3,620 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2015
    1. d. When they do their job right, they cr e- ate the conditions under which cooperation is possib

      This is an obvious point, but one that I think is not necessarily emphasized in discussion of the problem of moderation: it's not just about deleting bad content, it's about enabling good content creation.

    2. t,” it r e mains almost entirely g oatse - free.

      Though, of course, you can learn lots about the history of the Internet meme there.

    3. Aaron Swartz

      Quoting Schwartz in epigraph really sets the tone of this article.

    4. : vandals overran it with crude pr o- fanity and graphic pornography

      I know this is not the point, but the topic itself has its own illicit history.

      Image Description

      I wonder if controversial topics are more prone to trolling than others.


      Never thought about it before, but "Abstract" really does translate to TL:DR in Internetspeak.



    1. This digital citizenship acknowledges that online experiences are as much a part of our common life as our schools, sidewalks, and rivers—requiring as much stewardship, vigilance, and improvement as anything else we share.

      I really like the argument of this article. But I have some issues with the analogy between the online world and what are mostly public physical spaces.

      Unlike, rives and sidewalks, online space has little to no regulation, whether from the government or NGOs.

      Also, most of our public interactions online take place in private spaces, that is, places owned and operated by private corporations.

    2. operation of online platforms?

      Or the Net itself...

    1. "computer room"—yes, people really used to call it that—

      LOL, it's true. I remember those days chained to our wires.

    2. with the answers they wanted

      Well, answers anyway.

    3. You touch a button on your phone and something happens in the world.

      This is profound, but it's also obvious. Obvious as in it makes this basic aspect of technology readily apparent to the end user.

      Actually, when we press most buttons, lots of things happen in the world. One click on Amazon begins a complex process of labor and energy consumption, but this is conveniently hidden from the end user.

    1. happily pay more than 20 cents per month for a Facebook or a Google that did not track me,

      How much would it actually cost though to buy into Facebook if we take away its monetization power? My guess is that it would be a lot more then 20 cents, though I might still be willing to pay.

    2. He knows privacy is worth paying for. So he should let us pay a few dollars to protect ours.


      Yeah, Zuck is notoriously protective of his persona life. This irony has to be one of the greatest of the Internet Age.

    3. Yet ad-based financing means that the companies have an interest in manipulating our attention on behalf of advertisers, instead of letting us connect as we wish. Many users think their feed shows everything that their friends post.

      This is the crucial point for me: we are not really "connecting" through Facebook if the connection is not on our own terms, so the very concept that underlies the service is problematic.

      The same can be said of Google: our search for information is not authentic if the search results are taking into consideration ad-partners, etc.

      I'm personally much more concerned about this paradox in the latter case as it pertains to knowledge production.

    4. a proprietary, ever-changing algorithm that decides what we see.

      Are all algorithm's evil, though? Is there such a thing as a benevolent algorithm?

      Isn't the real problem that FB mixes in things it thinks I would like to buy alongside the things I "like"?

    5. FACEBOOK. Instagram. Google. Twitter.

      Don't want to take away from a VERY important opinion article here, but what exactly does the NYTimes style guide say here? Why are Facebook and Google--of all sites!--linked but not Twitter?

  2. May 2015
    1. we did not just laze in an armchair turning pages;

      Don't just sit there, HASTAC Scholars, annotate something!

    1. to interact and collaborate with others.

      This emphasis on collaboration is particularly important in social reading. Through replies, each annotation is actually the beginning of a potential conversation.

    2. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

      Digital annotation is particularly suited to this type of everyday writing practice.

      In a sense, it's more like posting to Facebook or Twitter than writing an essay. But because it is grounded in text, it encourages more thoughtfulness.

      At the same time, if students are regularly annotating using an application like hypothes.is, then they will surely exceed the word count usually required in a five page essay. Annotation projects might be seen as pre-writing--a collaborative drafting space for ideas and language to be developed later in formal papers--or it might be seen as an end in itself.

