” Griffith said.

      This goes along with my previous annotation about religiosity rates and societal dysfunction. It has an alienating affect, similar to Jim Crow laws and other private institutions.

    11. The two motivations—conviction and bigotry—are difficult to tease apart.

      The reason for this is that motivation is almost impossible, if not impossible, to prove in most instances.

    12. The exemption language tends to echo that in the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, a federal law that’s been emulated by many states, which was designed to protect Americans from being forced to violate their religious beliefs

      https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308 This site is from a government site, summarizing the act and giving other information. The argument is that churches have a religious exemption. They do not claim bigotry, but rather, their own right to do what they believe to be right and just. Personally, I attended a Catholic church a few days after the legalization of same-sex marriage, and the Priest was not hateful, but his sermon came from a place of concern for the ideals of the church.

    13. The law is an imperfect tool for shaping culture—a back-up cudgel for times when softer methods of persuasion don’t work.

      This rings true in historical context of racial discrimination as well. Take the institution and laws that enforced slavery for so long. Then, even when slavery was abolished and the state recognized the severe discrimination around the Civil Rights Movement era, the laws governing the 50 states, especially in the south, were not able to change the feelings and sentiments in the Old South.

  2. atlspaceplacerhetf16.robinwharton.net atlspaceplacerhetf16.robinwharton.net
    1. The narrow streets surrounding the Opera and the hazards to which pedestrians were exposed on emerging from this theater, which is always besieged by carriages, gave a group of speculators in 1821 the idea of using some of the structures sepa­rating the new theater from the boulevard. / This enterprise, a source of riches for its originators, was at the same time of great benefit to the public.

      The streets of Paris in the 1870s are a bit reminiscent of Atlanta, though not for exactly the same reasons. Parts of Atlanta, like Paris at this time, are not very accommodating to pedestrians because of the introduction of vehicles. The arcades introduced a safer and easier way for pedestrians to reach the opera while also benefiting businesses, and I can't help but think that this could be a possible solution for Atlanta's lack of pedestrian access/desirability.

    2. “The arcades are sad, gloomy, and always intersecting in a manner disagreeable to the eye. . . . They seem . . . destined to house lithographers’ stu­dios and binders’ shops, as the adjoining street is destined for the manufacture of straw hats; pedestrians generally avoid them.”

      This description of the arcades is drastically different from those we came across before. Throughout the article, the arcades have been described as teeming with business, commerce, life, and diversity, with a multitude of shops, consumers, and flaneurs. In stark contrast, this description characterizes the closed-in alleyways as "sad" and "gloomy." I can only assume that lithographers' studios and binders' shops are equally as gloomy and dull, since, according to the author of this particular quote, are doomed to populate the arcades. What, I wonder, happened to the useful, lively arcades Benjamin described in the beginning of the excerpt?

    3. Trade and traffic are the two components of the street. Now, in the arcades thesecond of these has effectively died out: the traffic there is rudimentary. Thearcade is a street of lascivious commerce only; it is wholly adapted to arousingdesires. Because in this street the juices slow to a standstill, the commodityproliferates along the margins and enters into fantastic combinations, like thetissue in tumors.—The flaneur sabotages the traffic. Moreover, he is no buyer. Heis merchandise.

      According to Benjamin, there are two components of the streets, but the arcades are notably lacking in one, which differentiates them. While there is abundant trade, the flaneurs managed to "sabatoge traffic" by their nature. Their purpose is not to simply get from place to place--they have purpose. They simply observe, and that's what make them merchandise--they add character to the arcades and are, as the Citylab article describes, amazed with their findings.

      Bliss, Laura. "Pokémon Go Has Created a New Kind of Flâneur." CityLab. The Atlantic Magazine, 12 July 2016. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    4. Passage Vero-Dodat.

      This map shows the location of a number of the remaining arcades in relation to each other.


      Arcades Map. Digital image. The Telltale Blog, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2016. http://telltaleblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/secret-passages-of-paris-map.jpg.

    5. A

      The Passages of Paris and Benjamin's Mind by Herbert Muschamp details the rich history surrounding Benjamin's "Arcades Project" and the influence it had on the city of Paris. Though left incomplete on Benjamin's death in 1940, "The Arcades Project" nevertheless remains one of the most important urban analyses of the time. Benjamin was born to a Jewish art dealer in Berlin. He was educated there, but the Paris Arcade Project began in 1927 as a newspaper article. The manuscript was recovered by essayist George Batailles and was later taken to the Bibliotheque National in Paris. In the many sections of his analysis, Benjamin included both his own reflections and a vast amount of research material, which includes passages from other historical and architectural sources. Benjamin considered this type of building the most important during his time period because they signaled the end of an age production and the beginning of an era of consumption.

      The article describes the arcade as a building type that predated Haussmann's grand boulevards. Essentially, the arcades were pedestrian passages between buildings--alleyways with iron and glass roofs over top of them. They were typically lined with shops and small restaurants, or tea rooms. The other even goes so far to describe the arcades as "the embryo of the suburban mall." Surprisingly, the arcades had been left behind, for the most part, when Benjamin was in Paris, Haussmann Boulevards having ripped through Paris to make room for new urban fantasies. Benjamin, however, was still a bit stuck on the old ones. He remains fixed on the "phantasmagoria" that exists in the arcades, and his criticism aims to bring awareness to his readers and "release them from the hold of manufactured states of mind," which are oftne proliferated by the architects of this age.

      Muschamp, Herbert. "The Passages of Paris And of Benjamin's Mind." The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Jan. 2000. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    6. Passage du Caire. Erected after Napoleon’s return from Egypt. Contains some evocations of Egypt in the reliefs—sphinx-like heads over the entrance, among other things.
    7. During sudden rainshowers, the arcades are a place of refuge for theunprepared, to whom they offer a secure, if restricted, promenade—one fromwhich the merchants also benefit.”

      Throughout our texts and even my own research and observations, two of most common influences on the built environment I've noticed are necessity and commerce. Like it says later on in the article, the arcades were constructed in order to prevent opera-goers from getting wet in the rain.Then, rather organically, shops began to populate the areas. According to the New York Times article, "at one time, more than 300 arcades punctuated the Paris cityscape." It's fairly clear that the success of the arcades meant that more and more appeared throughout the city of Paris.

      Muschamp, Herbert. "The Passages of Paris And of Benjamin's Mind." The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Jan. 2000. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    8. The physiognomy of the arcade emerges with Baudelaire in a sentence at the beginning of “Le Joueur genereux”: “It seemed to me odd that I could have passed this enchanting haunt so often without suspecting that here was the entrance.”

      The "physiognomy" or outward appearance of the arcades, as described by Beaudelaire, is unsuspecting and easily overlooked, much like the hidden places described in the NPR article about Atlas Obscura. Like the Time Square Hum, the arcades, a marvel of architecture and Parisian culture, blend in seamlessly with the environment. It serves as a reminder that, in the middle of the busy streets, "is this kind of little gem waiting for you if you're willing to sort of slow down, look around, listen and kind of start asking questions" as Thuras says in the article. This is much like the flaneurs that Beaudelaire himself described.

      Shapiro, Ari. "'Atlas Obscura' Tour Of Manhattan Finds Hidden Wonders In A Well-Trodden Place." NPR. NPR, 20 Sept. 2016. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    9. Shops in the Passage des Panoramas: Restaurant Veron, reading room, musie^J \) shop, Marquis, wine merchants, hosier, haberdashers, tailors, bootmakers, ho-) siers, bookshops, caricaturist, Theatre des Varietes. Compared with this, the Pas-' sage Vivienne was the “solid” arcade. There, ,one found no luxury shops


      From the image and description of the Passage de Panoramas, it is clear that these arcades were, in "the embryo of suburban shopping malls," offering a wide variety attractions, and even restaurants.

      Passage de Panorama. Digital image. Paris Tourist Office, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2016. http://en.parisinfo.com/var/otcp/sites/images/media/1.-photos/80.-photos-sugar/lieux-de-loisirs-et-de-culture/passage-des-panoramas-%7C-630x405-%7C-%C2%A9-otcp-marc-bertrand/10653601-1-fre-FR/Passage-des-Panoramas-%7C-630x405-%7C-%C2%A9-OTCP-Marc-Bertrand.jpg.

      Muschamp, Herbert. "The Passages of Paris And of Benjamin's Mind." The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Jan. 2000. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    10. nd those who cannot pay for . . . a shelter? They sleep wherever they find aplace, in passages, arcades, in corners where the police and the owners leave them undisturbed.”

      This is a good example of the use of public for the benefit of all, and it is the exact opposite of the the Yale Law Journal article we read. Instead of discriminating against a certain class of people by altering the physical environment, shop owners and even law enforcers allow their presence and gladly share the space. This exemplifies the diversity of the city and the overall accessibility of the arcades.

    11. There were two parallel lanes covered by canvas and planks, with a few glass panes to let the daylight in. Here one walked quite simply on the packed earth, which downpours sometimes transformed into mud. Yet people came from all over to crowd into this place, which was nothing short of mag­nificent, and stroll between the rows of shops that would seem like mere booths compared to those that have come after them

      In his essay on Atlas Obscura (Joshua Foer et al.), Ali Shapiro reminds us that the world is filled with 'astounding stuff' still waiting to be discovered. Atlas Obscura is a "guide tot eh worlds' hidden wonders" (Shapiro) that details those wonders of the world that people tend to overlook. One of the book's writers, Dylan Thuras, took Shapiro on a tour of Manhattan to find some of these hidden gems in his own backyard. Projects like Atlas Obscura and the Arcades Project serve a crucial purpose in a world where day to day life has become far to monotonous. Especially in the 21st century, where we live and die by our routines, we often miss the amazing environments and creations around us. It's important to go out and find these places, as they provide a much needed escape from the daily grind. These places are all around us, all we need to do is look for them.

      Shapiro, Ali. “‘Atlas Obscura’ Tour Of Manhattan Finds Hidden Wonders In A Well-Trodden Place.” NPR.org. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://www.npr.org/2016/09/20/494733654/atlas-obscura-tour-of-manhattan-finds-hidden-wonders-in-a-well-trodden-place.

    12. This passage is the locus classicus for the presentation of the arcades; for notonly do the divagations on the flaneur and the weather develop out of it, but,also, what there is to be said about the construction of the arcades, in an eco­nomic and architectural vein, would have a place
    13. Rue-galerie.—“The street-gallery . . . is the most important feature of a Phalan­stery and . . . cannot be conceived of in civilization. . . . Street-galleries . . . are heated in winter and ventilated in summer. .

      You can tell that the arcades were important to people because they put in great effort to keep them functional and comfortable year round.

    14. Rainshowers annoy me, so I gave one the slip in an arcade. There are a great many of these glass-covered walkways, which often cross through the blocks of buildings and make several branchings, thus affording welcome shortcuts. Here and there they are constructed with great elegance, and in bad weather or after dark, when they are lit up bright as day, they offer promenades—and very popu­lar they are—past rows of glittering shops

      I find it interesting the different circumstances that lead people to discover new places. For Deverient, the weather led him to discover the novelty of the arcades. Whether or not we go out in search of new places, we seem to find them eventually. This discovery only happens in cities like Paris and Atlanta, where walkability allows for more flexible routes.

