84 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2018
    1. discourage the placement of media in children’s bedrooms and encourage parents to limit the total amount of entertainment screen time in general to <1 to 2 hours per day

      As a future educator, I would hope that all of the parents of my students enforce some sort of media restriction. However, I know that I will be teaching children from different socio-economic backgrounds, different families with different values, etc., and this will not always be the case. I will make it my mission as an educator to find an appropriate balance between appropriately accessing technology in my classroom and spending time with physical print.

    2. clinically significant impairment or distress.”

      Connecting to the other article I read, Digital Media, Anxiety and Depression in Children, extreme exposure to technology, as described in Internet Gaming Disorder, can eventually lead to anxiety and depression.

    3. The increasing prevalence of digital media has led to growing public concerns about potential detrimental effects, including the possibility that video game play may be “addicting.”

      Through becoming an RA, I got the chance to meet several residents that, for all intents and purposes, were addicted to video games. Sometimes I would not see them come out of their rooms for hours upon hours, even days if a new game or update had just been released. I looked out for all of my residents but especially my few residents who I knew had a gaming addiction.

    1. The tendency to be constantly connected to one’s social network through digital devices, therefore, potentially contributes to feelings of anxiety.

      I, for one, can personally attest to feeling anxious about not being active on social media. I try to establish a presence on many social media platforms- Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and Twitter to name my most frequently visited. When I haven't posted in a while or I have become inactive, I do get anxious and begin to feel somehow left out or like people have begun to forget me. Of course, this is not reality, but I can't help but feel anxious about inactivity.

    2. depression has been postulated to be caused by substituted digital communication, such as excessive mobile phone use that takes the place of face-to-face contact and causes subsequent social isolation

      Revisiting what I said earlier about the students my aunt taught that were unable to form social skills because of too much digital communication, research has actually proven that too much exposure can later cause depression in children.

    3. Adolescents may seek digital distraction from emerging anxiety or distress emotions, creating a reinforced behavioral avoidance of emotional experiences.

      The thought of a child using digital distractions as a coping mechanism for anxiety or distress is a very scary thought. When I was growing up, if I was upset I would simply go outside and play with my friends or read a book. My parents did not always allow me the opportunity to play a video game or get on the computer. My screentime was extremely limited. The fact that today's children are using digital distractions to cope with anxiety is only going to FURTHER damage them psychologically. Although it is easy to sit an upset child in front of a television, parents should encourage their child to seek healthier ways to deal with distress.

    4. Little research has been conducted on acute fear reactions delivered by newer technologies, such as the Internet, social media, and portable devices.

      Although little research has been conducted on the effects from frightening media via Internet, social media, etc., today's children were, for all intents and purposes, born with a cell phone/tablet/laptop in their hands. Children KNOW how to access developmentally inappropriate content in a variety of ways. The greater access to technology is only going to further prove the research that has already been proven- the same frightening content that children are accessing via television and movies will be accessed in a multitude of other ways and will have the same damaging effects.

    5. A variety of surveys dating back as far as the 1930s have shown that a substantial proportion of children experience acute fearful reactions to various aspects of the content of media, especially movies, television dramas, and the news.1

      I find it extremely interesting that surveys regarding children's responses to the content of media have dated as far back as the 1930's, when movies at the theater were a huge technological advancement and by far THE most exciting advancement in entertainment. Now, nearly 90 years later when media has consumed essentially every aspect of our day, I can only imagine the impact that content of media has had on children.

    6. anxiety resulting from lack of emotion-regulation skills because of substituted digital media use

      This is becoming an ever-increasingly important discussion in regards to today's youth. My aunt, who has been an public elementary school teacher for over 30 years now, told me that she has seen students come through her classroom that literally do not know how to socialize with their peers. She blames the social media and video game culture for keeping kids indoors and not engaged in outdoor or even indoor play with one another. She feared that her students that were lacking emotion-regulation skills went home each afternoon and spent the entire night playing video games.

    7. Researchers have documented that the options of texting, instant messaging, and emailing have become preferred by some individuals over face-to-face interactions for some types of contact.

      It's very easy to deal with someone over the internet because you can be whoever you want to be! You gain confidence because you aren't having to deal with someone face to face. This is where cyber bullying comes in to play. You can hide behind a screen and you can even be anonymous! It just makes it that much easier for someone to pretend.

