4,406 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2019
    1. enantioinduction

      Enantioinduction is also popularly known as asymmetric induction. This process is the preferential formation of one enantiomer over the other as a result of the influence of a chiral feature present in reactants or the catalyst.

    2. molecular biology

      branch of biology that deals with structure and function of nucleic acids and proteins

    3. genetically encoded

      Is the order of nucleotides that make up the genetic codes that is translated into proteins

    4. isostere

      elements that have the same number of electrons in the outermost shell (also known as valence shell) and have similar electronic properties

    5. biocompatible

      not harmful to living cells

    6. organosilicon

      Compounds that contain carbon-silicon bonds

    7. enantiopure

      A compound available in one enantiomeric form

    8. turnover

      The number of moles of substrata that a catalyst can convert into the desired product before becoming inactive

    9. chemo- and enantioselectivity

      Chemoselectivity is the preferential reaction of a reagent with a specific functional group over others. Enantioselectivity is the extent to which one enantiomer is formed over the other in a chemical reaction.

    10. heme proteins

      is a type of metalloprotein and contains a heme group which is required for the functionality of the protein

    11. catalyze

      speed up a reaction with the use of external agent, typically a chemical compound

  2. Jun 2019
    1. We decomposed this metric into two components: species turnover (βST—the proportion of interactions that are not shared owing to differences in species composition between two networks) and linkage turnover [βOS, also called rewiring—the proportion of interactions unique to a single network despite the occurrence of both partners in both networks (30)

      The authors measured the overall dissimilarity between different locations by two factors:

      species turnover- when two locations do not share similar networks because they are inhabited by different species,

      and linkage turnover- when species found in both locations develop different interactions specific to their site

    2. The wider variety of partners used at the larger scale (regional network) corresponds to the “fundamental niche,” whereas the subset of partners found at local scales indicates that local populations have much more restricted “realized niches” (27, 28).

      A species' fundamental niche encompasses all of the possible roles it has in its environment, whereas the realized niche are the actual roles that a species plays in its environment, taking into account competition, predation, and other interactions with neighboring species.

      The video below further explains this.

    3. niche broadening

      A niche is an organism's role in its ecosystem, describing how it utilizes the resources and interacts with living and nonliving factors of its environment.

      Niche broadening is when a species expands its roles in its habitat, as a tool for survival.

    4. interaction release

      In response to lack of food and increased populations, animals broaden the scope of species they interact with beyond their original interactions.

    5. frugivores

      An animal that eats primarily fruit

    6. interaction dissimilarity

      When the behavior between species in one area differs from the behaviors between species in another location.

    7. introduced species

      Plants or animals not originally from that area

    8. novel interactions

      A new relationship or pattern of behavior between plants and animals.

    9. seed dispersal

      The distribution or spreading of seeds throughout an area

    10. binary

      Binary calculations are a straightforward form of measurement that states the presence or absence of an interaction.

    11. weighted

      Weighted networks assign some form of quantitative value, in this case frequency, as a measure of the interaction in a network.

    12. biotic factors

      Living parts of an ecosystem, in this case, invasive species on the island

    13. Abiotic factors

      Non-living parts of an ecosystem, such as elevation of rainfall

    1. dimorphic

      Dimorphic indicates differences in characteristics between males and females of the same species other than the sex cells.

    2. gonad

      Gonad refers the organ that produces an organism's reproductive cells.

      For mammals, this is the testis in males and ovary in females.

    3. transcription

      The creation of an RNA transcript from DNA.

    4. aromatase

      An enzyme that produces estrogen, the main female sex hormone.

    5. intron retention

      A transcription event in which introns, which are frequently excluded from mRNA, are instead maintained in the mRNA transcript.

      Intron retention allows for more diversity of mRNA transcripts from the same DNA.

    1. recitation

      A meeting of a subset of students from a larger lecture course in which students can ask questions, get clarification on lecture topics, and may solve additional problems or take quizzes (typically required with very large college courses).

    2. β

      Beta. Beta refers to the probability that you can accept the null hypothesis (which states that values affirmation has no effect) when in fact the null hypothesis is wrong.

    3. effect size

      Statistical measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables.

    4. double-blind study

      An experiment in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know which group the each participant is assigned to until after the data is analyzed.

    5. gender gap

      Another term for the "gender achievement gap" in which men outperform women in the same field.

    6. lucrative


    7. conceptual mastery

      Understanding the main ideas that make up the field.

    8. interactive techniques

      Activities in which the student participates (as opposed to passively listening to a lecture).

    9. curricular materials

      Educational resources that can be incorporated into a teacher's lessons.

    10. context-rich problems

      Short scenarios that give the student a real-world situation in which to apply their knowledge.