    15. The second floor contains the street-galleries. . . . Along the length of the great avenues, . . . they form street-salons. . . . The other, much less spacious galleries are decorated more modestly. They have been reserved for retail businesses that here display their merchandise in such a way that passersby circulate no longer in front of the shops but in their interior.” Tony Moilin, Paris en Pan 2000

      This passage reminded me of a topic we discussed in our Mapping class. We talked extensively of how in the 1950s and 1960s, a lot of buildings were demolished for being multipurpose establishments, much like the ones discussed here. A lot of the buildings were occupied for retail purposes on the bottom floor and housing purposes on the top floors. This was deemed and unfit living condition due to the fact that people in the mid-1900s believed that it was bad for one's mental health to live in such an establishment. It is interesting to see how similiar multipurpose buildings began to spring up in the late 1800s and were subsequently demolished, in the US at least, just 50-odd years later. Ironically enough, more and more of the same building models are beginning to resurface today. Atlanta is growing at such a rapid pace that developers are having to contiually expand upward.

    16. Evidently people smoked in the arcades at a time when it was not yet customary to smoke in the street. “I must say a word here about life in the arcades, favored haunt of strollers and smokers, theater of operations for every kind of small business

      It seems like the arcades were a sort of escape from constricting societal norms. The arcades were a place where people felt leniency.

    17. The king, the queen, the royal family, when they get into or out of their carriages, are forced to get as wet as any petty bourgeois who summons a cab before his shop. Doubtless the king will have on hand, in the event of rain, a good many footmen and courtiers to hold an umbrella for him . . . ; but he will still be lacking a porch or a roof that would shelter his party. . . .

      This note of Benjamin's highlights the equalizing power that arcades held. While the Royal family may have certain commodities that others don't, it is very likely that when visiting the markets, they will become wet and muddy just like all the commoners. The arcades show no bias to its visitors. The Royal family is just as succeptable to all the gross, dampness of the arcades on a rainy day as anyone else would be. This note is particularly important because it emphasizes how diverse the arcades are in regards to their customers. Because of such diversity, the markets create a sense of community between the rich and the poor, withering away at the extremely classist nature of French society.

    18. Lining both sides of these corridors, whichget their light from above, are the most elegant shops, so that the arcade is a city,a world in miniature □ Flaneur □, in which customers will find everything theyneed

      Arcades are large buildings that house a plethora of small shops and merchants, selling to the general public. The stores offer a wide variety of goods, ranging from clothing to food and drink. A parallel in society today would be Atlanta's city markets, such as the Ponce City and Krog Street Markets.

    19. In other respects as well, the theater in those days provided the vocabulary forarticles of fashion.

      One main argument being presented in this article is that the cityscape in a certain time period can be credited for altering certain aspects of that time's culture as well. Here, the author is arguing that theater had an effect on women's clothing choices. Heavier fabrics were exchanged for lighter ones, even in winter. This shows how the built environment contributes to the culture of the region of the area, similarly to how these arcades were indicative of behavioral patterns in French society.

    20. The argument by M. Pour in favor of the arcades takes the form of verse. An extract:We whom they would banish—we are more than useful.Have we not, by virtue of our cheerful aspect,Encouraged all of Paris in the fashionOf bazaars, those marts so famous in the East?And what are these walls the crowd admires? These ornaments, these columns above all?You’d think you were in Athens; and this temple Is erected to commerce by good taste. (Pp. 29—30

      French poets and playwrights of this time seem to surround a large amount of their writings around the arcades. Arcades could be the beginning of the cutural importance modern society puts on shopping. It brings many people to a crowded place, increasing potential for socializing or even romance.

    21. Lacenaire

      Pierre Francois Lacenaire was a notorious French murderer and poet. He did a lot of his writing while in prison, awaiting trial. After his death, there were many poems, plays, and other literature written about him. It was within an arcade, located at 271 Rue Saint-Martin in Paris that he committed a double murder.

    22. Because in this street the juices slow to a standstill, the commodityproliferates along the margins and enters into fantastic combinations, like thetissue in tumors.

      As stated by Muschamp in the article from the New York Times, Benjamin was a strong advocate for arcades. He believed "the Paris arcade was the most important building type of the 19th century." If that is true, then why does he compare the Parisian arcade to a tumor? He implies that the arcades block the ebb and flow of the city, much like a tumor disrupts normal functions within the human body. It is a very intriguing point for him to add to his novel, making me wonder what it's purpose is within his collection.

      Muschamp, Herbert. "ART/ARCHITECTURE: The Passage of Paris And of Benjamin's Mind." New York Times 16 Jan. 2000: n. pag. New York Times. Web.

    23. Evidently people smoked in the arcades at a time when it was not yet customary to smoke in the street. “I must say a word here about life in the arcades, favored haunt of strollers and smokers, theater of operations for every kind of small business.

      As mentioned in my last annotation, arcades were extremely diverse establishments. However, they provide variety not only in the array of stores available, but also in the kinds of people that frequented them. Socially, arcades were progressive in nature, accepting certain customs, such as public smoking, that weren't necesssarily accepted elsewhere. These places were more than simply shopping plazas; they were imperative to the identity of French society at the time. Arcades were facilitators of both commerce and community.

    24. Evolution of the department store from the shop that was housed in arcades.Principle of the department store: “The floors form a single space. They can betaken in, so to speak, ‘at a glance.’” Giedion, Bauen in Frankreich, p. 34. [A3,5]

      Here, Benjamin is trying to convey the lasting importance of arcades. He notes how these mini markets are the beginning of a culture centered on consumerism. One of the main components of consumerism are large-scale department stores, holding a wide variety of goods and services under the same roof. The arcades offered a more primitive version of similar large stores that we see today, such as Macy's and Target to name a few.

    25. “The coulisse3 guaranteed the ongoing life of the Stock Exchange. Here there was never closing time; there was almost never night.

      "The stores are felt to this animation, cafes remain open all night; everything is noise, laughter, gaiety, until the first light of dawn had replaced the expiring fires gas. "

      • Leo Lespes and Charles Bertrand, Paris-Album on the Passage de l'Opera
    26. The regime of specialties furnishes also—this said in passing—the historical-matrialist key to the flourishing (if not the inception) of genre painting in the Fortiesof the previous century

      The Arcades served as a catalyst for the spreading of art and knowledge. It could be said that the built environment was crucial for the flourishing of culture.

    27. People associated the “genius of the Jacobins with the genius of the industrials,”but they also attributed to Louis Philippe the saying: “God be praised, and myshops too.

      I think Phillipe may have been subtly adverstising his shops here. He relates his shops to God himself. Today, we see similar forms of advertising in which the product is compared to something people think they need.

    28. The magic columns of these palaces Show to the amateur on all sides,In the objects their porticos display,That industry is the rival of the arts.

      Herbert Muschamp's analysis of "The Arcades Project" offered an incredible amount of insight in to the structure of and ideas surrounding this work of literature. Muschamp first gives a background of author Walter Benjamin's life and ultimate tragic death in 1940. Benjamin's work was described as a series of notes and quotes he gathered in preparation to write an incredible novel about the life and culture of the French arcades. Unfortunately, he was unable to finish it, but from his notes alone, scholars were able to piece together his thoughts and identify his inspirations. Benjamin's inspiration were loosley gathered from Marxism, Surrealism, and the Enlightenment schools of thought. Much like the Surrealists, Benjamin wanted to rebel against conventional literature and art, and his collection is referred to by Muschamp as the "ultimate anti-book". Benjamin attempts to clear the air of the fog of romanticism and unveil the issues surrounding the Parisian markets beloved by so many. He addresses these areas with heavy skepticism in an effort to see the ugly side, consisting of debauchery, gambling, and prostitiution. In doing so, Benjamin created a very artistic collection of thoughts and notes, making a very paradoxical piece of literature many scholars regard very highly to this day.

      This article made this passage easier to comprehend. The scattered nature of the reading is extremely off-putting initially, but the article offered a lot of clarification. It is very easy to see how Benjamin's background and various ideologies play a part in his writings. A lot of the points he makes are very obviously from the Surrealistic school of thought. The way in which Benjamin sees these arcades is one of admiration, but at the same time, he is still wary of their effect on French society. He does not put them on a pedestal; instead he analyzes the arcades to the nth degree in order to truly understand these things he finds so fascinating. Many of the notes he gathered include the darker side of Parisian arcades, including prostitution and gambling. It almost seems as if he finds these arcades to be a kind of necessary evil in the evolution of French society at the time.

      Muschamp, Herbert. "ART/ARCHITECTURE: The Passage of Paris And of Benjamin's Mind." New York Times 16 Jan. 2000: n. pag. New York Times. Web.

    29. “The Passage du Caire is highly reminiscent, on a smaller scale, of the Passage du Saumon, which in the past existed on the Rue Montmartre, on the site of the present-day Rue Bachaumont.” Paul Leautaud, “Vieux Paris,” Mercure deFrance (October 15,1927), p.

      "Once the center of making straw hats who side with workshops printing and lithography, the passage of Cairo is now the heart of the industry and trade of tailoring. An exotic way, cluttered with various objects that also deserves to be restored ..." (Monique Joly, retired Paris teacher)

    30. “There, in the guise of a female glover, shone a beauty that was approachable but that, in the matter of youth, attached importance only to its own; she required her favorites to supply her with the finery from which she hoped to make a fortune. . . . This young and beautiful woman under glass was called ‘the Absolute’

      I'm assuming this is a response to some form of artwork found within the Passage Vero-Dodat. The emotional response to something part of a built environment is striking.

    31. I hate houses of more than one story, houses in which, by contrast with the social hierarchy, the meek are raised on high while the great are settled near the ground.

      This quote is very intriguing to me because the whole idea behind the cultural changes in the 18th-19th centuries was equality. Like Cuvillier noted, the architecture promotes inequality. The way society is structured, and the way things are built, it indirectly segregates people based on class and status.

    32. I do not at all hesitate to write—as monstrous as this may seem to serious writerson art__that it was the sales clerk who launched lithography. . . . Condemned toimitations of Raphael, to Briseises by Regnault, it would perhaps have died; the sales clerk saved it

      This quote shows how important the arcades were to culture and art. As Bouchot says, even the greatest Renaissance artists could not have saved the art works. It was the commoners and the shopkeepers that were vital to its survival.

    33. At this turning point in history, the Parisian shopkeeper makes two discoveries that revolutionize the world of la nouveaute

      The arcade is the site for many cultural revolutions to take place. In this case, it was the way shopkeepers keep their shops. We see these practices still used to this day that were originally started in the arcades.

    34. If an eruption of the hilltop of Montmartre happened to swallow up Paris, as Vesuvius swallowed up Pompeii, one would be able to reconstruct from our sign­boards, after fifteen hundred years, the history of our military triumphs and of our literature.”

      I find it very interesting that they were to do this. I also don’t think the location was a coincidence too. The arcades represent and show the culture of France in the present and past. So to go along with the signboards, any one who would have came across ruins of the arcades could also learn about the French culture.

    35. There are a great many of these glass-covered walkways, which often cross through the blocks of buildings and make several branchings, thus affording welcome shortcuts.

      This is an example of how the architecture has changed the culture and way of life for the people. Before, when it was raining or storming, it was very difficult to go out and shop for what you need. Now, with the glass panels, people can go out with ease and not have to worry about the weather.

    36. The Passage du Caire

      This an image of the Passage du Caire which was built in the heart of the French Revolution. The architecture reflects this time period. The citizens are France had to choose between the two paths that were a head of them, monarchy or democracy. This building represents that choice.

    37. Business, you see, sir, . . . is the ruler of the world!

      Capitalism was and still is a huge part of cultures all around the world, including France. The arcades are a direct result of capitalism

    38. What a cheerful air this small, half-darkened room has in my memory, with its high book­shelves, its green tables, its red-haired garqon (a great lover of books, who was always reading novels instead of bringing them to others), its German newspapers, £ every morning gladdened the heart of the German abroad (all except the ogne paper, which on average made an appearance only once in ten days)

      This is an example of what Shapiro writes about in her article. Julius Rosenberg found himself a hidden gem in the arcades. He didn’t find it because it was the most ornate store or the most prestigious. He found it because he was in awe of the atmosphere and culture of the store. He loved it because of its simplicity in design but extraordinary experience created by the arcades.