    8. In contrast, research with adults showed that using the Internet to communicate with friends and family was linked with decreases in depression

      Most adults that I know are strictly using social media to connect with friends and family. Facebook, being the most popular in our parent's and grandparent's generation. They aren't call caught up in Twitter, Snapchat, or Instagram. Heck, I don't even know if the majority of adult's know how to use the apps or what they are used for.

    9. Key topics of inquiry include the following: anxiety and depression associated with technology-based negative social comparison

      This is one of the biggest reasons I have quit some social media apps such as Instagram. It is so easy to compare yourself to other people when thousands and thousands of people use the app. Also, most pictures out there are edited to make people fit the stereotypical "pretty."

    10. ms.17 The majority of victims report negative feelings, such as embarrassment, worry, fear, depression, or loneliness after cyberbullying events.24

      I think this is important because we see so much more of this as technology increases in society. I agree with Kennedy with the idea that technology is so dominant in schools now this is something teachers need to look out for.

    11. a feeling of being dependent on text messaging was associated with depression.

      I agree with all this because there are times when my phone dies and I have quick moment of panic. I then have to remind myself that there was once a tie without technology. I think the kids growing up now will have an even worse does of this because they were introduced to technology so much earlier.

    12. the behavior may actually increase risk in individuals vulnerable to social anxiety disorder.

      This confirms my idea from the pervious comment. I feel like social anxiety cannot be solved through social media/screentime.

    13. Research has shown that individuals with Internet overuse or addiction report using it to avoid negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression.

      Agree with Kennedy. I feel like using social media in this way could heal emotion in the moment but cause problems in the future. Social interactions in-person are very important especially at those early stages of growth/development.

    14. adults showed that using the Internet to communicate with friends and family was linked with decreases in depression.6

      I do believe communication is very important. I talk to my family, boyfriend and friends who all live away from me. Texting is important for me because I am usually on the go and it is the fastest way to get up with someone. I also rely on my phone when I forget something and I need to test a roommate. There are beneficial aspects to technology.

    15. people leading exciting and idealized lives in media programs invites social comparison and contributes to dissatisfaction with oneself.4

      I agree with Reilly because I have seen this many times. I also stated earlier that I have fears for my niece. Those fears come from seeing friends compare themselves to other people. I feel like social media sets expectations high and makes people question their personal lives/worth.

    16. difficult to calm a child who has been intensely frightened by a program or movie, and the resulting loss of sleep and heightened levels of unnecessary anxiety

      I think this is an important point and I feel like it is our job as future educators and parents to monitor what is being watched by children. I do believe in allowing a young adult more privacy but a child needs support in making certain decisions like watching a scary movie before bed.

    17. especially social media

      Also a big point. I believe social media sets expectations high and make people think they are not good enough. For example, my sister compared herself to all the "organic moms" out there. I think it is just important to limit this social media time. Also my niece is about to be 9 and has an Instagram with all her dance friends and as they get older i feel like it could cause issues.

    18. Early research has explored the impact of traditional media (eg, television, movies) on children’s acute fears, which can result in anxieties and related sleep disturbances that are difficult to remedy.

      Personally this was one of my fears. I find myself on my phone in bed at night and then not being able to go to sleep. My sister allows my niece and nephew to watch something before bed to get them to fall asleep, but sometimes it does the opposite. This is something I am interested in reading!

    19. In fact, researchers conducting a recent longitudinal study of adolescents found that greater use of mobile phones at baseline was associated with higher levels of depression 1 year later.19

      I thought this was interesting as I too feel like too much gaming or activity on mobile devices inside could lead to depression. I think this because you may not be doing enough social and physical activity and spending all your time staring at a mobile device or tv screen can sometimes lead to feeling alone and getting out of physical shape and becoming depressed.

    20. The use of social technology (eg, texting, instant messaging, e-mailing) has become a primary method of communication for a majority of young adults, and interrupting the use of these technologies can lead to increased levels of anxiety.

      I think that alot of us could attest to this feeling. I think that people especially of my generation, have serious mood swings when their technology gets taken away from them.

    21. For these individuals, opting to substitute digital media for interpersonal communication to avoid feared situations may become cyclically reinforced over time, making the person even more avoidant and worsening the symptoms and severity of social anxiety disorder.1

      I've also seen this first hand with another family member of mine who has anxiety. She chooses to communicate from behind a screen rather than in person. It in someways helps her because she is communicating but it does not help in improving her socialization.

