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  1. Sep 2019
  2. Jul 2019
  3. Jun 2019
    1. Overnight grown primary culture of E. coli cells (1 % v/v final concentration) was inoculated into 1 litre of LB media containing antibiotics. Culture was incubated at 37 oc at 200 rpm. Growth was monitored by measuring absorbance of E. coli broth at 600 nm. Culture was induced by adding 1 mM IPTG at an OD of 0.6 and was harvested after 4 hrs of induction. Samples were taken on an hourly basis after induction to check the kinetics of protein expression. Un-induced and induced E. coli cells were analyzed by SDS-PAGE to check the expression of recombinant protein.
    2. Growth and expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli cells
  4. May 2019
    1. 250 mM KCl 55 mM MnCl2.4H20 50 x TAE (1 litre): 242 g of tris base 57.1 ml of glacial acetic acid 100 ml of 0.5 M EDTA Alkaline Lysis Solution 1: 50mM tris-HCl (pH 8.0) 10.0 mM EDTA 50 mM glucose Alkaline Lysis Solution 2: 0.2M NaOH 1% SDS Alkaline Lysis Solution 3: 3.0M Potassium acetate
    2. 2.7 mM KCl 10 mM Na2HPO42 mM KH2PO4Tris Buffer Saline (TBS) (10X): 12.1gm Trizma Base 40.0gm NaCl Adjust PH to 7.6; make up the volume to 1 lit with milli Q water. HEPES Buffer Saline: 20 mM HEPES (pH 7.5) 150 mM NaCl Blocking Buffer: 5% fat free milk or 2% BSA in PBST or TBST. Stripping Buffer: 100 mM β-mercaptoethanol 2% (w/v) SDS 62.5 mM Tris-HCl (pH6.7) Luria Broth: 10g tryptone 10g NaCl 5g yeast extract, make up the volume to 1 lit with water. TB buffer for preparation of competent cells: 10 mM PIPES (free acid) 15 mM CaCl2.2H20
    3. 2.5 ml of 1.5 M Tris-Cl (pH 8.8) 4.0 ml of 30% acrylamide; bisacrylamide (29:1) mix 50.0 μl of 20% SDS 3.35 ml of milli-Q water 100 μl of 10% APS 10.0 μl of TEMED. 2X SDS loading Buffer: 130 mM Tris-Cl (pH 8.0) 20% (v/v) glycerol 4.6% (w/v) SDS 0.02% bromophenol blue 2% DTT SDS PAGE Running Buffer: 25mM Tris base, 0.2M glycine 1% SDS Western Blot: 1 x Blotting Buffer (2Litres): 25mM tris base, 0.2M glycine 20% methanol Phosphate Buffer saline (PBS): 137 mM NaCl
    4. Whole cell lysis buffer: 20mM Tris (PH 7.5) 150mM NaCl 1mM EDTA 1mM EGTA 1 % triton X 100 2.5mM sodium pyrophosphate 1mM β-glycerophosphate 1mM Na3VO41μg/ml aprotinin, 1μg/ml leupeptin and 1μ.ml pepstatin SDS-PAGE: Stacking Gel Mix (4ml, 5%): 380μl of 1M Tris-Cl (pH 6.8) 500μl of 30% acrylamide ; bisacrylamide (29:1) Mix 15 μl of 20% SDS 2.1 ml of milli-Q water 30 μl of 10% APS 5 μl of TEMED. 12% Resolving Gel Mix (10ml):
    5. Buffers and Media
    6. Monoclonal antibody against KRAS were purchased from Merck Research Laboratories, phospho p44/42 (ERK1/2)and total p44/42 (ERK1/2)antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling Technologies. Anti tubulin antibody was obtained Sgima-Aldrich Chemicals. HRP conjugated anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies were purchased from Bangalore Genei Pvt. Ltd.