    39. the Pas-' sage Vivienne was the “solid” arcade. There, ,one found no luxury shops. □ Dream Houses: arcade as nave with side ch

      This quote directly relates to Shapiro’s article. Benjamin describes the Passage Vivienne as being “solid,” which he means it is the true arcade, what the arcade is really about. He also compares it to being the side chapels to the nave of a church, showing how it is not the main attraction in the arcades.

    40. Here (using sheep) the first experiments were conducted with the guillotine

      The guillotine is an important piece of the French culture during their revolution. It being invented in the arcades goes to show the arcades impact on the French culture.

    41. Trade and traffic are the two components of the street. Now, in the arcades thesecond of these has effectively died out: the traffic there is rudimentary.

      The culture in France has created a more social environment from which the arcades have been a result of. In stead of spreading the shops out like suburbanization in the U.S, they put them together to create a more connected society, culturally and economically

    42. Thesearcades, a recent invention of industrial luxury, are glass-roofed, marble-paneledcorridors extending through whole blocks of buildings, whose owners havejoined together for such enterprises

      The arcades were a recent invention, and it was due to a changing culture. The industrial revolution really sparked this change, from all of the decorations of the arcades, to the reason so many people were there. People were moving into the city to work in factories, in stead of traditionally working in the country side.

    43. Clerks

      Ari Shapiro’s article on "Atlas Obscura” which is a website, and now also a book, that is a guide to the world’s hidden gems and unknown places. Dylan Thuras is the co-founder of the website and the author of the book, and he meets up NPR and takes them on a tour of Manhattan. First, he takes them to City Hall Station that is after the last stop on the subway, and shows them the beautiful architecture and design of the forgotten station. He then takes them to an “earth-room,” after that, he takes them to a South American lunch counter in a freight entrance. It is very cheap, but also very good. It the result of the culture of the people in that area on a tighter budget, who can not afford expensive lunches. These hidden gems are everywhere, in every city, and all it takes is a little exploring to find them.

      The Arcades are an example of one of these hidden gems that was talked about in Shapiro’s article. The average person would not usually find the arcades, especially not the average tourist. Even when they do find it, there are so many things in the arcades that it is easy to walk right past some of the best places in the arcades. There are many places in the arcade like the South American lunch counter that served or still serves a purpose due to cultural needs or ways.

      Shapiro, Ari. "'Atlas Obscura' Tour Of Manhattan Finds Hidden Wonders In A Well-Trodden Place." NPR. NPR, 20 Sept. 2016. Web. 29 Sept. 2016.

    1. people can park on the street only if they live in the neighborhood and have a residential parking permit or are given a guest permit by a resident.

      I've noticed that in Atlanta, not a lot of people park on the street compared to other cities. There does, however, seem to be more parking decks than any other city I've ever been in.

    2. placement

      In "Five Places in Manchester that Cater for Children with Autism", the author describes how the Jump Nation trampoline center gates off a part of the jumping arena for kids with special needs to jump every month. This shows that the placement of certain barriers isn't always a bad or inhibiting thing. In the case of the jumping arena, it gives the children a safer place to jump and have fun without their parents worrying about their safety.

    3. Another common version of this phenomenon is one of the most obvious forms of architectural exclusion: the walls, gates, and guardhouses of gated communities.

      In my hometown of Carrollton, GA, there were multiple very large gated communities, but the crime in Carrollton was very low. There were rarely any break-ins. In Carrollton, the train tracks separated the predominately white side from the predominately black side, and most of the gated communities were close to the train tracks. It just goes to show that segregation in the form of architectural exclusion does still exist.

    4. many communities lack sidewalks and crosswalks, making it difficult to cross the street or walk through a neighborhood. Sometimes this is intentional.

      For my first Built Environment Description, I walked from Downtown Atlanta to the other side of Old Fourth Ward, but while I was walking through the center section of Old Fourth Ward, I noticed that there weren't many sidewalks. However, there's always sidewalks in Downtown and near Ponce City Market on the other side of Old Fourth Ward.

    5. A number of localities have used physical barriers to exclude

      In Atlanta, I've noticed that 75/85 acts as a barrier between downtown and the historically African American areas of Sweet Auburn and Old Fourth Ward.

    6. places have racial identities based on their history of or reputation for exclusion

      I've noticed this a lot in Atlanta. In places like Sweet Auburn Ave. and Old Fourth Ward, which have historically been African American neighborhoods, it's easy to see how the community now has been shaped by the history. Along with that comes the historical architecture of the area.

    7. ghettos and exclusionary suburbs are spatial entities

      I've never really thought of ghettos as spatial entities, but I guess they really are. I think that a ghetto implies that a culture of people is excluded from the rest of the world, so if everybody in that ghetto has similar beliefs, that makes it an entity.

    8. the architectural constraint is that it is physically difficult to reach or see the junk food, and thus it is harder to access.

      This is a perfect example of exclusion as a positive. Because the junk food is in the back, it gives people more incentive to eat healthier in a very subtle way.

    9. physical architecture as a constraint

      As opposed to Emma Gill, who acknowledges the role of physical architecture as an enabler.

    10. physical design regulates and that the built environment controls human behavior.

      I've never really thought about this before, and I completely agree with it. Since I moved to Atlanta, I've noticed how certain types of people all tend to live in the same place. When you visit a certain part of Atlanta, there's usually always a certain type of person that you'll expect to see.

    11. As a result, many planning decisions facilitate exclusion within cities.

      So the problem is do to the fact that planers are mainly concerned about the efficiency of traffic control. Perhaps if we were able to get rid of barriers and have a naturally racially mixed population in a city, "traffic logic" would be acceptable to prioritize.

    12. Many would also agree that architecture can be, and is, used to exclude.

      In my opinion, this is definitely a problem. If people are completely aware that architecture is being used to exclude, which is basically segregation, then why isn't it being fixed?

    13. However, as Lawrence Lessig has asserted, tools besides law may constrain or regulate behavior, and those tools function as additional forms of regulation.

      This article discusses how architectural is used as a form of regulation, which puts the observation of architectural exclusion into a legal context, but it's interesting to see how in the article "Five Places in Manchester that Cater for Children with Autism", the exclusion isn't legal at all. In fact, the architectural exclusion used in Manchester completely gets rid of the legal side of the argument by promoting equality, which I think is a step in the right direction.

    14. a park bench that is divided into three individual seats with armrests separating those seats.

      It's been a really long time since I've seen a park bench without armrests dividing it. When I was little I thought that they just designed them that way to give people some personal space, but it's interesting to see how something as simple as an armrest is placed into the larger topic of gentrification.

    15. And cities were constructed in ways—including by erecting physical barriers—that made it very difficult for people from one side of town to access the other side.

      This article, compared to "Five Places in Manchester that Cater for Children with Autism", focuses more on the negative side of architectural exclusion, which is understandable because I think that the word "exclusion" has historically had a very negative connotation. It's really great to see the city of Manchester turn exclusion into a positive thing.

    16. Architectural Exclusion

      This article describes the different techniques used by business's in Greater Manchester, England to cater to children with autism. There are five different examples that the articles uses, the first of which is the Jump Nation trampoline center. Jump Nation, like most of the other examples in the article, has autism friendly days or weekends once a month. At Jump Nation, during the autism friendly weekend, they close off half of the jumping arena and turn the music volume on soft for children with over-sensitivities. They also put up nets so the children don't fall off of something high and hurt themselves. Movie theaters are also trying to cater to children with autism. Most of the cinemas in Manchester have autism friendly movie days every month in which they keep the lights on low, the volume low, and completely get rid of the trailers before the movie. This also happens in most of Manchester's stage theaters. The Manchester museum also helps out. They'll do special labs for kids with autism in which they can come before the museum officially opens and learn from experts who cater to their learning disabilities. Finally, Manchester's Adventure Forest is an autism friendly play zone where kids can come and wonder around free without any worries of getting lost or hurt, and if the kids don't feel comfortable going off on their own, parents are more than welcome to come play with their children on the padded indoor playground. With all that said, it seems that Manchester is leading the way for other cities and countries to start looking out for the needs of children with disabilities.

      Gill, Emma. “Five Places in Manchester That Cater for Children with Autism.” Men, September 19, 2016. http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/whats-on/family-kids-news/five-places-manchester-cater-children-11906088.

    17. and although certain forms of exclusion can have beneficial results

      In "Five Places in Manchester that Cater for Children with Autism", Emma Gill describes ways that architectural exclusion can be a good thing, such as the Jump Nation trampoline center hosting monthly autism friendly jump weekends in which they turn the music volume down for children with over-sensitivities and put nets around the jump areas.

    18. those officials often act at the behest of their constituents

      If the elected officials don't follow the desires of a majority of their constituents, they risk losing following elections. By responding to the wants of the majority, they can create a situation in which they have supported those that can vote them into office again.

    19. most have not

      Why do many places not take action against these structures? In many of these areas, the people living within the gated communities are wealthy individuals. These homeowners are more likely to participate in decision making for the community because they have made a hefty investment, and they want to keep their area safe. If the cities take action to prevent these walled-off communities, it could cause the wealthy citizens to move to other areas, affecting revenues for the city.

    20. which, if the intent were clear, would not be permissible today

      I believe that this still occurs today, albeit in a much more subtle manner. Certain neighborhoods are given priority, and their resident's concerns are of much more importance. For this reason, there are aspects of the environment that deter the entrance of people that are not as affluent.

    21. practicing planners sometimes fail to afford sufficient weight to the concept of exclusion by design

      Some of these exclusions may not be due to the structures design or construction, but from the regulations pertaining to the business or family that moves into it. In many instances, the regulations surrounding a business are made to help the majority of people. Some of these rules make it harder for some minority groups, such as those with autism, to participate in activities. As time has progressed however, more people are being included, opening the doors for all members of society to be active participants.

    22. regulatory role of architecture

      Architecture definitely plays a role in the everyday lives of citizens. I do, however, think that these regulations are beginning to change in the built environment. As discussed in the article, "Five places in Manchester that cater for children with autism," these regulations are beginning to change in a way that allows a wider range of people to have access to the amenities that higher members of society have had access to forever.

    23. A

      In the article, “Five places in Manchester that cater for children with autism,” it discusses several business that have begun to accommodate children with special needs. In the past, there have been many businesses and structures in cities that have not made it possible for all types of people, including those with disabilities, special needs, and the elderly, to take advantage of them. However, change has begun to occur in many places. As the article discusses, there are now businesses and companies that are beginning to host events specifically for those people with autism. Some of these, such as movie theatres and play centres, have been difficult for children with autism to go to because they are generally full of a lot of guests, which can cause anxiety in some of these children.

      What this article shows is that not only are companies beginning to make accommodations so that more members of society are able to make use of their services, but society as a whole is progressing to include everyone. Autistic children were once not able to go to movies and attend large activities because the lights, sound, and sheer number of people could cause them to have bad anxiety. It is a way to ease the stress that presses down on the caretakers of the children, because they are unable to do activities with their children like others. This is a sign that in the future, more and more people with disabilities of any kind will be able to enjoy the luxuries other people get to in a way that makes them comfortable.

      Emma Gill. “Five Places in Manchester That Cater for Children with Autism - Manchester Evening News.” Manchester Evening News. N.p., 19 Sept. 2016. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

    24. people with disabilities.