    22. n contrast, research with adults showed that using the Internet to communicate with friends and family was linked with decreases in depression.6

      I've personally seen first hand how this is true. My aunt moved far away and was feeling depressed and disconnected from us until she got a facebook and it helped her feel more included in our lives.

    23. However, considering that these types of technologies are often used to access video entertainment, much of what we know about fear and children is applicable to modern types of media use.

      I think that the access to disturbing videos across the internet has a huge impact in fear amongst young children. Even on youtube when kids are just trying to watch funny videos, some really violent things end up popping up.

    24. Research on traditional media has found that the representation of attractive people leading exciting and idealized lives in media programs invites social comparison and contributes to dissatisfaction with oneself.4

      This is SO SO SO true! I have seens tons of girls my age feel less about themselves because of the lives that other people live on social media. It leads to dissatisfaction in life as a whole for many people.

    25. Media use that provides effective distraction, humor, connection to peers, and a wide social network could serve to help adolescents avoid depression and potentially reduce its impact on their functioning

      Not all media is negative but we need to take a step back and think: exactly how much media is too much?

    26. A recent meta-analysis of 131 studies23 highlighted the following key findings: (1) most estimates of the prevalence of cyberbullying among adolescents fall between 11% and 48%, depending on the definition of cyberbullying, group demographics, and the reporting time frame; (2) there is a substantial degree of overlap between adolescents who bully others offline and those who engage in cyberbullying (similarly, victims of cyberbullying are often victimized offline); and (3) adolescents who experience cyberbullying are at increased risk for a wide range of mental and physical health problems.17 The majority of victims report negative feelings, such as embarrassment, worry, fear, depression, or loneliness after cyberbullying events.

      I think this is so important as to why schools have now implemented rules online. Many schools have rules along with consequences if cyberbullying is reported from a student. Something has to be done about it!

    27. In Japan, researchers noted anxiety in students (mean age = 18.4 years) such that when they did not receive an instant reply to their text message, they felt a fear of being ostracized

      This is absolutely insane but I can totally relate to this. Today, if we do not get that feel of instant gratification, we feel abandoned in a sense which can lead to nervousness and anxiety.

    28. Although primarily correlational, research suggests that young people who replace in-person exchanges with virtual interactions intensify their social impairments, whereas those who use online exchanges to supplement existing friendships report improvements in the quality and closeness of their existing relationships.

      I agree that supplementing friendships/relationships by using media can be effective. This is almost necessary in todays society to keep in touch and make plans

    29. Researchers have documented that the options of texting, instant messaging, and emailing have become preferred by some individuals over face-to-face interactions for some types of contact.

      I agree this may be helpful to avoid dealing with social anxiety, but is it actually worsening it?

    30. Research has shown that individuals with Internet overuse or addiction report using it to avoid negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression

      But can this also heighten the anxiety/depression? Are there other effective ways to help these mental disorders?

    31. A variety of surveys dating back as far as the 1930s have shown that a substantial proportion of children experience acute fearful reactions to various aspects of the content of media, especially movies, television dramas, and the news.

      I have actually never thought of anxiety and fear in children to be caused by media.

    32. It is often difficult to calm a child who has been intensely frightened by a program or movie, and the resulting loss of sleep and heightened levels of unnecessary anxiety can cause physical, cognitive, and emotional problems.

      I guess this does make sense because in children, it is very important to get effective sleep. Without their sleep their brain does not function properly.

    33. n contrast, research with adults showed that using the Internet to communicate with friends and family was linked with decreases in depression.6

      This is another idea to consider. Can it be beneficial? Ex: long term relationships, keeping in contact with old friends, or family members who live far away. There is always another side to the issue.

    34. ocial networking sites can influence depression and anxiety in adolescents through technology-based negative social comparison, resulting in negative self-evaluation or anxiety about evaluation by others.

      Yes!!! I totally believe that adolescents struggle with this all the time with social media. It is almost as if social media sites are a competition. For ex: who can be the prettiest, who can go the coolest place, who can edit their pictures the best, etc.. I believe it can really affect a persons self confidence.

    1. Social media can thus provide a good forum to practice skills related to identity development, such as self-presentation and self-disclosure.