    7. Antibodies
    1. Plasmids constructed in this study
    2. The bacteriophage P1kc was from our laboratory collection and is referred to as P1 throughout this thesis. Phage λcI857 was also from our laboratory collection. Other bacteriophages that were used in this study included the following: (i) λNK1098 carries a Tn10 transposon with a tertracycline (Tet) ressistance marker. (ii) λNK1324 carries a mini-Tn10 transposon Tn10dCm with a chloramphenicol (Cm)-resistance marker, Cmr. The lambda phage vectors above (Kleckner et al., 1991) were used to make random transposon insertions in the chromosome either for the purpose of insertional mutagenesis or for tagging antibiotic resistance markers to point mutations
    3. Bacteriophages
    1. bindingsite lie upstream of the MCS to ensure the high level expression of any genecloned in MCS. A stretch of hexa-histidine (His6)-encoding codons followed by stopcodon is incorporated downstream of MCS to give a C-terminally His6-taggedrecombinant protein (EMD Biosciences).6. pBAD18:It is an expression vector with a pMB9derived origin of replication and allows for tightly regulated expression of genes cloned under the PBADpromoter of the araBADoperon (Guzman et al.,1995). The vector also carries thearaCgene, encoding the positive and negative regulator of this promoter.7. pCP20: pSC101-based Ts replicon, chloramphenicol resistant, ampicillin resistant, for in vivoexpression of Flp recombinase (Datsenko and Wanner, 2000)Plasmid DNA preparations were routinely made from recAstrainDH5αandwerestored in 10 mM Tris-Cl (pH-8.0) with 1 mM EDTA at –20ºC. The plasmid constructsused in this study are given in Table 2.2.Table 2.2Plasmid constructs
    2. The plasmid vectors used in this study were as follows:1.pCU22: It is a derivative of pUC19 used to prepare supercoiled DNA for in vitrotranscription where two strong phage fdtranscription terminators flank MCS. This ensures that the transcripts originated from vector based promoters will not interferewith the transcription from the cloned promoter and that the transcript originated fromthe cloned promoter will be terminated after the MCS (Ueguchi and Mizuno,1993).2.pMU575: It is an IncW-based, single-copy, trimethoprim resistance bearingpromoter probe vector. It carries its MCS upstream of a promoterless galK’-lacZfusion. This fusion has the first 58 codons of galKfused to the 8th codon oflacZ, andthe resultant hybrid polypeptide possesses functional β-Galactosidase activity(afterassembly as a tetramer). Translation of the hybrid gene is controlled by the ribosomebinding site of galK. There are stop codons in all the three reading frames between MCS and initiation codon of galKso that there is no interference caused bytranslational read-through from inserts cloned into MCS region. A strong pheRterminator located upstream of the MCS prevents read through from any vector-basedpromoter into the lacZgene (Andrews et al.,1991).3. pTrc99A:It is an expression vector with ColE1 origin of replication and ampicillin resistance marker. It provides IPTG dependent induction of the cloned gene (Amann et al., 1988)4. pCL1920: It is a pSC101-based, low-copy-number vector with spectinomycin and streptomycin resistance marker carrying the MCS in lacZαregion and henceprovides the advantage of screening the insertions using α-complementation (Lernerand Inouye,1990).5. pET21b: It is a ColE1-based, high-copy-number expression vector bearing ampicillinresistance marker. A strong T7 RNAP-recognised promoter and an efficient ribosome
    3. Plasmids