      Living in Atlanta has provided an interesting insight into this particular case. While walking around downtown, I have recently noticed a lot of work crews repaving the sidewalks with ramps enabling disabled residents to have easier access to the safety of the sidewalks. What this shows is that only recently have people been able to enact change by making it a bit more equal for all people to have access to certain amenities.

    25. the racial meaning of a place can allow those in charge, such as police officers, to determine who belongs in that place and who does not.

      This has come to light quite a bit in recent times. In many different neighborhoods across the countries, especially those with a large Caucasian population, it is possible that members of the community are more likely to report unkown individuals of another race because they do not fit the stereotypical member of that area.

    26. suggesting that homeowners are more likely than renters to vote and more likely to vote in ways that will protect their property investment

      This is an interesting point. Homeowners are going to be more active in community decision making because they are permanent residents. Renters are relatively able to move whenever and are less likely to vote because they can simply move away if something they don't like occurs to the area. Homeowners, on the other hand, have invested much more money into the area, and they are going to try and keep it as good and to their liking as possible.

    27. important form of extra-legal regulation.

      As the article discusses, the built environmeny can be used as a form of regulation, making it work for some and using it to push away others. However, is it possible that some officials could pass laws preventing this kind of subtle regulation? They are often implemented as a way to deter the lower class from straying into areas populated by wealthier members of society, so is it right? If more people understood what was happening, would there be more concern with it?

    28. Legal scholars addressing constraints on behavior traditionally focus on regulation through law,31 which is often termed simply “regulation.”

      When the public thinks about the laws and regulations that govern society, they often think of those passed by the federal and state governments. However, it is interesting to think that more subtle things are capable of regulating the people. Minute details in the construction and implementation of objects can play a role in determining who can use them, and who they may deter.

    29. The architected urban landscape regulates, and the architecture itself is a form of regulation.

      This is one of the main focuses of this section. Every structure in an area is built to serve a purpose. No matter how small the structure may be, people would not direct resources to its implementation if it did not better, at least somewhat, the area in which it is being built. The possibility for items to be built is based upon the area in which it is being placed, but it can also be used as a way to dictate who can use the space and in what way.

    30. For example, one might think it a simple aesthetic design decision to create a park bench that is divided into three individual seats with armrests separating those seats

      Schindler brings forth an interesting point in this section. In many instances in which companies and the like are creating public structures, it is important to strike a balance between both aestheticism and functionality.

    31. obvious forms of architectural exclusion: the walls, gates, and guardhouses of gated communities

      I never thought of gated communities as an "obvious [form] of architectural exclusion", It simply did not strike me as such. I still think however, that gated communities are not necessarily a regulatory tool for segregation. They keep non residents out, yes, however if you were to be apart of that neighborhood, then you are included. The gate sets up a boundary, but it is not like the boundary is unassailable. Then again, if we look too segregation as the separation of difference as a whole, then the gated communities would not serve as a tool towards race segregation, but towards one of wealth. Though, that is only true if the community catered to the rich; if a similar community were to pop up that catered to the poor, where does the gate fit in then? It it still a form of exclusion and regulation? Rather, in this scenario, I see the gate as a form of security.

    32. I

      "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, Summary:

      Miller introduces Fresno High School and how it has "...changed a lot..." since she herself attended the school. The change taking place in the school; the opening of an area specifically catered to teen moms/ soon to be teen moms. In the first half of the article, Miller goes into how she herself, while attending the school, and even after, could not imagine there being any sort of "accommodation" for teen parents. In the second paragraph, she introduces the experience of her sister, who was a teen mom during her high school days; specifically going into the hardships her sister faced while attending school and taking care of a child. The middle half of the article focuses more on the room and gives detailed descriptions; calling it "...peaceful and inviting". Miller also goes into the practicality of the room, how it provides an area for moms to pump milk, to store milk, and to even learn about the various aspects of being a mom.

      Afterwards, Miller takes a turn away from the room itself, and focuses more primarily on the positive impact the room will have for teen moms across the state. With the state of California passing the AB 302 law, high schools in the state of California are required to have separate rooms for pregnant teens, and accommodations for class/class work. She gives a very real statement, that "pregnant and parenting teens want to stay in school, graduate with their class, and be productive, successful adults" however because of the pressure and stress of juggling school and child care, teen moms are left with little to no choice but to drop out. She then goes back to the room, and how it will provide equal opportunities to moms, giving them a chance at graduation and success.

      “Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students.” ACLU of Northe rn California. N.p.,n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    33. architectural exclusion: practice

      A good article that gives yet another example of exclusion by architecture is the article featured in The New York Times entitled, "The Architecture of Segregation" by the editorial board. The article focuses on fair housing and its connection to "...racial and economic segregation". Below is the link.


      “The Architecture of Segregation - The New York Times.” N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2016.

    34. For example, a cafeteria manager who places healthier food items in a more visible and accessible location than junk food in order to nudge people toward healthier choices is guiding actions through architectural decisions

      If we compare the cafeteria manager's decision on healthy food to that of the breastfeeding room, then the relationship would go something like this. The introduction of the breastfeeding room mentioned in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students", represents the healthy food, whereas the original state of the school, depicts unhealthy food. The cafeteria manager, or in the case of the school, the principle, decided that the school should be more accommodating to its student, so he/she puts the breastfeeding room (the healthy food) out in the open so as to nudge people to use the room. Much like how the cafeteria manager placed the healthier choices in the more visible and accessible areas. This allows for a healthy environment where the student body can relax and live a healthier lifestyle. They are guided by the architectural decisions of the school board.

    35. Placement of Highway Routes

      “untapped_LAX_manchester_aerial.jpg (JPEG Image, 640 × 400 Pixels) - Scaled (57%).” N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2016.

      This image shows exactly how highway placement can affect a neighborhood. This neighborhood, Manchester Square,a primarily African American community, is completely isolated on all sides due to the uncanny placement of highway routes. The highway system has successfully cut off any and all access to the neighborhood. Demonstrating that architecture can indeed act as a tool of exclusion. Here's a link to a little more detail about the neighborhood http://www.theatlantic.com/video/index/389967/the-ghost-town-of-los-angeles/

    36. placement

      Placement in this context pertains to highways, however it also can relate to other things; quite possibly even a specific type of room, inside a school. Schindler goes into the importance of placement, and how the location of a structure can be a regulatory measure, such as a highway cutting across a "poor black neighborhood"; resulting in its destruction. The same process of examining location can also be put in context with "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students". The breastfeeding room was built inside the school, rather than outside of the school. Why does its placement matter? If the room was outside the school, it would be detached; an area where teen moms would feel even more alienated from their student body. By having the room inside the school, the school itself is including teen moms into its fabric, creating a sense of connection between mom and student; allowing for both to exist independently, but working together cohesively.

    37. The architecture of the built environment directs both physical movement through and access to places

      Over the summer my friends and I went on a road trip cross country, and one of the place we visited was Kentucky. When we got into the suburbs, as the person driving, I realized a lot of one way streets; so much so that it seemed as if the entire grid system functioned on these one way streets. They're presence made it unnecessarily hard to get from point a to point b; even when the two points were no more than a couple feet apart. The road itself however, did not seem to be a from of exclusionary practice, though I am not 100% confident, as we did not stay long. The one way streets however, does correlate to the above quote, as it directed both movement and access.

    1. forging a campus identity, creating a sense of community, curbing escalating campus density, serving social and recreational needs, providing environmental benefits, and facilitating fundraising and recruitment of both faculty and students

      This reminds me of the class discussion we had in class about the "feel" or "identity" of the city of Atlanta, and what caused certain large cities to have a feeling to them. A campus landscape aims to create an identity and a community for its students, just as a city does.

    2. enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      According to the supplemental reading "How Slavery Shaped America's Oldest and Most Elite Colleges", the same schools discussed in the main article, like Princeton, were often greatly influenced by the institution of slavery. In the supplemental text, the author writes about how students pursued scientific research on the biological superiority of race, much like Thomas Jefferson wrote about in his Virginia notes. These universities created this idea of scientific racism, and therefore, served as the "third pillar" that supported the institution, behind church and state. The same schools that benefitted from the Morrill Act that granted land to universities served as active support for the institution of slavery. Juxtaposing the main article and the supplemental text, the history behind the most prestigious schools in the United States is a complicated and mostly ignored history. It is surprising that places of higher learning in the 1800s researched the theory of scientific racial supremacy and used it as a defense for slavery.

    3. Morrill Act of 1862

      The Morrill Act of 1862 provided 30,000 acres to each state for specific use to colleges and universities. This helped establish the present day university system in the U.S. The act was being considered by the Federal government for several years in the 1850s, but with the succession of many opposing states during the Civil War era, the act was able to pass under Abraham Lincoln's administration. The act excluded any states that had succeeded from the Union. The second Morrill act (of 1890) made it illegal to prefer any specific race toward admission at a higher education institution.

      "The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890." 1890 LandGrant Universities. N.p., 2015. Web. Sept. 2016.

    4. a well-designed campus was an integral part of the educational experience of students

      This can be compared to the idea that the built environment affects the way we live. Urban landscape architects work to create effective environments that promote happiness and ease of living for the people living there. Just like how a university needs a campus that promotes student welfare, a city or town need to have a well built environment to benefit its people.

    5. ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community

      Georgia State provides a perfect example of a campus that combines these two ideas. The downtown campus is large community that is directly contained and controlled by the city. Perhaps the environment of the city provides a better learning environment for certain students, and a much worse one for others. Some may enjoy the tall buildings, pedestrian lifestyle, and constant busy nature of the city.

    6. hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      Perhaps articles such as this one are dodging the true problems of university students today. If students are struggling academically, wouldn't the academics be the problem? The point this article makes is a relevant one, but is it relevant enough?

    7. A wide range of natural settings in and around a college campus can play a role in student learning and engagement

      At what point does too much natural space/recreational structure hinder the academic mind? Do changes in campus environment such as the kinds mentioned here affect campus life such as partying and other extracurricular activity? Would badly kept natural space still serve as a positive aid for students?

    8. a student’s learning experience is not often balanced by unstructured or structured opportunities for drawing forth effortless, indirect attention that occur in human-nature interactions

      In the article "So you like the University of Chicago’s rejection of ‘safe spaces’ for students? Consider this.", the writer outlines the official stance of the Dean of the University of Chicago to disown the idea of "safe spaces" on the school's campus. This article shows how this specific university chose a different way of creating a more effective learning environment for its students. Instead of creating nature spaces or huge recreational facilities, they attempt to promote more enriched academic discussion through dismissing ideas of "trigger warnings" and "safe spaces". This statement, despite proving to be very controversial amongst the public, attempts to promote the "freedom of thought and expression". The article mostly discusses how the statement from the dean was unnecessary due to the fact that debate and freedom of expression are always essential factors in any learning environment, especially universities, and that the statement dodges sensitive ideas such as PTSD and rape. However, the supplemental article explains how censorship hinders the "educational mission" of universities, and that providing an environment that flourishes different points of view and debate is a better environment than one that does not.

      Strauss, Valerie. "So You like the University of Chicago’s Rejection of ‘safe Spaces’ for Students? Consider This." Washington Post. N.p., 30 Aug. 2016. Web. Sept. 2016.

    9. more than two-thirds of the Cornell University campus is open space; its ecosystem services are visualized along a spectrum of naturalness as greenways, quads and greens, streets and walks, etc

      Here we see an opposite example to schools like Texas Tech, LSU, High Point University, and University of Iowa. Cornell invested in more natural, green space for its students to create a better learning environment, while the universities mentioned in the supplemental readings created humungous, expensive recreational facilities to attract students to come to their school: a business move.

