9 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2017
    1. This model suggests three important research directions to analyze the role of appro-priation in technology evolution. The first would explore conditions that permit and encourage appropriation, ranging from technology architecture (e.g. technology openness) to legal and policy regimes governing how users are allowed to modify and apply technol-ogy in ways not intended by producers. The second direction would further examine appro-priation practices. Particularly fruitful would be further articulation of user/producer power negotiations that unfold during the appropriation stage and of the resulting innovation modalities. A third research direction would investigate how innovations that emerge from appropriation are later incorporated or blocked by producers through the repossession stage. Together, these three axes will further articulate the user/producer dynamics at work through appropriation, leading to a better understanding of the innovation process.

      Este análisis podría darse a la luz de los bienes comunes, sin considerar una relación binaria entre usuario y productor, pero sí la exclusión practiva de quienes no están interesados en la expansión o el cuidado de los bienes comunes, como propone la licencia P2P.

    2. User practices that create new uses represent forms of technology appropriation: whereas during the adoption stage, users simply used technology as it was given to them, here they modify technology to make it their own and invent practices around its possi-bilities. In doing so, users re-negotiate the relationship tying them to technology provid-ers: claiming technology as their own, they strive for greater control, with results that may not necessarily be congruent with the provider’s interest
    3. Users do new things in new ways. Users explore new possibilities, including some beyond what motivated initial adoption. For instance, users personalize devices and applications to integrate them within their practices. Some users will re-arrange devices in ways that reflect their personalities

      [...] Some users may hack devices to trans-form them more fundamentally.

      Esta parte es más complicada, pues si bien la intensión es que los usuarios hagan sus propias cosas, el lenguaje simbólico y formas de pensar requeridas para ello tardan en desarrollarse y requieren un compromiso constante. Si bien los Data Weeks y Data Rodas, mantienen a la comunidad conectada y vital, lo que ocurre en ellas no es suficiente para que muchos usuarios empiecen a hacer sus propias adaptaciones fundamentales.

      Los escritos originales pensaban en un ecosistema de plugins para facilitar dichas adaptaciones, pero dicho sistema no puede ser desarrollado hasta tanto no se cuente con una masa crítica de hacedores de los mismos, lo cual quiere decir, resolver las tensiones (particularmente económicas) que permiten a los usuarios dedicarse a este tipo de creaciones de manera cotidiana.

    4. Throughout history, Latin American populations have had extensive experience with the appropriation of objects, people, and ideas from abroad, most often in unfavorably asymmetric situations. This tradition continues to pro-duce a culture of its own, born from multiple resistance and appropriation strategies.
    5. Appropriation considers both learn-ing-by-using and learning-by-doing as central to the development of new processes (Rosenberg, 1982). Learning-by-doing in particular assumes that knowledge emerges through bricolage—tinkering with and recombining technology elements, thus enhancing one’s understanding (Lévi-Strauss, 1966). For Tuomi (2002), learning through appropria-tion is a user-centered process whereby users meld culture with material resources to innovate.

      Los principios de diseño en Smalltalk hacen que aprender haciendo sea uno de los elementos centrales de la estética de encuentro que favorece esta materialidad.

      El continuo donde no hay diferencia entre el entorno de desarrollo y el de usuario, o entre usuario y hacedor, favorece el aprender haciendo. Ejercicios como los del Manual de Periodismo de Datos, son un llamado más directo a la acción y, por tanto, a aprender haciendo, particularmente acá, hemos visto mediante el ejemplo cómo cambiar la herramienta para adecuarla a las necesidades que el ejercicio mismo del manual ha sucitado, pero que se pueden abstraer para otros problemas.

    6. Rogers (2003) defines diffusion as the process through which an innovation is communicated and spreads over time. Rogers theorized diffusion as a one-stage process, whereas appropriation adds a more detailed view of actual technology use (Fichman, 2000)

      Where diffusion explains adoption and spread, appropria-tion explores the impact of use.

      Esto me recuerda Uvikuo, el experimento mental chatbot, programa de mensagería y luego sitio web, que estaba enfocado en la amplia difusión. Grafoscopio, por otro lado está enfocado en la "apropiación" densa en lugar de extensa.

    7. Users re-invent technology when they test features, tweak devices and applications to better fit their needs (Papa and Papa, 1992), invent new ways to use services, and develop novel social, economic, and political practices around technology’s possibilities (Venkatesh etal., 2012). As new practices develop, we need to better understand the dynamics of interaction between social, economic, and political influences
    8. For a technology to evolve in accordance with users’ needs, aiding social and economic development, the focus must move beyond mere adoption. When users appropriate technology and make it their own, new uses and innovations emerge. The appropriation process is a contest for control over a technological system’s configuration, as users, designers, and manufacturers battle over who can use that technology, at what cost, under what conditions, for what purpose, and with what consequences. This confrontation, we argue, constitutes a powerful innovation mechanism.

      La adopción y la apropiación están muy cercanas en los metasistemas como Pharo/Smalltalk, pues que un usuario use una herramienta suele estar muy cercano a la idea de que esté en condiciones de modificarla.

      Para el caso de Grafoscopio, la comunidad de práctica avanza, con miembros relativamente constantes entre edición y edición del Data Week y las Data Rodas y progresivamente miramos cómo modificar la herramienta. Aún así, no hay usos cotidianos de la misma (adopción) y la modificación (apropiación) aún es muy lenta. Sin embargo, el potencial de la herramienta para adaptarse a la comunidad y sus problemas, ha sido mayor que el de otras que se probaron.

    9. Appropriation is the process through which technology users go beyond mere adoption to make technology their own and to embed it within their social, economic, and political practices. The appropriation process is a negotiation about power and control over the configuration of technology, its uses, and the distribution of its benefits. The negotiation surrounding technology appropriation echoes earlier creative tensions in the New World regarding the appropriation of cultural objects and ideas from abroad.

      Puede relacionarse con el concepto de Tecnologías Apropiadas de Thomas?