    1. 15 mM CaCl2.2H2O 250 mM KCl 55 mM MnCl2.4H2O pH was adjusted to 6.7 with 1 N KOH. MnCl2needsto beaddedseparately,drop by drop with stirring, tothe buffer. PIPES goes into solutionwhenpH is greater than 6.7. The solution, after pH adjustment to 6.7 was filter-sterilized and stored at -20ºC.Reagents for yeast transformation:1 M Lithium acetate (LiOAc)50% Polyethylene glycol10 mg/ml Carrier DNADimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)
    2. INOUE transformation buffer:For bacterial DH5α ultra-competent cells preparation10 mM PIPES (free acid)
    3. Transformation-related solutions
    4. 0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base2% DextroseYeast Carbon Base (YCB):1.17% Yeast CarbonBase1% DextroseCAA:0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base 2% Dextrose0.6% Casamino acids Plates weremade by adding 2% agar
    5. Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose (YPD):1% Yeast extract2% Peptone 2% DextroseYeast Nitrogen Base (YNB)
    6. Yeast medium
    7. antibodies,anti-mouse IgG andanti-rabbit IgG conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology, USA
    8. All chemicals were purchasedfrom commercial sources. Mediacomponents for bacterial and yeast growthwere obtained from BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company, USA). Other chemicals were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co., USA. Materials used in recombinant DNA experiments were primarily obtained from New England Biolabs, Invitrogen, Bangalore Genei and MBI Fermentas. SuperScript™ III first-strand synthesis system was purchased from Invitrogen.MESA GREEN qPCR MasterMix Plus for SYBR®Assay was purchased from Eurogenetec. Kits used for plasmid isolation, PCR product purificationand DNAgelextractionwerefrom Qiagen.Radioactive chemical, ortho-P32-phosphoric acid,wasprocured from BRIT-Jonaki, CCMB, Hyderabad.Anti-Pma1 polyclonal antibody raised against S. cerevisiaePma1 was purchased from Santa CruzInc.,USA. Anti-phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204) was purchased from Cell Signaling Technology, USA. Anti-CPY polyclonal antibody raised against S. cerevisiaeCPY was procuredfrom Thermo Scientific. Anti-Gapdh antibody raised against human Gapdh was purchased from Abcam. Secondary
    9. Chemicals and antibodies
    1. 150 mM NaCl1% Triton-X1% SDSBuffer B50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)10 mM EDTA1.1 MSorbitol50 mM β-mercaptoethanol (To be added just before use)Buffer C100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)10 mM EDTA10% SDSAE buffer3 M Sodium acetate(pH 5.3)0.5 M EDTA (pH 8.0)Phenol:Chloroform:Isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) solution25 ml Tris-equilibrated Phenol24 ml Chloroform1 ml Isoamyl alcholDNA sample loading buffer0.25% Bromophenol blue0.25% Xylene cyanol15% FicollDNA sample loading buffer was prepared in water
    2. Buffer A50 mM Tris-HCl(pH 8)10 mM EDTA
    3. Buffers for extraction and analysis of genomic DNA and RNA
    4. 10 mM NaCl2.5 mM KCl10 mM MgCl210 mM MgSO4LB-ampicillin and LB-kanamycin platesLBmedium50 μg/ml ampicillin30 μg/ml kanamycinMedia and solutions were sterilizedeither by routine autoclaving at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 minor by filtration through membrane of 0.22 μm porosity
    5. Luria Bertani (LB)0.5% Yeast Extract1% Tryptone1% NaClSuper Optimal Broth (SOB)0.5% Yeast Extract2% Peptone
    6. Bacterial media
    7. All antibodies, their sources, clonality and dilutions used are listed in Table 2.2
    8. Antibodies
    1. Malachite green reagent
    2. Reaction Buffer
    3. Cell lysis Buffer
    4. Calcineurin phosphatase assay
    5. DNA staining solution
    6. Fixative
    7. For cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry
    8. Inoue buffer
    9. For preparation of Ultra competent cells