    10. resilient spaces in which the learning environment encompasses more than technology upgrades, classroom additions, and its academic buildings

      The articles "The College Amenities Arms Race" and "Lazy Rivers and Student Debt" both describe the recent excessive spending done by big schools on recreational facilities. Colleges that are not necessarily elite, but have a high student population, are becoming more likely to spend outrageous amounts of money on rock climbing walls, lazy rivers, and spas in order to attract students. In this article, however, the writers attempt to explain the importance of having natural, green spaces for students to experience in order to promote better learning environments. The supplemental articles show a different interpretation of this. Schools such as Texas Tech and LSU build luxurious facilities for their students that literally cost millions of dollars. The occasional park or peaceful green space for sitting and studying represent completely different priorities than the facilities mentioned in the supplemental articles. Rock climbing walls and hot tubs are being made to simply attract students, and are even increasing student costs significantly. However, the priority of the main article is to illustrate the importance of a holistic learning environment for students to perform better academically. Both also contrast the amount of student costs necessary to create better learning environments. While certain schools are spending millions to create club house-like campuses, creating green spaces and mixing the indoor and outdoor experience for students would not be very costly.

      Newlon, Cara. "The College Amenities Arms Race." Forbes. N.p., 31 July 2014. Web. Sept. 2016.

      Woodhouse, Kellie. "Are Lazy Rivers and Climbing Walls Driving up the Cost of College?" Inside Higher Ed. Inside Higher Ed, 15 June 2015. Web. Sept. 2016.

    11. Learning is a lifelong and year-round pursuit, which takes place throughout the campus, not just fragmented indoors in designated instructional spaces

      This concept is not as important as it should be in American society. Many schools, from elementary to college, do not put as much emphasis on holistic learning, but rather focus on memorizing information through standardized testing. Learning can and should occur anywhere, not just in a typical classroom setting. In fact, a lot of useful information for life comes outside of the classroom. It reminds me of a quote by Mark Twain “I have never let my schooling interfere with my education”. People should always be in a state of learning, figuring out new things and expanding their minds in multiple ways, not just in narrow subjects that come in school.

    12. one fifth of a student’s time is spent in the classroom

      Is this referring to one fifth of a student's time in school is spent in the classroom, or one fifth of a student's complete life is spent in school? I would think the first would be true, but it is not hard to imagine that so much of our time is spent in school.

    13. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014). Thus, university students as a group are at a higher risk of attentional fatigue. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      In some ways, while I believe addressing the need for green space as a break in attention is important, is it perhaps ignoring the real issue? In so much of American culture, there is the standards upheld of working long hours, taking smaller and smaller breaks, skipping vacations, and just the overall sense that less is more when it comes to work. I think this belief not only applies to the job industry, but schooling as well. Instead of trying to help students engage less and maintain the normal course load, would it be better for there to be more time for rest?

    14. from the lures of the outside world

      "...lures of the outside world" sounds very ambiguous. I'm not sure if this sentence is trying to refer to the world and it's distractions, or some other meaning. It almost makes "the world" sound like a dangerous place, like a student should not venture there. However, college is the place where students are supposed to be preparing for the world, and instead of being afraid of it, school should make a student more confident and comfortable when approaching the world. For example, I think the GSU campus does a great job of putting students in the middle of the larger world while also giving them help on how to navigate. Other campuses that are more secluded, such as UGA, do not really offer as much real world experience that one could get from being in a more urban environment. In that case, being on a campus that is separated and apart from the rest of the world could actually be a negative aspect.

    15. Future research can test the premise substantiated by past literature

      Perhaps it is just me, but this phrase seems rather wordy. I feel as though the meaning behind this part of the sentence is lost or at least the point can be easily misconstrued. It is trying to say that more research should be done on this topic that is already supported by evidence. So is the research reliable, or not? Is it supported, or not? If there is not enough evidence to make a claim, why is this article being written as though this premise about green space is fact?

    16. We also recognize that outdoor class instruction is not suited or appropriate for all academic domains.

      I think this is the first time the authors use a different point of view in their writing, referring to themselves as "we". It breaks up the flow of the article a bit as suddenly the authors are referencing themselves after writing the whole article objectively until this point. However, they do this to justify their reasoning and address any complaints that might arise from their argument, so perhaps the change in perspective is justified.

    17. Well-designed and connected networks of indoor and open spaces on campuses can be key, yet typically overlooked catalysts, in student learning and a strong influence on students’ initial and longstanding experiences that promote a sense of belonging to the learning community

      While assertions like this are cited with sources, I think this article would be much more effective if it described in more detail how it came to these conclusions about learning and the environment. Was there a study done, or did they take a survey, or perform an experiment? At this point we know the information was taken from somewhere, but are these sources reliable or recent?

    18. Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces

      In "So you like the University of Chicago’s rejection of ‘safe spaces’ for students? Consider this."https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2016/08/30/so-you-like-the-university-of-chicagos-rejection-of-safe-spaces-for-students-consider-this/, the article speaks of The University of Chicago's statement about denying those who wish to be alerted to controversial topics on campus. instead of getting rid of speakers who might have racial views or putting out "trigger warnings" for certain classes and their subject matter, the University boldly supported equal thought and expression on campus. The feeling behind this choice was the belief that college students nowadays are coddled way to much, and need to hear dissenting opinions to their own thoughts. I found a correlation between this article and "Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces" in the way that both articles speak about a "safe place" for students. While in the first article, the "safe place" refers to a figurative area where students can be by themselves with their beliefs, the "safe place" in the second one describes an area that is closer to nature.

    19. quads and greens,

      What are quads and greens? A quad is a rectangular courtyard surrounded by buildings on all sides. It's full name is actually a quadrangle, and many college campuses are known for to include impressive quads, including Harvard, Cornell, and Yale. Many colleges that host quads are also known for their sustainability initiatives on campus. http://www.businessinsider.com/beautiful-iconic-college-campus-quads-2014-1

    20. “Attentive efficiency can be recovered after a period of rest and regeneration, obtained through the activation of involuntary attention”

      Yet, as I mentioned, there is not enough emphasis put on rest, not enough time given for a student to recover. I talked more about this in my previous annotation.

    21. References

      http://www.forbes.com/sites/caranewlon/2014/07/31/the-college-amenities-arms-race/#cbbda7d1f3cc In "The College Amenities Arms Race" by Cara Newlon, the article discusses the crazy expenditures that colleges have been construction which are purely for student entertainment. These constructions, ranging from movie theaters to lazy rivers, have caused increasing tuition from students which could lead to backlash from lower income students that don't value these facilities as a need and students that don't perceive the facilities to have any personal use. Having the most innovative and entertaining amenities has evolved into an unintentional competition between universities. Most notably, in 2006, colleges spent upwards of fifteen billion dollars on construction projects. Newlon also suggests that adding desirable amenities can be beneficial towards "less-selective" schools because it'll grow their number of applicants and in turn, drive down their acceptance rates. Ultimately, these college expenditures are a prioritized business and are treated as such for college planning. Whether they're necessary or not continues to be on the forefront of debate. In relation to "Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces" by Scholl and Gulwadi, this article makes me question if natural environment settings are even necessary for student populations. These green-spaces may just be another unneeded "entertainment facility" that drives up expensives for college. Personally, I do not want to pay an excessive amount for a development that isn't imperative to my studies. Perhaps, if it is evident that students' performances benefit from the facility and it exceeds the cost of the construction, then natural landscapes could be useful to student life. Now, I feel very conflicted about the development of greenery in college campuses. On one hand, I strongly believe I will utilize it and benefit from its involuntary attention. On the contrary, I am honestly not willing and able to pay for its construction.

    22. References

      http://www.forbes.com/pictures/gfhf45fim/texas-tech-university/#1729882d1b07 This is a photograph of a massive water park/leisure pool located at Texas Tech University. This appears more as a vacation resort than a college campus. If Georgia State tried to implement a structure similar to this in their campus, then I would totally be against the action because its not needed for everyday student life. I don't value a pool like I value convention learning space.

    23. open spaces for student recruitment purposes to recognizing the entire campus landscape as a learning space and advertising its educational valu

      In regards to Georgia State, I definitely do not value the entirety of campus as "learning space." I feel as though a limited amount of designated areas have that purpose. Places like the honors college lab, the commons community rooms, the library all exemplify learning spaces, though the landscape of the campus does not. I wish I felt comfortable to productively study anywhere on campus, but that is not the current situation. If in the future, Georgia State values this notion of integrated natural environments, then I will accept the entire campus as an open space for student learning. Hopefully, someone, maybe an individual like me or a grassroots movement, can make this project happen.

    24. Viewing a roof garden from the windows of a student lounge

      Basically, this serves as my sole interaction with nature at Georgia State which means I engage in incidental attention during these transactions. I didn't know this classification previously. I do wish Georgia State incorporated more intentional natural landscapes. Personally, I feel as though I would really benefit from such developments. I do recognize with the limited space that Georgia State owns however, it could be rather difficult to construct. Regardless, urban areas need more nature, which is noted immensely with GSU. I understand adding nature to cities may act counter-intuitive of the word urban, but nonetheless it would make the city more pleasing and a better environment for students.

  3. Sep 2016
    1. Empirical research using the ART framework has examined all modes of human interaction in indoor

      To further their argument, Scholl and Gulwadi display a "student-nature interactions in campus" chart which explores the different nature typologies and examines the use of attentive interactions (i.e incidental, indirect, involuntary, etc.) that are employed in each setting. This use of evidence is an incredible way to illustrate the various degrees of attention used in different settings. The format of the chart is extremely helpful to differentiate the environments that have engaging interactions which stimulate the students' learning. For visual learners, this is especially helpful. Additionally, they explain the definition of the typologies, which narrows the confusion of the varying settings. Though they have a lack of scientific research, this chart is quite informative and compelling to their argument.

    2. Research on student campus experiences related to surrounding nature in campus landscapes is a relatively newer research domain. Future research can test the premise substantiated by past literature that the natural landscape of a college can be an asset by enabling attention-restorative benefits and positively influencing learning and academic performance.

      Scholl and Gulwadi acknowledge their lack of research, which is quite redeeming for the authors. Now I feel sympathetic for judging their analysis so cruelly. I suppose if they rewrite this proposal in 5-10 years, then their persuasion would exceed its current status due to this relatively new research domain. I would love to read studies that further this idea if any research on this topic accumulates in the future.

    3. This in turn can benefit performance on other tasks, delay gratification, and perhaps even regulate levels of depression and stress

      Involuntary attention leads to benefits such as performance, gratification, and potentially regulation of emotions solely due to their "inherently intriguing" and "replenishing" nature? I feel as though their claims on the advantages of involuntary attention is lacking due to their inability to draw from scientific analysis and psychological studies. It's a shame because I am truly in support of college campuses instituting natural environments into their landscape.

    4. Defining “nature” can pose a bit of problem however. Nature can be labeled as a non-human physical feature such as an individual plant or butterfly. Nature can also be delineated as a particular place within a spectrum of naturalness from urban park to a pristine wilderness

      Nature, in its actual form, is quite ambiguous. With that notion, if colleges were to implement "natural environments," this could differ from one university to the next depending on their individual interpretation of nature. One might perceive nature as the planting of multiple trees, while one might view it as incorporating a natural element within a landscape, like a park in an urban area. It'll be interesting to see if these different interpretations cause conflict if the implementation of natural environments ever becomes mandated for public universities.

    5. Student grass-root efforts

      Similarly, the Atlanta Beltline project which was proposed by Ryan Gravel was created by a grass-roots movement. Both the preservation of nature in some college campuses during the 1970's and the Beltline exhibit the immense influence that grass-roots movements can attain.