    11. fear of being devalued based on a group identity

      Stereotype threat or identity threat.

    12. evaluative stress

      Fear and anxiety caused by the thought of having to take an exam.

    13. pedagogical

      Related to teaching.

    14. control group

      The subjects that do not receive treatment.

    15. self-relevant

      Related to an individual's sense of identity.

    16. cumulative exam

      Test on all material covered during the course.

    17. distribution

      The frequency of occurrence of some measure (for example: how many students got As, Bs, Cs, Ds, and Fs).

    18. standardized test

      Any form of an exam that requires all people taking the test to answer the same questions and is scored the same way in all cases, so that comparisons can be made between all people who take the test. These are typically multiple choice tests taken by large populations of students (for example: all 8th grade students in the US).

    19. psychological threat

      Any outside force (real or perceived) that challenges a person's values, beliefs or sense of self.

      Stereotype (or identity) threat is a subset of psychological threat in which a person feels they will be judged according to common prejudices about some aspect of their identity (for example: race, ethnicity or gender).

    20. SOM

      Supporting Online Materials (typically located at the end of the article).

    21. significant

      The result deviates from that expected to arise by chance (from random variation or errors in sampling).

    22. psychological intervention

      Any activity used to modify behavior, emotional state, or feelings.

    23. values affirmation

      An intervention in which people reflect on and write about the beliefs and values (e.g., family, integrity) that are important in their life.

    24. gender achievement gap

      The difference in test scores, course performance, and job prospects between people of different genders.

    25. instructional methods

      How course material is taught, such as through context-rich problems or curricular materials.

    26. cognitive

      Perception, attention, learning, memory, and problem solving.

    27. theoretically motivated

      Based on a hypothesis that may have been supported in laboratory experiments, but has not yet been shown to work in practice.

    28. replicated

      Repeating a scientific experiment and finding the same results.

    29. resulting in a significant gender × condition interaction

      Interaction effects occur when the effect of one variable depends on another variable.

      In this case, the effect of the intervention (values affirmation or control) depended on the student gender (male or female).

    30. discipline

      A specific branch of knowledge, such as physics or biology.

    31. Error bars

      A graphical representation (usually lines through a point on the graph that run parallel to one of the axes) showing the amount of uncertainty there is in the location of that point. All scientific data collection includes uncertainty--error bars allow researchers to show how confident they are in their results. Large error bars mean there is a lot of uncertainty (lower confidence), while smaller error bars mean there is less uncertainty.

    32. z scores

      A z-score is a measure of the number of standard deviations above or below the average score a raw, individual score is. The higher the z-score, the more different a data point is from the average.

    33. continuous

      Continuous variables have an infinite number of possible values. This is in contrast to categorical variables, which have a discrete number of defined values (for example, in this study "man" or "woman" for gender).

    34. SD

      Standard deviation, a measure of the amount of variation in data.

      It can be used to quantify how far an individual's data is from the average of a data set.

    35. negative relation

      A condition in which when the value of one variable goes up (endorsement of the gender stereotype), the value of the other variable goes down (exam scores).

    36. as a function of

      A function defines one variable in terms of another. Here, the more strongly a woman in the control group endorsed the gender stereotype, the lower her exam scores were.

      Defining y "as a function of" x means that y varies based on the level of x.

    37. χ2

      Chi-squared, a test which tells whether there is a statistically significant difference between the distribution of two categorical variables (for example, gender).

    38. SE

      Refers to standard error, which is a measure of how far away the mean of your data is likely to be from the true mean of the population.

    39. P

      The P value is a measure of how likely it is that your null hypothesis (that values affirmation has no effect) is true.

    40. outcome measure

      Tools used to assess a subject's performance.

    41. condition

      Assigned group, either the intervention group or the control group. In this case, the control group contained students who did not participate in the values affirmation intervention.

    42. social-psychological

      Effects that result from interactions within groups, and between both groups and individuals.

    43. randomized

      Participants are randomly assigned to different test conditions.

      In this case, participants are equally likely to end up in the control group and the values affirmation test group.

    1. chlorisondamine

      A drug that blocks the binding of acetylcholine to its nicotinic receptors.

    2. neurogenesis

      Formation of new neurons.

    3. autoreceptors

      Referring to a case where the neurotransmitter and the receptors are present on the same cell. The released neurotransmitter binds to the receptor on the same cell.

    4. morphometric analysis

      A quantitative measurement of a neuron size, shape, or density.

    5. petrosal and nodose neurons

      Brain cells in a group of nerves found at the base of the skull. The nodose and petrosal neurons are part of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, respectively.

    6. unmanipulated

      No change; unaltered.