    10. DNA loading dye
    11. Agarose gel
    12. TAE
    13. For DNA electrophoresis
    14. Neutralization solution(Solution III)
    15. Lysissolution(Solution II)
    16. Resuspension solution(Solution I)
    17. For Plasmid isolation
    18. Binding Buffer (10X)
    19. EMSA Buffer
    20. Nuclear lysis buffer
    21. Polydeoxy (Inosinate-cytidylate) (Poly dI-dC)
    22. For Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)
    23. Nuclear extractionbuffer (without protease inhibitors)
    24. Cytoplasmic extractionbuffer (without protease inhibitors)
    25. For Cell fractionation
    26. Blocking buffer: 2% BSA
    27. Permeabilization buffer: 0.2% Triton X100
    28. Fixative : 4% Formaldehyde
    29. For Immunofluorescence
    30. Stripping Buffer
    31. Blocking Buffer
    32. TBST
    33. Transfer Buffer
    34. Running Buffer
    35. Stacking and resolving AcrylamidegelsResolving gel (10 ml)
    36. 6X protein loading buffer (Laemmlibuffer)
    37. Cell lysis buffer(RIPA Buffer)
    38. For Immunoblotting
    39. Tris Buffered Saline (TBS)
    40. Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS)
    41. General Buffers
    42. Ammonium persulfate(APS)
    43. Acrylamide (29:1)
    44. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF)
    45. Benzamidine
    46. Aprotinin
    47. Leupeptin
    48. NP-40ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 10 mlNP-4010%1mlH2O9ml
    49. Dithiothreitol (DTT)ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 5 mlDTT1.0M0.7725gH2Oq.s
    50. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), pH 8.0ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 500 mlEDTA0.5M93.05gH2Oq.sThe pH is adjusted to 8.0 using 10M NaOH
    51. Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic acid (EGTA), pH 7.0ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 50 mlEGTA0.1M1.902gH2Oq.sThe pH is adjusted to 7.0 using 10M NaOH
    52. Potassium Chloride (KCl)ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 100 mlKCl2M14.91gH2Oq.s
    53. Sodium Chloride (NaCl)ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 100 mlNaCl5M29.22gH2Oq.s
    54. Potassium Chloride (KCl)
    55. HEPES pH 7.9ComponentsFinal concentrationFor 100 mlHEPES1M23.83gH2Oq.sThe pH wasadjusted to 7.9 using 10M NaOH
    56. Stock solution
    57. Buffers and solutions
    1. Extraction buffer
    2. 10XBinding buffer
    3. Agarose gel
    4. Nuclear lysis buffer (without protease inhibitors
    5. Permeabilisation buffer: 0.2% Triton X100
    6. Stripping buffer
    7. Blocking buffer
    8. TBS-T
    9. Transfer buffer
    10. (f) Running buffer
    11. (e) Stacking polyacrylamide gel
    12. (d) Resolvingpolyacrylamide gel
    13. (c) 6X Protein loading buffer (Lammeli buffer)
    14. (b) Celllysis buffer B(For IB)
    15. Cell lysis bufferA(For IP)
    16. II. For Immunoprecipitation(IP)and Immunoblotting(IB)
    17. (b) Tris Buffered Saline (TBS)
    18. obtained from Gibco, Invitrogen(Carlsbad, CA, USA). For cell culture transfections, Lipofectamine-2000 and Opti-MEM were alsoobtainedfrom Life Sciences, Invitrogen(Carlsbad, CA, USA).Commonly used chemicals in cell culture based experiments such asall-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), arabinoside cytosine (AraC),carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-Leucinal (MG-132), cycloheximide (CHX),DMSO, doxorubicin, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli055:B5), okadaicacid (OA), oleandrin,paclitaxel, phorbolmyristate acetate (PMA), vinblastine and vincristine wereobtained from SigmaAldrichChemicals.Benzofuran was synthesized as reported earlier (Manna et al., 2010).Recombinant human TNFα, IL-1and IL-8 were obtained from PeproTech Inc.(Rocky Hill, NJ, USA).Growth media for bacteria culture,Luria Broth (LB) and Agar were obtained from HiMedia laboratories (Mumbai, India). Bacterial strain DH5was used to make ultra-competent cells for transformation and plasmid isolation. Antibiotics, such as Ampicillin and Kanamycin used for selection of transformed colonies and culture were obtained from Sigma AldrichChemicals