    6. The inclusion of the automobile on campus resulted in parking lots claiming large areas of natural open space

      A similar trend happened to the city of Atlanta during the 90's and the early 2000's. Atlanta widened its roads and created more parking lots designated for the increasing amounts of vehicles. These constructions ultimately resulted in less areas of natural open space, which drove out pedestrians. College planning has a mirrored reality to this. Colleges accommodated for the large student body that owned vehicles, which in turn lessened the space for nature. Unfortunately, the expansion of nature was the opportunity cost in this situation.

    7. Morrill Act of 1862

      Picture of Vermont Congressman Justin Morrill, the main sponsor of the Morrill Act of 1862.

      Source: https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Morrill.html

    8. holistic learning

      This is the main focus of this entire article. See my above annotations on what holistic learning is. It is very important to understand the concept of holistic learning for this article and the authors do a good job of defining it and making the readers understand what they are talking about.

    9. The article I chose as my supplemental text was the one from Inside Higher Ed about the excessive funds being spent on student recreation (https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/06/15/are-lazy-rivers-and-climbing-walls-driving-cost-college ). Kellie Woodhouse, the author, describes an ongoing controversy while mainly focusing on what is happening at Louisiana State University (LSU). At LSU, the student government decided to increase student fees by $200 to build a giant lazy river in the shape of the letters LSU. This upgrade to their student center (along with a new rock wall and fitness center) will cost the university $85 million. This is small compared to what Ohio State spent to upgrade their student recreation center, which was near $140 million. The controversy arising is whether the universities should be spending all this money on student recreation centers or spending this money on other things, such as research centers.

      The Inside Higher Ed piece relates to this article because both deal with student recreation. However, this article discusses student recreation through the environment and the outdoors while the supplemental discusses student recreation through "fun" recreation, like fitness centers, rock walls, lazy rivers, and hot tubs. I believe that both of these things are important to have at a college campus--green space and fun student recreation centers. From what I learned from this article, green space can really help promote holistic learning and mind "relaxation." On the other hand, student recreation centers can create a fun environment and help students relieve stress and relax. In my opinion, universities need to spend money on both of these features to college campuses but need to balance the budget better. Universities can not spend millions on lazy rivers while not putting in near as much to green space. If universities balance their budget more and spend equal amounts on both green space and student recreation centers, the university will hopefully get great feedback and students will be happy and relaxed and become more successful.

    10. Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction

      I find this comical because the authors claim that college founders frown upon city atmospheres due to their "distraction." Personally, the primary reason for me deciding to further my education at Georgia State was due to the urban environment. This was ideal for me and my educational preferences. This fallacy doesn't apply to everyone individuals' education wants and needs. To hear that colleges view the lifestyles of cities as "distractions" is completely absurd. These so-called "distractions" are actually opportunities for cultural, politically, social, economic, and personal growth. If anything, traditional college campuses can present the same distractions. The institutions still have a social scene which can detract the students from their studies. This can happen anywhere- rural or urban. Since most colleges are in rural "college towns," it parallels the negativity surrounding urban campuses.

    11. Early American colleges and universities were self-sufficient and often built in rural locations

      This notion blatantly contrasts to Georgia State University. As a campus we are evidently built in an urban location and embody the city of Atlanta, which provides a completely different dynamic than traditional rural college campuses. Can the urban aspect of Georgia State result in the integration of natural space? Does our location disallow such green-space because of its confinement? Or do we have to find unconventional manners to construct natural environments (i.e a rooftop greenery)?

    12. The concepts are – 1) direct and indirect attention and restoration, and 2) a holistic landscape

      These are the fundamental pieces of evidence that Scholl and Gulwadi will examine to support their case that natural environments help student learning. They only present two different concepts, which is quite limited. In order to successfully prove their proposal, I suppose they will have to go intensely in-depth to convey each idea.

    13. One way to examine this potential is to consider the entire campus with its buildings, roads and natural open spaces as a well-networked landscape system

      So instead of utilizing studies, the authors will incorporate the examination of college landscapes and use it to develop their argument. This mechanism is valid, but I still feel as though the inclusion of some scientific research would be immensely effective. Scholl and Gulwadi have to make sure that their reasoning strengthens their argument exponentially.

    14. campus natural open spaces have not been systematically examined for their potential in replenishing cognitive functioning for attentional fatigued students.

      So does this completely demolish any sort of argument that they have? Scholl and Gulwadi are basically stating that currently no pertinent studies correlate cognitive functioning with natural open spaces currently. This is a primary claim of their proposition to include natural environments into college campuses, yet they have no evidence to prove that advantageous effects exist... So now, it leads me to believe that their argument is predominately based on logic and reasoning instead of scientific studies.

    15. increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      I can agree with this claim from various personal experiences. Nowadays, with my increasing dependence on modern technology and social medias, I become consumed by this technology and primarily focus my attention on my phone, laptop, television, etc., as opposed solely focusing on my schoolwork. Though I am still able to complete my school assignments while engaging in my technologies, the multitasking could result in less attentive work, which could ultimately affect the its quality in a negative manner.

    16. Thus, university students as a group are at a higher risk of attentional fatigue.

      I would imagine the same could be concluded about working adults who have jobs that exhaust the mind. After a nine to five job filled with direct attention that requires the mind to be fully intact, a business man or engineer or etc. could have immense attentional fatigue, not just the college demographic. I know companies like Google provide green-spaces for their employees as an outlet for mental, physically, and spiritual relief. Therefore, the authors' article could also apply to an older demographic and their demanding occupations.

    17. catalysts

      The authors utilize the word "catalyst" which makes it appear that open spaces such as natural environments have this intense power to stimulate students' learning. Is this so? The authors should include studies that parallel this concept. If so, does nature improve a student's ability to produce schoolwork at a low or high degree? Is the degree even noticeable?

    18. “one fifth of a student’s time is spent in the classroom, contributing about one quarter of the total learning variance

      Therefore, according to Radloff's calculations, students have ample amount of time outside the classroom. Because of this freedom to engage in a learning environment apart from classes, students can seek environments such as green-spaces to complete school assignments. Basically, the authors use Radloff's data to stress that classroom environment is not the primary environment in which students go about learning which may go against the majority's assumption. Instead, alternative places are used more heavily for learning communities. However, It would be interesting to examine Radloff's study where he forms his conclusion that "one fifth of a student's time is spent in the classroom." I would think that this varies from student to student depending on the amount of credit hours that one is enrolled in and their dedication towards the pursuit of education.

    19. we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      Here lies the thesis of Scholl and Gulwadi; the authors are in support of providing natural environment accommodations in university landscapes in order to benefit students learning. Is there a large demographic of people that oppose of this proposition? If so, what is their reasoning?

    20. In 2009, 20.4 million students were enrolled in 2- or 4-year colleges and universities. By 2019, enrollments are expected to rise 9% for students under age 25, and rise 23% for students over the age of 25 (Snyder & Dillow, 2011)

      I do not understand why Scholl and Gulwadi provided factual statistics to prove their claim that the University system in America is evolving throughout the twenty-first century, yet they failed to provide satisfactory research on their primary claim about categories of attention and their cognitive effects. Since their main idea in this article references that nature presents involuntary attention which alleviates the strain of direct attention, why did n't they involve statistics to prove their statements on the psychological benefits of natural enviroments?

    21. Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces

      In "Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces" by Scholl and Gulwadi, the article discusses the implementations of natural environments in college campuses. Entire university campuses need to provide holistic learning spaces for their students. A well-designed landscape, will allow for prosperous learning, personal growth, productivity, and mental relaxation. Furthermore, Scholl and Gulwadi discusses different types of attention including direct and involuntary. These categories affect student's effectiveness when studying. The incorporation of involuntary attention provided by nature helps alleviate the stress that course work puts on direct attention. Therefore, a advantageous relationship exists between schoolwork and green-space. Ultimately, nature presents cognitive benefits that allow students with striving resources for learning and community interaction. This dynamic should be instituted in university campuses throughout.

    22. Three main takeaways from the article:

      1. Students have better focus and attention when they study and learn in nature and the outdoors.
      2. Colleges are spending millions on upgrading student centers, but not enough on updating the nature parts of the campus.
      3. College campuses should have a lot of green space to help its students achieve the most they possibly can.
    23. one that requires communication and collaboration among academic, administrative and facilities planning stakeholders.

      I think when modifying their campus, universities should also get the opinions of the students, along with all the faculty, administration, and facility workers. It is important to get everyone's opinions, not just the people who would be paying for it or the people who would be in charge of the project. A holistic learning environment is one that involves everyone. Therefore the creation of a holistic learning environment should involve everyone.

    24. there is a need to conduct more focused and nuanced research on identifying the human-nature mechanisms that lead to (among others) attentional resource benefits.

      This is the first time a plea like this is addressed in the article. However, I agree with this. If more research is done on human-nature interaction and its effect on learning, it will be very helpful to students and teachers.

    25. landscape of the future

      By studying campuses around the United States and the world now and by studying how students learn in different environments, universities can adjust how their campuses look and feel. This may cost a lot of money, but student success will be worth it.

    26. We do suggest that regular cognitive breaks from direct attention in natural settings can help students regulate, replenish, and strengthen cognitive function and ability to prepare for either the next round of classes or improve the effectiveness and efficiency of an independent study period.

      This argument has been supported by results other authors have recorded. When students are out in nature, they tend to learn better and therefore more class should be outside or more "nature" should be available to students.

    27. For example, more than two-thirds of the Cornell University campus is open space

      This is an overhead view of Cornell University. As evidenced by the photograph, most of the space in the university is green space. This leads to holistic learning and a large natural environment.

      Link to photograph (picture is located on page nine): https://www.amazon.com/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=9780521341394

    28. older campus plans emphasized disciplinary boundaries and newer campus designs are more amorphous and integrative.

      To reword, older campuses separated disciplinary fields while newer campuses are bringing them together. This shows how the concept of holistic learning is becoming even more popular and prevalent on college campuses.

    29. Urban (mostly built) Viewing a roof garden from the windows of a student lounge Mural of a landscape scene on the wall of a tunnel or walkway Outdoor plaza used for art classes Spaces between campus buildings Outdoor water features Green roofs Rain gardens Height of buildings Complexity and ornamentation of façade Sense of enclosure (no blocked views)

      This category seems like the one Georgia State would fit into.

    30. in the absence of fascinating natural stimuli, humans miss out on the critical type of rest (Keniger, et al., 2013). Urban stimuli typically lack the capacity to restore our direct attentional capacities effectively.

      Could this be a problem with Georgia State? Should Georgia State be worried about this and, if so, what should they do to fix it? I think they should either add more parks (or green space) or take more class trips to nature centers (like Stone Mountain or the Botanical Gardens). Or, even, have class held outside sometimes.

    31. Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and replenish.

      The article is making an interesting point saying that our mind can replenish itself when we are studying, or rather "interacting," with nature. This supports the article's claim that college campuses should have more green space on campus.

    32. attention

      This article is really focusing on two main points: holistic learning and attention. All of the author's points are being brought back to these two main overarching categories.

    33. Interaction with nature, in particular, can help to maintain or restore cognitive function such as direct attention, problem solving, focus and concentration, impulse inhibition, and memory, which can become depleted from fatigue or with overuse

      The argument is that the more nature a college has on its campus the more successful the students will be. This should be supported by student records/test results/grades from very urban universities (like Georgia State or New York University) to rural universities (like the University of Colorado or Dartmouth).

    34. Attention Restoration Theory

      The Attention Restoration Theory is a theory developed by Rachel and Stephen Kaplan in their book "The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Approach." The theory states that people can concentrate better after spending time in nature or looking at nature scenes. Their book is available here, for free:


    1. That a highway divides two neighborhoods limits the extent to which the neighborhoods integrate.

      A clear cut example that gives credence to the notion that the built environment of a place can be a form of regulatory practice. The highway itself may indeed provide for the residents, however, the deliberate placement of said highway between two neighborhoods, who very well may be of different ethic cultures, would show otherwise.