    7. nicotinic receptors

      These are receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.

    8. methylates

      Introduces a methyl (CH<sub>3</sub>) group. Here, PNMT adds a CH<sub>3</sub> group onto norepinephrine creating epinephrine (also known as adrenaline).

    9. pituitary-adrenal axis

      Refers to the connections and interactions between the pituitary gland and adrenal glands. 

    10. caudal thoracic

      Situated in the tail part of the body.

    11. progenitors


    12. tetrodotoxin

      Sodium channel blocker. It blocks the influx of sodium into the cell.

    13. influx

      Act of flowing in.

      Example: An influx of tourists was observed over the holidays.

    14. catecholaminergic

      Refers to the cell group that releases one of the neurotransmitters, dopamine or norepinephrine.

    15. tyrosine hydroxylase

      An enzyme responsible for the conversion of tyrosine (an amino acid) to dopamine, a neurotransmitter.

    16. quantitative

      Refers to the measurement of quantities, a countable amount of something. For example: A baby weighs 7 pounds and 4 ounces.

    17. qualitative

      Refers to the measurement of qualities, a describable trait of something. For example: The girl has brown eyes.

    18. phenotype

      Here, referring to the physical characteristics of the neurons.

    19. peptide putative transmitters

      Widely accepted class of neurotransmitters.

      Read more about the different neurotransmitters here.

    20. Neurotransmitters

      A chemical that is released by brain cells called neurons. These chemicals aid in communication or passing messages between neurons.

    21. veratridine

      Drug that increases the influx of sodium into the cell.

    22. mutability

      The ability to change.

      For example, think of a caterpillar, which has the ability to change to butterfly.

    23. thermoregulation

      Maintaining the body’s temperature within the normal limits.

    24. basal

      Normal or minimum level.

    1. translational

      Research that can be useful to prevent or treat disease

    2. developmental

      Relating to the growth of the individual.

    3. subsequent


    4. cocaine-induced

      The response prompted by cocaine.

    5. nicotine-induced

      Response prompted by nicotine.

    6. risk

      Prone to; susceptible.

    7. pretreatment

      Treatment received prior to something in advance

    8. assessed

      Evaluate; measure.

    9. administered


    10. prompted

      Pushed; urged; required.

    11. diminished


    12. endpoints


    13. long-term synaptic potentiation

      Strengthening of synapses between neurons

    14. prenatal

      before birth; during pregnancy

    15. phenocopied

      mimicked; acted similarly

    16. transient

      only for a short time

    17. baseline


    18. facilitation

      help; make the process easy

    19. variant


    20. ERK/MAPK

      signaling pathways that help in gene regulation

    21. phosphorylates

      adding phosphate residues

    22. concurrent

      happening at the same time

    23. Hypoacetylated

      not enough acetylation

    24. deacetylase

      removal of acetyl groups

    25. hyperacetylation

      increase or excessive acetylation

    26. promoter

      DNA sequences that define where the transcription should start in a gene

    27. disinhibits


    28. simulate

      prompt or trigger

    29. psychostimulants

      drugs that cause an increased behavioral or motor response

    30. robust

      widely used

    31. behavioral paradigm

      a model designed to perform behavioral experiments

    32. acetylation

      Process by which acetyl groups are added to preferred residues in a protein.

      For instance, acetyl groups are added to lysine residues in a protein structure

    33. histone

      components of chromatin that helps in gene regulation

    34. chromatin

      DNA + histone

    35. FosB

      it is one of the transcription factors that help in gene expression

    36. transcription

      the process by which a copy of genetic information is made from DNA to RNA

    37. synaptic

      A synapse is a space between the neurons that allows passage of electric or chemical signals between the neurons.

      Anything that occurs between synapses is referred to as synaptic

    38. plasticity

      the ability of the neurons (brain cells) to change and learn new things by changing their synaptic strength

    39. spiny neurons

      Medium sized neurons that have dendritic branches

    40. inhibitory

      slowing down, hold back, restrain, negatively affecting a response

    41. GABAergic

      neurons that contain inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA

    42. prefrontal cortex

      Part of the frontal cortex in the brain. Its function includes planning, organization, and decision making

    43. amygdala

      A brain region present in the temporal lobe. It is almond In shape. It plays an important role in emotions.

      Eg. When we see a lion, we immediately run due to fear. The fear response is due to the amygdala.

