8 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2022
  2. Jan 2016
    1. What were the three major crops developed in the Americas? What impact did they have?

      The three major crops were corn, beans and squash which all had nutritional needs that sustained the cities and civilizations.

    2. The last global ice age trapped much of the world’s water in enormous continental glaciers. Twenty thousand years ago, ice sheets, some a mile thick, extended across North America as far south as modern-day Illinois and Ohio.

      The ice age across North America left many people to panic on how they were going to survive these harsh temperatures. They had to find many ways to stay warm and finding food was tough because they would be trapped from going out in the cold.

    3. As many as 15,000 people lived in the Chaco Canyon complex in present-day New Mexico. One single building, Pueblo Bonito, stretched over two acres and rose five stories. Its 600 rooms were decorated with copper bells, turquoise decorations, and bright macaws.6

      With a population of only 15,000 people, the creation of such a massive building for that time is impressive. Especially considering the tools used at the time, as well as the building material (adobe clay). Not to mention that this was not the only building.

    4. The Mississippian’s signature mounds–enormous earthworks that could span acres and climb several stories tall–physically set priests and elites above the general population of craftsmen, agricultural workers, and slaves.

      This can relate even to modern day social status, as the higher up on a hill a property lies, the more expensive it tends to be.

    5. but for some, it also may have accompanied a decline in health. Analysis of remains reveals that societies transitioning to agriculture often experienced weaker bones and teeth.3

      While I can see why their bodies may have suffered from agricultural work due to stress on the body and repetitive motion, what caused the damage specifically to bones and teeth? In addition, are these symptoms found in modern day farmers?

    6. Nomadic hunter-gatherers, they traveled in small bands following megafauna–enormous mammals that included mastodons and giant horses and bison–into the frozen Beringian tundra at the edge of North America.

      Image Description

      I find it amazing that the nomadic hunter-gatherers traveled in small groups, but followed these massive creatures. Looking at this photo of the size comparisons, I can only imagine what it must have been like to hunt them.

  3. Aug 2015
    1. 1. What were the variety of exchanges that occurred in Native American Societies? What role did giving play in establishing status and obligation? The exchanges between Native American Societies was about trading goods, resources, marriages between two different community lines, different ideas, religious ideas. It expanded resources and alliances - both in political and religious perspectives. The role of exchanges established status and obligation, in a way that if your tribe was able to provide the most useful resources - you would be higher than others. Also, it gives the opportunity to establish obligation unto other communities if it was necessary. 2. What developments occur in Europe that helps set the foundation for European exploration and empire building?

      1. Massive growth in population after the epidemic that killed half the population within the area. 2. With the population growth, there was a growth of economy and high demand of the necessities of living. 3. From the growing demand of goods, led to ship building and navigation so merchants could expand their variety with what they were able to trade. 4. Trade led to the establishment of higher regions, and also people who want to establish their own hierarchy in their own regions. 5. As monarchies were made, communities had gained the amounts of necessities allowing exploration, trade between farther regions as well as producing routes for transportation as well as trade. 3. What was Portugal's intent in slave? What role do the Portuguese come to play in the trade of African slaves? African slaves were around before Portugal had began using slaves, going back to Muslim using them during the crusade. Due to sugar plantations being grown from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, there was a growing need of labor. After seeing an exchange of slaves between their source and another slave trader, the Portuguese soon became another main source of slaves as well.