    2. a private developer constructed a six-foot-high wall—known as Eight Mile Wall

      Part 1 and part 2 introduces architecture as a tool for regulation and how the built environment reflects this idea. This one quote is an example of how architecture serves to exclude, however, I want to note that not all structures are built with the goal of exclusion. Some, much like the breastfeeding room mentioned in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, are built with the goal of inclusion. The contrast between the breastfeeding room and the eight mile wall though, is very stark; the first is one of the extremes of inclusion, while the other, the complete opposite. The two however, are both architectural works, I find it astonishing, and this example furthers the point Schindler is trying to make; that the built environment does in fact have the capability to be regulatory.

    3. Law and lawmakers habitually overlook68 the way that the built environment functions as an express tool of exclusion.

      Exclusion is a form of, or rather, it is segregation. Where one group, not necessarily a race, is alienated/neglected from the whole. In the case of "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, it is the teen moms who are, in a sense, "segregated" from the rest of the student body. The school, before the passage of AB 302 in California, did not provide to its teen moms population. This caused the teens moms to feel a form of exclusion, an alienation that eventually lead to their dropping out; an aspect Miller touches upon in her article. The school, the built environment within the school, does not cater to these moms, and it is within these context that it excludes, and alienate them; focusing/catering primarily on non pregnant students.

    4. physical architecture as a constraint

      The architecture of high schools are in such a way that it does not provide for certain groups of individuals; teen moms for example. Because they do not have these accommodations, teen moms do not have an outlet in which they can relieve the stress of school and parenthood; specifically pumping milk/breastfeeding. A form of constraint appears, limiting the moms only to school work. Although, the statement alone would appear to incorporate all forms of architecture as a from of constraint, I do not believe so. The breastfeeding room mentioned in the article "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, prove otherwise. The room is an addition to schools, it is apart of the physical architecture, I however, do not see it as a from on constraint.

    5. idea that spaces themselves have racial meanings.

      It would be an understatement to say that spaces have racial meanings; they most certainly do. Each "space" has its own history of exclusion that gives it a certain tag, an identity almost. Take for example Auburn Avenue, or "Sweet Auburn" to residents, in Atlanta. That space was known for its thriving African American population, a thriving business center that was recognized nationally as the economic hub for black Americans. The exclusion the African Americans felt propelled the streets identity, giving the area meanings associated with the black community.

    6. architecture and design can be employed to steer human behavior and to promote desired ends.

      In relation to "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, this statement proves to be true. If we look at the behavior and ends of teen moms before the introduction of the "breastfeeding room", then it would be something along these lines: A teen gets pregnant, she has the baby, she must now juggle between school and child, however the school does not give any sort of leniency for these moms, so unable to bear under the pressure, 9 times out of 10 they drop out of school. The end; having no little to no chance at monetary success. However, with the introduction of the room, a new behavior can be see. Now they have more opportunities, more accommodations by the school, leading to decrease drop out rates and increased graduation rates; therefore resulting in a much more desirable end. The design and function of the room led to a change in behavior, which in turn promoted the desired ends of the state.

    7. people tend to believe that the plan and structures of cities are created for purposes of efficiency or with the goal of furthering the general public interest

      I can associate this claim to myself, as before reading this article, I never thought of the built environment being anything more than a tool of cultural expression; built for the betterment of people. Now however, it would seem that the built environment has more to it than meets the eye. If I were to think about it, the highway that passes through Auburn Avenue (known as Sweet Auburn), effectively destroyed the once bustling African American business district. Though, I choose to not believe this too much, as I can think of a good number of designs that do in fact help further the general interest. Take for example, the breastfeeding room mentioned in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, the room by no means function as a tool for regulation and exclusion. Its whole design is meant for the inclusion of teen moms in the school dynamic.

    8. “there is no such thing as a ‘neutral’ design.”

      Building a structure, of any size, first requires an outline; a design. It is within this process that regulatory tendencies of the built environment comes to life. The design of any building is within the hands of the architects, there architects all have their own separate opinions, their own views; a product of their upbringing. Because of this, the building design they make will be a representation of their perceived culture; as such, there is and never will be, a "'neutral design'". The breastfeeding room in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" is a perfect example of the non neutrality of building designs. The room was made to specifically cater to the pregnant/ teen mom population in schools, it wasn't made to just exist, it was created with a clear image, and a clear goal in mind; to provide accommodations to teen moms.

    9. architecture itself is a form of regulation.

      This is essentially a study of the vernacular culture of modern day society. Never have I thought about associating the built environment with regulatory practices, rather, I viewed it as a means for fostering community interactions; a tool for bypassing cultural barriers. However, the article demonstrates the opposite, presenting points and evidence that the built environment can act as an exclusionary tool that works against certain ethic groups.

    10. physical exclusion by walls and barriers is nothing new.

      “History_Builders_of_The_Great_Wall_42710_reSF_HD_still_624x352.jpg (JPEG Image, 624 × 352 Pixels).” N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2016.

      An architectural landmark that is still celebrated today, the Great Wall of China was build on the premise of exclusion; A measure to ensure the safety of Central China from the Huns.

    11. Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment

      3 MAIN TAKE AWAYS/POINTS OF ARGUMENT FROM THIS ARTICLE: This article criticizes the discriminatory aspects of the built environment. It claims, and proves, that the way that architecture regulates a society by preventing or discouraging access to or from a certain section of cities by design. It also claims that the certain groups of people who are most often architecturally excluded are the poor and peoples of color. Not mentioned much in the article, but that I have made note of through my supplemental reading annotations is the exclusion of the elderly. This perhaps is not a design on purpose but it nonetheless exists and affects this group of people as well. Architectural exclusion includes, but is not limited to, physical barriers, transit and placement of transit stops, highways and exists and road infrastructure, the ease of navigation, parking and parking permits. All of these things together affect the way that people live and interact with one another.

    12. These problems and others will be analyzed more fully in the remainder of this Article.

      The main takeaways I had from this article are (1) that Architect tend to favor the rich over the poor, as they are the ones paying for their work, (2) The rich prefer to not see the poor, and (3) Architects deliberately exclude poor people in their infrastructure,

    13. Wealthy, mostly white residents of the northern Atlanta suburbs have vocally opposed efforts to expand MARTA into their neighborhoods for the reason that doing so would give people of color easy access to suburban communities

      By opposing the MARTA expansion, these mostly white residents in Atlanta are not only preventing poor and people of color access, but also the elderly. As seen above, poverty affects all races especially in older years. The residents of northern Atlanta suburbs are preventing access to people who they may not even realize. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/poverty/report/2010/09/27/8426/the-not-so-golden-years/

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    14. Street grid design, one-way streets, the absence of sidewalks and crosswalks, the location of highways and transit stops, and even residential parking permit requirements can shape the demographics of a city and isolate a neighborhood from those surrounding it, often intentionally

      I highly doubt that when these things were designed that they were created this way to exclude the elderly even if they were made to exclude the poor and peoples of color. However, this is the effect.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    15. The architected urban landscape regulates, and the architecture itself is a form of regulation.

      This picture shows how a simple sidewalk can transform an area and bring people together and bring people of all ages, genders, and colors to places they may not otherwise be. For the elderly, walking down a sidewalk may be the only option for their transit.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    16. It is hard to understate the central significance of geographical themes—space, place, and mobility—to the social and political history of race relations and antiblack racism in the United States. . . . [S]egregation, integration, and separation are spatial processes; . . . ghettos and exclusionary suburbs are spatial entities; . . . access, exclusion, confinement . . . are spatial experiences.5

      It is much more widely discussed how there are unfair regulations to certain groups based on gender and race, but groups by age are almost never talked about in terms of inclusion or exclusion. Even here it is not discussed, besides implicitly. Elderly are in many cases more poor and are separated from certain places as a result.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    17. When a locality is successful in its opposition, people who rely on transit to get around will not have access to those communities.13

      While some of these excluded groups may be able to get along with out access to certain places, the elderly are more in need and are also excluded because of their physical disabilities. They not only may need to get somewhere, but they do not have company. This is part of why Marak created a Facebook group to connect these elder orphans who need a community of peers. They also work on finding solutions to these hard to access places, with the assistance of the Milken Institute.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    18. And although the law has addressed the exclusionary impacts of zoning ordinances and restrictive covenants, courts, legislatures, and most legal scholars have paid little attention to the use of less obvious exclusionary urban design tactics. Street grid design, one-way streets, the absence of sidewalks and crosswalks, the location of highways and transit stops, and even residential parking permit requirements can shape the demographics of a city and isolate a neighborhood from those surrounding it, often intentionally. Decisions about infrastructure shape more than just the physical city; those decisions also influence the way that residents and visitors experience the city.17

      The Milken Institute is hoping to influence the way city planning committees create their cities so that the city accommodates the elderly who most often have nobody to help them in everyday life. Even a simple sidewalk can have an effect on elderly happiness, health, and accessibility.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    19. This design decision meant that many people of color and poor people, who most often relied on public transportation, lacked access to the lauded public park at Jones Beach.5

      Lowering bridges to prevent buses largely does affect the poor and and people of color, but it also largely affects "elder orphans", who are too old to drive and who have nobody that can help take care of them. These people are largely dependent on public transportation as well. Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    20. Although a residential permitting scheme like this allows neighborhoods to physically exclude, it also imposes bureaucratic requirements on residents such as purchasing parking permit stickers and remembering to give guest passes to visiting friends

      As a personal example, I lived across the street from a gated community that many of my friends lived in. You needed a card to get in through the front entrance, but there was a back entrance with a parking lot and a sidewalk into the neighborhood that wasn't gated. It may be important to note that most places have ways to work around gates, and people that are poorer and have to walk will likely find workarounds easily.

    21. Many one-way streets were created during urban renewal with the stated goals of accommodating automobile traffic and allowing people to pass quickly through cities.

      Many of the streets around the vicinity of GSU are one way. This does not necessarily hurt students, as they can walk to classes from parking decks, but it makes it more difficult for people crossing through campus to navigate to a specific location. Perhaps this was intentional as a means to limit traffic through the campus.

    22. The case settled, but it presents a stark example of the dangers inherent in exclusionary transit design.

      Transit stops are another place where homeless people spend the night, according to my supplemental reading. It is a good place to stay because if a police officer comes up to someone staying at one, they could easily use the excuse that they are waiting for the bus. I believe that as time goes on, simpler bus stops such as signs and ones that lack a shelter will become more popular so as to deter homeless people.

    23. The effect of these types of residency requirements is often to exclude people who do not live in a given neighborhood from that neighborhood.

      Couldn't one argue that perhaps if one doesn't live in a particular neighborhood, or has friends in it, then there is no reason to be in it? From my understanding, the purpose of these permits is to prevent solicitors or predators, not the poor. Most poor people don't even have cars to park.

    24. For example, one might think it a simple aesthetic design decision to create a park bench that is divided into three individual seats with armrests separating those seats. Yet the bench may have been created this way to prevent people—often homeless people—from lying down and taking naps

      This particular section was the main focus of my article. Various bench designs were shown, and many were not able to be slept upon. Some examples are below.

    25. Justice Marshall dissented, acknowledging that this inconvenience carried a “powerful symbolic message.”

      This being Justice Thurgood Marshall, who was the first African-American Supreme Court justice. His appointment helped the Supreme Court to see the various ways they were doing injustice to the colored people of America, and the addition of his perspective helped to make more fair rulings in the Supreme Court.