    19. The cell lines used in the present study, HuT-78 (human T-cell lymphoma), MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and MDA-MB-468 (human breast cancer) were obtained from American Type culture collection (Manassas, VA, USA). Human colon carcinoma cell lines HCT-116 (wild-type, p53+/+) and HCT-116 (null, p53-/-) were a kind gift fromProf. B. Vogelstein (Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, MD). Cells were cultured in DMEM or RPMI medium containing 10% FBS, penicillin (100 U/ml), and streptomycin (100 μg/ml). Cells were maintained in humidified incubator at 37ºC in 5% CO2-95% air. Media for mammalian cell culture (DMEM and RPMI),fetal bovine serum (FBS)and other reagentsused in cell culture such as, PBS, Trypsin-EDTA, Antibiotic-antimycotic, Freezing medium, Geniticin, L-Glutamine, HEPES, etc. were
    20. Cell cultureand Media
    1. 2 mM EDTA5 mM DTT1% Triton-XYeast protease inhibitor cocktail and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail (added fresh to the buffer B)
    2. 20 mM HEPES pH 6.8100 mM NaCl
    3. Buffer B
    4. 30%GlycerolMade in 100 mL.RNA sample loading buffer (10X)50% glycerol10mM EDTA 0.025% Bromophenol blue 0.025% Xylene cyanolInoue transformation buffer, pH 6.7(125 mL, prepared just before use)10 mM PIPES 15 mM CaCl2.2H2O 250 mM KCl 55 mM MnCl2.4H2O (1.361 g is dissolved in 10 mL of water separately)PIPES(0.307 g), CaCl2.2H2O (0.275 g) and KCl (2.325 g)were added to 80 mL ofsterile water while mixing with a magnetic stirrer and the pH was adjusted to 6.8with 1 N KOH. After attaining the appropriate pH, MnCl2solution wasadded slowly in aliquotes of 300 μL over 10 min,while stirring to avoidabrown precipitate.MOPS buffer(10X)0.2 M MOPS, pH 7.220 mM CH3COONa10 mM EDTABuffer was made in DEPC treated waterYeast transformation reagents1 M Lithium acetate 50% Polyethylene glycol2 mg/mLSalmon sperm carrier DNA Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) Zymolyase cocktail buffer for yeast colony PCR 2.5 mg/mLZymolyase (ZymoResearch)1.2 M SorbitolZymolyase buffer was prepared in 1X PBS
    5. Yeast lysis buffer for genomic DNA extraction50 mM Tris-HCl,pH 8.010 mM EDTA 150 mM NaCl 1% Triton-X 1% SDSAE buffer for RNA extraction50 mMSodium acetate,pH 5.31 mMEDTA,pH 8.0Solution was made in DEPC treated water. 0.2%diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC)was added to the water and stirred for 12 h. To remove DEPC,water was autoclaved twice. DNA sample loading buffer (6X)15.25 mg Bromophenol blue15.25 mg Xylene cyanol
    6. Buffers for extraction and analysis of genomic DNA and RNA
    7. 0.5% Yeast Extract 1% Tryptone 1% NaClLB-ampicillin plates LB medium 100 μg/mL ampicillin Media and solutions were sterilized either by routine autoclaving at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 min or by filtration through membrane of 0.22 μm porosity.For yeast and bacterial growth, plates were preparedby adding 2% to the medium before autoclaving


    8. Luria-Bertani (LB) medium forbacterialgrowth
    9. Antibodies used in this study are listed in Table 2.3
    10. Antibodies
    1. All the antibodies used in the present study are mentioned in the table 1.Table 1: Antibodies used in the study
    2. Antibodies