      I believe that this is one the huge benefits of social media and the internet. A mentioned above and below this quote, adolescents can find individuals that are like them on social media which thus helps them feel better about themselves. If you find people that are like you, you no longer feel so uncomfortable with who you are. I also believe that social media helps us shape who we are through our social media mistakes and phases. If you mess up online, or go back and look through what you used to put on the internet, you may feel better about the person you have become or you may decide I want to go back to being like that. It keeps a timeline of our ever changing emotions, personas, and life events.

    1. Rather, it is more helpful to think in terms of a healthy media diet that incorporates similar properties to a healthy food diet: moderation in amount, consuming more of the helpful and less of the harmful content, and having regard for the age of the consumer.

      I love this analogy because it perfectly describes what consists of healthy media use. I believe all things should be done in moderation because too much of anything can be bad (except money lol). I also believe parents and teachers must have a regard for age and only allow developmentally appropriate media use.

    2. The vast majority of laboratory-based experimental studies have revealed that violent media exposure causes increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, aggressive behavior, and desensitization to violence and decreases prosocial behavior (eg, helping others) and empathy.

      I've always thought watching violent media would cause the child to be more violent but I never thought much about the many other effects it has on children's behavior,

    3. Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous.

      Violence is seen everywhere in multiple domains of media. I watch a video/movie or play a game before or with my daughter prior to allowing her to by herself to ensure it's developmentally appropriate.

    4. exposure to violent video games increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, and aggressive behavior and decreases prosocial behavior

      It can teach them to become violent

    5. violent video games can also have negative effects on players.

      violent video games can lead students to become desensitized to violence

    6. Video games in particular have increased in popularity, with some teenagers reporting that they play ≥40 hours per week

      video games have become more prevalent over the years, with an increased growth in violent video games

    1. Active mediation refers to parent-child conversations about media, including parental attempts to provide children with critical viewing skills regarding media. For example, a parent might discuss themes of bullying after the child views a television program containing aggressive behavior.9 Finally, co-viewing is when parents view, use, or consume media with their children but do not necessarily discuss the content with them

      I was not surprised by Sara Dewitt's findings discussed during her ted talk. Children benefited the most when watching a television show or playing a game and talking about the content with their parents, I use active mediation and restrictive mediation with my daughter. I try to talk to her about the content she plays or watches and I also restrict her from playing or watching anything inappropriate. I also like the idea of co-viewing but still discussing the content with them.

    2. Children today average more hours engaged with media each week than they do engaged with almost any other activity (between 6 and 9 hours/day).

      I believe screen time should be limited and only used in moderation. 6 - 9 hours sounds excessive. We must find a balance for our children and students in how much they use screens and how much they don't.

    3. We find that child characteristics, the parent-child relationship, parental mediation practices, and parents’ own use of media all can influence children’s media use, their attitudes regarding media, and the effects of media on children.
    4. For young children, active mediation can influence their comprehension of media, learning, and language exposure. When parents ask questions and scaffold interactions during media use, children as young as 3 can learn from videos and transfer learning to other settings.14 Between ages 1 and 2, toddlers can interact over video chat more effectively with parent support and learn content from media more readily when a parent co-views and teaches them the presented material.

      This is beneficial for the child. If parents can have conversations with their children about what they are doing on their devices, then this sparks a conversation in general. Children need to be scaffolded and talked to because their interaction with their parents are important

    5. In addition, low-income parents with toddlers with social-emotional delays were more likely to give their child mobile devices to calm them down or keep them quiet.

      This shouldn't be how parents "fix" what is wrong with their child. Handing a device to a child and having them entertain themselves because the parent needs them to is not beneficial for the child at all. They need the one on one interaction with their parents.

    6. However, in older children, gaming has the potential to encourage more family interactions because children often attempted to bring parents into their online and console playing

      A friend of mine and his dad bond over playing video games and discussing what is going on in those digital universes. They do not have much free time to spend with each other and neither of them are very communicative so that is their way to bond and show their love. If they did not have video games, they probably would not be as close and open with each other as they are today.