    26. Wealthy, mostly white residents of the northern Atlanta suburbs have vocally opposed efforts to expand MARTA into their neighborhoods for the reason that doing so would give people of color easy access to suburban communities

      The source for this particular quote was written in 2011. The Black Lives Matter movement started after this article was written. I think that if wealthy white residents were to use this reasoning today, they would likely be chastised harshly for their words. It is interesting to see how things have changed in just the past 5 years.

    27. public park at Jones Beach

      The fact that it blocks people of color as much as poorer people is an interesting thing to note. Don't poorer people tend to walk everywhere? Could the buses not find another route? Wouldn't this also pose a problem if someone who lived in the area's car broke down and the bus was necessary? It is interesting to see that the richer people would prefer to be inconvenienced rather than have their area populated by the poor.

    28. Architectural Exclusion

      This article is about how elder orphans, people over 65 years of age who have no living friends or family to care for them, are having more and more difficult maintaining and/or obtaining a comfortable living environment as they age. Everyone ages and it is never an easy transition, but it is especially harder for those elder citizens who cannot get along on their own, who account for 29% of older persons are these elder orphans. The article explains that there is such a large number of elder orphans now because they are the baby boomers who have resulted in less children and a greater divorce rate. The writer of this article is an elder orphan who has created a Facebook page for other elder orphans to come together and find community and support and discuss their problems to find solutions. The main issues presented are legal and care issues such as dealing with finances when there is nobody around to help in times of need. Affordable housing is almost nonexistent for these elders who mostly live on social security. Transportation is usually not something that elders are able to handle themselves because their physical abilities are impaired. Even though the Facebook group is extremely helpful in finding some solutions, it is still imperative that service and support at the local level is implicated. One such business that is answering the call of these elder orphans is The Milken Institute. They work with local governments to build awareness of elder orphans. They work to provide for the needs of elders such as: living comfortable, affordable, healthy, happy, and financially secure, with proper living arrangements, access to mobility, and respect. They work to create a space for elders to thrive. There are cities that are providing well for the aging community as far as health care, active lifestyle choices, economy, and environment, but even here there is not enough available transportation, or affordable housing. Simple things could be implemented all around cities for these aging communities to better adapt, such as sidewalks which would provide a way for elders to go places as well as get them up and moving around, decreasing chronic diseases and isolation and loneliness.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    29. Article

      My article, "How Cities Use Design to Drive Away Homeless People", by Robert Rosenberger, begins with a very strange erection outside of a Tesco in London. In a shady area next to the door and behind a pillar, numerous metal spikes were cemented into the ground in an effort to deter homeless people from sleeping there. There was a public outcry, and protesters even covered them in cement to render them useless.

      The public outcry, however, didn't extend to other forms of deterrence. As a non-skater, many people fail to take notice to the metal studs added to infrastructure to prevent skaters from grinding on them. Similarly, as people that don't sleep in public areas, we fail to see things that prevent people from sleeping there. Some examples given are public benches shaped like cylinders, public benches with armrests, and even some interesting public seating that are simply stools. Essentially, architects design benches and infrastructure in ways that deter unwanted people, including both skaters and homeless.

      Rosenberger, Robert. “How Cities Use Design to Drive Homeless People Away.” The Atlantic 19 June 2014. The Atlantic. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    30. Courts have similarly upheld residency restrictions that prevent some individuals from using public facilities such as beaches, sports courts, and playgrounds on the grounds that residents’ taxes and fees resulted in construction of those facilities, and so residents should be given use priority.

      The entire idea of a "public good" is that it is a good that is non-excludable. I suppose the courts decision to side with residency restrictions may be in an effort to prevent free-riding, but that does not negate the fact that its underlying motives are racist and unconstitutional in the grand scheme of things.

    31. lacement of Highway Routes, Bridge Exits, and Road Infrastructure

      There is no way this highway system was created with the objective of easy accessibility. As someone who has frequented this highway many times, and still struggles to navigate it, I can attest that the highway system in downtown Atlanta is definitely one that could be considered in this section of the article.

    32. Wiggins took the bus from the inner city, where she lived, to her job at the suburban mall.142 However, the mall’s owners had actively resisted requests to allow the bus to stop on its property; rather, the bus stopped outside the mall on the other side of the large highway.

      http://www.nytimes.com/1999/11/15/nyregion/mall-accused-of-racism-in-a-wrongful-death-trial-in-buffalo.html?_r=0 This is an article about the incident in more detail. The family of Wiggins sued the mall for its racist justifications. This event took place in the early 90s, way after laws had been erected against segregation. It was not and is not alright for business owners to discriminate based on race, gender, sexual orientation, or class.

    33. The possibility of transformation as a result of architecture raises a related question: where did the people who were using these streets prior to the architectural intervention go? Presumably, they were pushed to a different—possibly less affluent—part of town.

      This raises a good point. Whereas keeping bad things out of an area of town is a good thing for the government to strive toward, it ignores the problem entirely. The people who are perpetrating the crimes should not simply be kicked out of an area, but rather should be sought out individually. Just because the crime leaves a certain area does not mean the crimes do not exist elsewhere. It becomes a cycle.

    34. Another common version of this phenomenon is one of the most obvious forms of architectural exclusion: the walls, gates, and guardhouses of gated communities.106

      Another perspective on walls and gates around more affluent communities is that of the outsider. Not only is it true that the gates keep outsiders out, but it keeps those inside of the gates sheltered and helps assert the idea that the outside is dangerous and bad, even though it is not in many cases. The people inside the gates are victims of their own fear and racism.

    35. This form of physical exclusion by walls and barriers is nothing new.92 However, it is not only a remnant of the distant past, but also exists in more modern examples.

      Donald Trump's proposal of a wall to prevent Mexican immigrants from coming to America is the most prevalent example of this today. However, this type of defense is also prevalent through the Great Wall of China. Just like Trump claims to be securing the nation, so too do city planners who may have ulterior motives that may be racially backed.

    36. or example, Elise C. Boddie argues that places have racial identities based on their history of or reputation for exclusion, and that courts should consider this racial meaning for purposes of racial discrimination claims.64 She further suggests that the racial meaning of a place can allow those in charge, such as police officers, to determine who belongs in that place and who does not

      A specific example of a certain area being the home to a certain race both in the past and now is Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, GA. In the past, this street was the most wealthy black community in the country, but since the Civil Rights Movement, many of the wealthy moved away, but because the businesses in the area were targeted towards black people, there was no motivation for other races, specifically white, to repopulate the area. Now the street is a very poor area, and still heavily known as a poorer black community. Read more about the history and decline of Auburn Avenue at the following link: http://www.foxnews.com/us/2012/06/10/atlanta-historic-auburn-ave-again-at-crossroads.html

    37. “there is no such thing as a ‘neutral’ design.”

      There is a reason for everything. This is not to say that every bridge that is low is intended to segregate, but not considering the repercussions of the design does not negate the fact that there WILL be repercussions.

    38. As one planning scholar acknowledged, “[r]ace is a ubiquitous reality that must be acknowledged . . . if [planners] do not want simply to be the facilitators of social exclusion and economic isolation.”42

      It is normal for people to think that taking race out of the equation could lead to a less racist society. But this planning scholar completely dismantles this thought by claiming that it is essential to fixing the problem of racism by fulling acknowledging and accepting the concept of race.

    39. Yet the bench may have been created this way to prevent people—often homeless people—from lying down and taking naps

      Many people would see the first type of bench as a nice thing to do for homeless people by providing shelter. However, the second picture shows a bench that deters homeless people from seeking rest on it, which is a public good that by definition is supposed to be non-excludable. Most people would not view this second bench as being negative. In fact, it is most likely viewed as a nice way to prevent contact with strangers while sitting on the bench.

    40. People used the law by passing ordinances saying that certain individuals could not access certain locations.24 Social norms encouraged some to threaten undesirable persons with violence if they were to enter or remain in certain spaces

      Jim Crow laws were used in the past to segregate. An example of violence that could ensue were the multiple sit ins by nonviolent protesters who were met with angry white men and women who refused them service and refused to be served in the same space as them.

    41. Such devices include physical barriers to access—low bridges, road closings, and the construction of walls—as well as the placement of transit stops, highway routes, one-way streets, and parking-by-permit-only requirements.

      https://www.schlittlaw.com/blog/low-bridges-long-island-parkways/ These lower bridges can lead to death! This bridge in New York, pictured above, was built by Robert Moses, who has a history of creating restricting infrastructure.

    42. This hidden power suggests that lawmakers and judges should be especially diligent in analyzing the exclusionary impacts of architecture, but research demonstrates that they often give these impacts little to no consideration.2

      The power is hidden in that it is hard to prove intent, as I mentioned in a previous annotation above. However, it is only hard to prove if you are not looking for the problem that so many people and scholars are pointing to, which is this exclusionary practice through city planning, architecture, and infrastructure. So since these things have been noticed in patterns, and even in some instances out right admitted, there should be more of a movement to punish such acts as segregation.

    43. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge to this action, stating that the road closure was just a “routine burden of citizenship” and a “slight inconvenience.”11 Justice Marshall dissented, acknowledging that this inconvenience carried a “powerful symbolic message.”

      Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. This may help to explain why he, of all the justices of the court, was the only one to understand the racial implication of the architectural exclusion.

    44. t the request of white residents, in 1974 the city of Memphis closed off a street that connected an all-white neighborhood to a primarily black one


      These maps show how apparent the segregation is in the area of Memphis 1970 and 1980 which may explain the community idea of keeping the different racial groups segregated.

    45. Although the law has addressed the exclusionary impacts of racially restrictive covenants and zoning ordinances, most legal scholars, courts, and legislatures have given little attention to the use of these less obvious exclusionary urban design tactics. Street grid layouts, one-way streets, the absence of sidewalks and crosswalks, and other design elements can shape the demographics of a city and isolate a neighborhood from those surrounding it.

      The law and the government both address exclusionary impacts, but neither can or will do anything about what is happening. It seems that there is no way to prove the intent of these tactics, even though the intents, once studied, can be quite clear to those willing to believe it.

    46. According to his biographer, Moses directed that these overpasses be built intentionally low so that buses could not pass under them.4 This design decision meant that many people of color and poor people, who most often relied on public transportation, lacked access to the lauded public park at Jones Beach.5

      In a review of the graphic novel, "Robert Moses: The Master Builder of New York City", David Langdon states that, "for each groundbreaking feat of structural engineering and political mobilization, there is another story told of his callous social engineering, the consequences of which reshaped the lives of New Yorkers as much as his architecture." The authors of the graphic novel, Pierre Christin and Olivier Balez, use a sequence of pictures to expose the multiple facets of this architect who was both a master at his craft, while also a profound racist and destroyer. Read more about this novel: http://www.archdaily.com/772815/robert-moses-the-master-builder-of-new-york-city-pierre-christin-and-olivier-balez

    47. The lack of public-transit connections to areas north of the city makes it difficult for those who rely on transit—primarily the poor and people of color—to access job opportunities located in those suburbs.8

      This type of exclusion, whether intentional or not, leads to segregation in the long run that may last for years, decades, generations, or centuries. Later on, the article mentions that there are businesses in wealthier regions that need employees but cannot attract any because of how the transit system works.

    48. The examples of architectural exclusion identified in this Part are concerning in that they reveal a number of underlying problems.

      Even more concerning is the lack of public outcry, save for when design is very blatant, like in the picture shown. If the spikes were, say, replaced by a sculpture or another piece of art, the outcry would be far smaller.

    49. often poor people and people of color

      I realize that in modern times, the former is more likely than the latter, as the latter can be seen as racial profiling. Is there chance that perhaps stereotyping based on class will be outlawed in the near future, similar to the outlawing of racism?