    1. 0.5% DEPC Added in H2O, stirred vigorusly and autoclaved prior to use.DNA sample loading buffer0.25% Bromophenol blue0.25% Xylene cyanol30% GlycerolDNA sample loading buffer was prepared in water
    2. 10 g of SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) was dissolved in 80 ml of H2O, and volume was adjusted to 100 ml with H2O.CTAB/NaCl solution10% CTAB 0.7 M NaCl10 g of CTAB was dissolved in 80 ml 0.7 M NaCl solution by stirring it on a hot magnetic stirrer. Volume was adjusted to 100 ml with 0.7 M NaC1 solution.Lysozyme solution100 mg of lysozyme was dissolved in 1 ml of H2O (100 mg/ml).Proteinase K solution10 mg of proteinase K was dissolved in 1 ml of H2O (10 mg/ml).5 M Sodium chloride (NaCl) 292.2 g of Sodium chloride (NaC1; M.W. 58.44) was dissolved in 800 ml of H2O. Volume was adjusted to 1 liter with H2O. Sterilized by autoclaving.3 M Sodium acetate (NaOAc)(pH 5.2 and 7.0) 24.6 g sodium acetate anhydrous (CH3COONa; M.W. 82) was dissolved in 80 ml H2O. pH was adjusted to 5.2 with glacial acetic acid or 7.0 with dilute acetic acid. Volume was adjusted to 100 ml with H2O. Sterilized by autoclaving.Phenol:Chloroform:Isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) solution25 ml Tris-equilibrated phenol24 ml Chloroform1 ml Isoamyl alcoholDEPC (diethyl polycarbonate) treated water
    3. 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)10 mM EDTA (pH 8.0)100 μg/ml RNaseVolume was adjusted to 100 ml with sterile H2O.10% SDS
    4. Buffers and solutions for extraction and analysis of genomic DNA and RNAResuspension buffer (P1)
    5. Oligonucleotides
    6. Oligonucleotides used in this study were designed either by freely available online tool Primer3plus (http://www.bioinformatics.nl/cgi-bin/primer3plus/primer3plus.cgi/) or Generunner software. Oligonucleotides were commercially synthesized at Eurofins MWG operons, Bangalore, India. Oligonucleotides used in this study are listed in Table 2.2
    1. Phenol solution saturated with 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 4.3 ± 0.2)was procured from Sigma (P4682)
    2. Buffer C100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)10 mM EDTA10% SDSPhenol:Chloroform:Isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) solution25 ml Tris-equilibrated phenol (pH 8.0)24 ml Chloroform1 ml Isoamyl alcoholDNA sample loading buffer0.25% Bromophenol blue0.25% Xylene cyanol15% FicollStock solution of the loading buffer was prepared in water as a 6 X concentrate and was added to the sample DNA to the final concentration of 1 X.RNA isolation bufferAE buffer3 M sodium acetate0.5 M EDTA (pH 8.0)Reagents used for RNA isolation were prepared in DEPC-treatedwater and stored at 4°C. For preparationof DEPC-treated water,0.1 ml DEPC was added to 100 ml waterand kept overnight onamagnetic stirrer. Followingincubation,the solution was autoclaved to remove any traces of DEPC.Acid phenol solution
    3. Genomic DNA isolation buffersBuffer A50 mM Tris-HCl10 mM EDTA150 mM NaCl1% Triton-X1% SDSBuffer B50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)10 mM EDTA1.1 M Sorbitol50 mM β-mercaptoethanol (Added freshbefore use)
    4. Buffers used for nucleicacid extraction
    5. Casamino acid (CAA)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base2% Dextrose0.6% Casamino acid
    6. Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose (YPD)1% Yeast Extract2% Peptone2% DextroseYeast Nitrogen Base (YNB)0.67% Yeast Nitrogen Base2% DextroseFor alternate carbon source utilization experiments, dextrose was replacedwith other carbon sources viz.,ethanol, glycerol, oleic acid and sodium acetate.Ethanol, oleic acid and sodium acetate were used at afinal concentration of 2%and glycerol was used at a final concentration of 3%
    7. Yeast media