    7. A recent meta-analysis revealed that both restrictive and active mediation can reduce negative media effects, such as the learning of aggressive behavior, substance use, and sexual behavior, whereas co-viewing (without discussion) tends to enhance or facilitate media effects

      This topic was also lightly discussed in the TED Talk by Sara DeWitt. If parents took the time to discuss what kids did with screen time, such as what they watched or what video game they played, then they can both gain more insight and knowledge from it. Active participation by both parties can lead to more conversations and more understanding of each others lives. My mom would always talk to me about what I was doing, watching, or reading which lead to us having a deeper insight into the others day to day life. If she found something she didn't like within what I was viewing, we would discuss it and it would be over with. There were never any negative effects because we discussed things such as consequences, life experiences she had, and why such things were a bad idea. A lot of parents complain and say technology takes their kids away from them or allows them to get away with breaking rules, but if they would inject themselves into the child's interactions with technology they problem wouldn't be present.

    8. How can parents use media as a tool to strengthen their family?

      I think this is a good question that needs to be addressed because as the article states there are positive forces in technology use. Technology isn't going to go away our world is just going to become more immersed in it and good or bad we cannot change this fact. Because of this I think it is important to look for ways and participate in ways that technology can be a beneficial tool in our lives.

    1. Sleep deprivation has been associated with increased obesity and weight gain among children, most consistently among those between ages 3 and 7

      Sleep is very very important when it comes to maintaining personal health. A middle school aged child should be getting 8-9 hours of sleep a night. Most kids that are "addicted" will be up past midnight getting maybe 4-5 hours a sleep a night. This will eventually take a tole on one's body.

    2. This suggests that displacement of physical activity may not be a strong link between screen time and obesity.

      This was very interesting to read and I am going to have to say I disagree with this statement. Like stated in the article, there are difficulties when it comes to measuring screen media exposure and physical activity. Based off of experience such as babysitting, once the kids are glued in to a show or game, there is no way I am getting them to go outside. A 3 year old that I babysat threw a tantrum when I told him we were done watching TV and it was time to go on a walk. I think physical activity and screen time directly correlates with obesity.

    3. Observational studies have also revealed that greater screen time is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors more broadly, including hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, elevated inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome.2

      Screen time has to physical aspect to it so I without a doubt believe these side effects are associated with excessive screen time.

    4. Current evidence suggests that screen media exposure leads to obesity in children and adolescents through increased eating while viewing; exposure to high-calorie, low-nutrient food and beverage marketing that influences children’s preferences, purchase requests, consumption habits; and reduced sleep duration

      I also think screen media exposure becomes addicting and kids are no longer interested in going outside to play with their friends anymore. Why play outside when you both can be playing the same game and communicate through it?

    1. Make sleep a priority: Talk with families about the importance of sleep and healthy sleep expectations.Encourage a bedtime routine that includes calming activities and avoids electronic media use.Encourage families to remove all electronic media from their children or teenagers’ bedrooms, including televisions, video games, computers, tablets, and cell phones.Talk with families about the negative consequences of bright light in the evening on sleep.If the child or adolescent in your care is exhibiting mood or behavioral problems, consider insufficient sleep as a contributing factor.

      As a future educator, I want to be able to promote these ideas to parents because if I notice a child falling behind in class or sleeping in class I want to make sure that its not because they are at home sitting in front of an electronic device for hours before they go to bed. Children need to go outside and play. I understand that some kids are doing something educational on their devices, but 9 out of 10 times they aren't. And that is not beneficial to their learning

    2. For example, media use in adults is associated with sleep onset latency but not with tiredness because adults who spend substantial time engaging with media may have the opportunity to compensate by sleeping longer.21 Such a compensatory mechanism is largely impossible for children and adolescents because their wake times are primarily determined by parents, school hours, and/or extracurricular activities.

      I find this interesting that screentime does not have as much as an affect on adults as it does in children, but I disagree with that idea. Yes it heavily affects children's sleeping schedule and then their school schedule and children also have to be up for school at a certain time and have different extracurricular activities to be present for. However, adults have work they have to be at and then they have to drive their children to school and take them and pick them up from extracurricular activities. Therefore, adults are affected just as much.