    44. ventral tegmental area

      A brain region in the midbrain. Serves as a center for the origin of dopaminergic neurons

    45. glutamatergic

      neurons that can modulate (or alter or modify) the neurotransmitter, glutamate. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter

    46. dopaminergic

      neurons that contain neurotransmitter, dopamine. Dopamine plays a vital role in the reward pathway

    47. integration

      to combine the similarities together

    48. convergence

      bringing together two different concepts that share similarities

    49. reward

      recognition of one’s work or effort

    50. ventral striatum

      contains the brain region, nucleus accumbens

    51. nucleus accumbens

      A brain region in the forebrain. It has two parts: core and shell

    52. addictive

      causing someone to become dependent

    53. cocaine

      Recreational drug. Referred as coke.

    54. nicotine

      primary chemical present in tobacco

    55. addiction

      dependency, craving

    56. modulated


    57. enhanced


    58. place preference

      preferred choice of one place over another

    59. conditioned

      trained or habituated

    60. sensitization

      Repeated administration of a stimulus can cause a response to the stimulus.

      Eg. If you give your cat piping hot milk the first day, the cat may not drink it as it will burn its mouth. However, if you continue to give your cat hot milk for several days in a row, the cat will eventually start drinking the milk as it is habituated to the new stimulus (hot milk) and will not complain

    61. Locomotor

      the movement of a living being from one place to another

    62. sequential

      one by one; logical order

    63. determinant

      a key factor

    64. irrelevant

      not important

    65. molecular genetic

      study of the structure and function of genes involved in the behavior

    66. electrophysiological

      observing the electrical properties of neurons in the mouse brain

    67. behavioral

      observing the behavior of the mouse

    68. exert


    69. gateway drugs

      the substances are mild and not addictive on consumption. However, the continuous consumption of these mild substances can lead to the use of other addictive drugs. They are also known as ‘habit-forming drug.’

      Eg. Alcohol, Cigarettes.

    70. epidemiological

      Deals with incidence and distribution of diseases and societal issues

    71. illicit drug

      Substances that are addictive to the central nervous system.

      These substances are illegal to be possessed, have no documented therapeutic effect, and are referred to as drugs of abuse.

      Eg. Cocaine, Heroin

    72. marijuana

      ‘weed’ or ‘pot.’

      Read more about marijuana here: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/marijuana/what-marijuana

    1. trophic downgrading

      Impacts from the loss of the top-level consumers.

    2. pervasive

      Widely felt.

    3. trophic

      Feeding relationships.

    4. function

      How a system works.

    5. resilience

      How quickly a community is able to recover from a change in the environment.

    6. empirical

      Based on data.

    7. mass extinction events

      Periods of Earth's history when vast numbers of species went extinct in a short period of time.

    8. herbivory

      Eating only vegetation for food.

    9. abundance


    10. distribution


    11. topology


    12. basins of attraction

      Conditions that allow for stability in an ecosystem.

    13. flux


    14. perturbed


    15. extirpated


    16. weakly motile

      Not able to move far.

    17. autotrophs

      Self-feeding organisms such as plants, algae, many protists, and some bacteria.

    18. regime shifts

      Changes in abundance or dominance of species within an ecosystem.

    19. “natural experiments”

      Data collected from unintended consequences seen in nature.

    20. mesopredators

      Predators found in the middle of the food web—that is, they both eat prey and are eaten as prey.

    21. megaherbivores

      Large, plant-eating organisms.

    22. aggregate


    23. alternative stable states

      A different persistent community structure from the original in an ecosystem, typically resulting from a disturbance.

    24. recruitment failure

      Inability of seeds to germinate.

    25. trophic cascades

      Also known as top-down controls, these refer to the effects of predators that propagate downward through food webs across multiple trophic levels—where trophic level refers to an organism's position in the food chain.

    1. zona incerta (ZI)

      A part of the brain.

      The function of this area is poorly understood but is thought to regulate behavior of an animal in response to internal (such as hunger) and external (such as pain) sensory cues.

    2. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

      An inhibitory neurotransmitter. Neurons communicate with each other by releasing neurotransmitters. Neurons respond to inhibitory neurotransmitters by reducing their activity.

    3. type A GABA (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline (Bic)

      A light-sensitive competitive agonist of GABA<sub>A</sub> receptors. It was originally isolated and identified over 40 years ago in the Dicentra cucullaria plant.

    1. Parkinson's disease

      A progressive degenerative disorder primarily impacting motor control that can lead to tremors or stiffness. Pathologically characterized by the loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in two parts of the brain (the substantia nigra pars compacta and basal ganglia), as well as the presence of Lewy bodies—aggregates of a protein called alpha synuclein contained within the neuron.

  3. May 2019
    1. germinal center

      Germinal centers are areas in the lymph nodes and spleen where B cells reside. Within these centers B cells replicate, mature and prepare to create antibodies.

    2. epitopes

      An antigen on the surface of the virus that antibodies can attach to.