    3. Data from US population-based studies show that ∼30% of preschool-aged children and between 50% and 90% of school-aged children and adolescents do not get as much sleep as they may need.1,2 The pervasive use of screen-based media is a likely contributor to widespread sleep insufficiency. Screen-based media devices are present in the bedrooms of 75% of children,3 and ∼60% of adolescents report viewing or interacting with screens in the hour before bedtime.4 In a recent systematic review of 67 studies of screen time and media use in school-aged youth and teenagers (1999–2014), 90% found that screen time was adversely associated with sleep health, primarily via delayed bedtimes and reduced sleep duration.5 Potential mechanisms underlying these observed associations include the following6: (1) time displacement (ie, time spent on screens replaces time spent doing other things, including sleeping)7; (2) psychological stimulation based on media content8; and (3) the effects of light emitted from devices on circadian timing, sleep physiology, and alertness.9 Healthy sleep patterns in childhood and adolescence are associated with lower obesity risk,10,11 better psychological well-being,12 improved cognitive functioning,13 and lower risk-taking behaviors.14 We propose that sleep among children and adolescents should be a priority in family, school, and clinical contexts, as well as in future basic, observational, and translational research.

      This is surprising to see how many parents allow their children to have electronic devices in their bedrooms. I had maybe just one hour of television before bed when I was younger and then I would play for a little bit and then go to bed. Now that technology is placed in front of children so often it has become a major part in their lives. And now that children are looking at screens right before the go to sleep, it is affecting their sleeping schedule. Sleep is crucial for young children and if they do not get enough of it then they are going to fall a little behind.

    1. Indeed, many teenagers report at least sometimes doing homework while using another medium, including television (51% of teenagers), social networking (50%), text messaging (60%), and listening to music (76%).

      It makes me wonder how much more efficient I would be at getting my homework done if I set aside time and shut my phone off and just worked without any other screen beside what my homework required? I have just grown up answering a text when I get one, checking instagram when I take a homework break and so much more. I do believe I could be more efficient without that while, trying to do homework. The thing that I do not find distracting is music. I like listening to soothing music while doing homework because I believe this helps me focus.

    2. American youth spend more time with media than any other waking activity: an average of 7.5 hours per day, every day. On average, 29% of that time is spent juggling multiple media streams simultaneously (ie, media multitasking).

      I think its crazy that people spend more time on social media then in other activity. It scares me that people take that much time out of their day and probably most of that time spent on social media is not educative. As long as kids are using these for educative purposes then I think it can be of good use

      cofcedu #screentime

    1. There has been considerable concern that television may negatively influence young children’s executive function, especially the ability to focus and sustain attention in task situations.

      I feel like technology in general has positive and negative aspects just like anything else. I believe that it is important for children to have a balance with technology. I think I grew up at a nice time because I know how to use technology, but it was not as dominant. I played outside and created special bonds with people, but also got a Game Boy and electronics for birthdays and special occasions. I think society today is a lot more dependent on technology I know from high school until now I have became a lot more attached. I think moderation is the biggest thing we should focus on when it comes to technology.

    2. There is little question from a large amount of research that educational television has a positive impact on cognitive development.

      I believe it is ok for a child to engage in educational games/T.V, and I also think it is ok to watch Disney/not as educational shows, but I believe it all needs to be balanced. In my human growth class we discuss at one of the most beneficial things to cognitive development is physical play.

    3. Thus, it appears that parental engagement with both television and interactive media, such as smartphones, may reduce the quantity and quality of parent-child interactions, which are crucial for the development of cognitive skills, especially language and executive function.

      I think is is important. I think if children are involved with their children and ask about the games/show interest in their activities I feel like it could benefit a relationship. I do believe that if a child hands a kid a tablet and does not communicate with them all night that their can be serious detachment between parent and child. I hate going to restaurants and seeing a whole family on their phones.

    4. and other interactive technologies (eg, educational apps for tablets and smartphones) to support learning in formal educational contexts.1

      I totally agree with Anna! We used Kahoot all the time in high school as a review and it did help me learn material.

    5. Media have repeatedly been claimed to be important sources of children’s informal education beyond school.

      I do believe in using videos and technology as a learning technique/way to connect ideas/to use examples. I am more old school so I think balance is important I do not think a child just should just learn from technology.

    6. The use of computer games as well as educational computer programs can lead to gains in academically relevant content and other cognitive skills. This article concludes by identifying topics and goals for future research and provides recommendations based on current research-based knowledge.

      I think educational games are fine but I think we should monitor it. In elementary school we played math games on the computers when we got done with our work. Also, in my math ed class we are talking about math in the form of technology and games can get the child more excited about the topic.

    7. The cognitive impact of these media depends on the age of the child, the kind of programming (educational programming versus programming produced for adults), the social context of viewing, as well the particular kind of interactive media (eg, computer games).

      I think technology can be used for good, but has to be thought through for different ages etc. I feel like in those first years of growing it is very important to use more social interactions.

    1. s well as interventions on behalf of international development by organizations such as the United National Children’s Fund

      I think many funds should be started in order to take another step toward equalizing education

    2. Discursive and normative uncertainties mean that, for instance, “digital learning” is open to different interpretations, ranging from an instrumental concern with employability and growth to more idealist concerns for social mobility, social justice, and empowerment. In addition, given the huge inequalities in region, income, culture, sex, and so forth, efforts to promote digital opportunities can also become, inadvertently, the means by which inequalities are reproduced or new risks are encountered.

      "digital learning" can be a variety of things. I see digital learning as learning from anything media related. Children do learn best when they dont even know they are learning. (TV, game)

    3. in-school and after-school virtual learning and online coordination of academic activities are further intensifying the already considerable academic pressures on children in middle-class households, with the potential to adversely affect parent-child relationships

      I feel as if some kids are far more advanced with technology than others due to at home living situations which can cause issues in the classroom

    4. Research on parental use of monitoring technologies suggests that such updates about children’s whereabouts may trigger authoritarian parents to be more controlling,19 which in turn is unlikely to enhance children’s academic performance.

      My parents were very strict on monitoring media use. We were able to watch TV and play on the computer but they pushed for us to play outside and interact with other kids face to face more

    5. For instance, the United States, among other wealthy countries, is witnessing calls for data-driven instruction in the hope that this can remove bias in student advancement, equalize education, and improve learning outcomes and teacher efficiency.

      I feel as if it will be very hard for education to become completely equal. In the US today there are many areas where education is at a low compared to other areas

    6. In India, progress depends on the business case for digital education, which is only slowly gaining ground as the education market develops software packages around textbook content

      In the US, I think it is important for us to realize how well off we are compared to other countries

    7. s the goal to prepare students for a competitive workforce, to connect marginalized youth, to support schools, or to provide progressive alternatives to school? The goals determine the means, and both have implications for evaluating technological interventions.

      Yes! Our children must start at an age where they are able to acquire knowledge in order to become successful in te future.

    8. Or, consider that although most research stems from urban settings, many children globally live in rural areas (55% of the child population in China, for instance) where difficulties of mass migration, poverty, and loss of parents already undermine children’s well-being

      This is something to keep in mind. In depth research must be done in order to find out if technology is positively impacting students

    9. Yet these promises are countered by prominent public and policy concerns over the harms to children associated with society’s growing reliance on digitally networked technologies.

      I agree that at such a young age children should do more than just screen time but this is what our world is! Children need to experience that.

    10. This article documents the particular irony that while the world’s poorer countries look to research to find ways to increase access and accelerate the fair distribution of digital educational resources, the world’s wealthier countries look to research for guidance in managing excessive screen time, heavily commercial content, and technologies that intrude on autonomy and privacy

      how do low income schools still integrate technology in their schools if they can not afford it? Shouldnt it be fair for everyone?

    1. A considerable body of work now suggests that socioeconomic status predicts digital literacy skills.2

      This was actually not shocking to me because those families dont have access to technology like others do.

    2. The concept of digital and media literacy as a broad construct has not yet entered political discourse. Policy makers must recognize digital and media literacy as literacy in today’s world.

      I think that not only policy makers need to recognize the impact of technology and media but parents and families do as well.

    3. In short, interventions that equip youth to critically navigate their digital lives have positive impacts that mitigate potentially harmful effects of participation in digital spaces.

      I like how this acknowledges the harm in media but offers a way of helping the situation.

    4. The fallout about “fake news” from the 2016 US presidential election is but 1 example of the consequences we face when citizens do not engage critical digital and media literacies.

      I think that people need to be better educated on whats real and fake online as well as how permanent our online footprint is.

    5. eading and writing in digital spaces may require a more complex application of skills than print-based literacy2

      I agree with this. When you write with a pen or paper you only need those tools to write with. When you are typing you need to know how to use a computer as well as the software that comes with it.

    6. These questions underscore what parents, educators, health professionals, and community leaders need to know to ensure that youth become digitally and media literate.

      Becoming media literate is extremely important in today society! It is the new way of the world. As an educator it is my job to include technology and media in my classroom to ensure this literacy.