    3. through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

      This is essential to the pedagogy of annotation as well. The first step must be to identify an appropriate selection of text from a document. The annotation itself is the space for analysis.

    4. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources,

      Students using an annotation application like hypothes.is can literally map their research on a topic in tagged annotations on sources from across the Internet.

    1. The focus on "decoding" should send shivers down the spine of every English teacher who has ever had a student demand they just tell them what the poem means.

      I think Billy Collins captures this tortuous pedagogy well in "Intro to Poetry":

      But all they want to do is tie the poem to a chair with rope<br> and torture a confession out of it.

      They begin beating it with a hose<br> to find out what it really means.

    1. he greatest thing a human soul ever does in this world is to see something and tell what it saw in a plain way.

      Annotation would seem to have a role to play here.

    1. An underlined

      This style of highlighting requires a number 2 pencil to be whittled down at a slant to allow for a 2 mm thick line to be drawn under text. It needs to be straight. It needs to hug the lettering just so.

    2. Among other texts, my students and I added selections from The Great Gatsby to the platform and some of those excerpts are among the most highly trafficked pages on what has now become Lit Genius,

      And many of my students remain top scholars on the text:

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    3. procrastinating on Rap Genius

      Mostly annotating Black Starr. I still love that Genius calls their users "scholars." Great branding! I'm also #2 scholar of F. Scott Fitzgerald and #3 scholar of St. Paul.

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    4. When Rap Genius received their Series A round of fundraising–$15 million from Andreessen Horowitz–

      Here's how Andreessen himself explained the investment, annotated on (Rap) Genius. After this investment, Genius pivoted slowly from annotating lyrics to, like hypothes.is, annotating the web.

    5. I first discovered the power of collaborative annotation

      Collins actually imagines a moment of shared marginalia in his poem. In a copy of A Catcher in the Rye that he borrows from a library as a boy, he finds the following: “Pardon the egg salad stains, but I’m in love.” The young Collins imagines the note to be written by a beautiful girl and feels himself in a sense falling in love with that other reader. Though we need not develop a dating service out of the modern technologies that allow for social reading, we can at least see the humanity that can be shared in the margin of a digital page: the teachable moments, the conversations that might occur. We have glimpsed such moments on other social media like Twitter and Facebook, but I argue they lack the depth of annotation, which brings together text, comment, and now, readers.

    6. it slows the reader down,

      It's interesting to think about this idea of "slow reading" in relation to collaborative online annotation. So many traditional humanists complain of the cursory of the digital--hashtags on Twitter replacing sentences, Wikipedia summaries are replacing "actual" research. But web annotation requires readers to pause and consider in the very ways we have always taught our students to do in English classes.

    7. like teaching composition using Second Life

      Very cool project, just beyond me. (Play it here!)

    1. undetermined momentousness

      Such an ambivalent phrase. The narrator seems to be claiming that this is a "moment" unparalleled in its significance. Yet this significance is "undetermined"; it remains unclear exactly how the moment is significant.

    1. di un dialogo impercettibile tra pergamena e pergamena, una cosa viva, un ricettacolo di potenze non dominabili da una mente umana, te


    1. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

      Again, the hypothes.is application allows for this kind of intertextual analysis to be activated and visualized in powerful ways. Students can literally link between related themes or moments in various texts studied.

    2. words and phrases

      Digital annotation powerfully visualizes this process, as the application allows the user to isolate a particular word or phrase, and then create a comment specifically on that piece of textual evidence.


      No, annotate this page!

    4. including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.

      Image Description

      The possibilities of digital writing, given the WYSIWYG interface above, allow for students to integrate a variety of media into their own annotation compositions. Moreover, this use of media is not simply illustrative but as an integral part of the overall argument.

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    5. Read closely

      Image Description

      Close reading is a major emphasis of the Common Core Standards, though most English teachers since New Critic I.A. Richards would probably agree that is it essential to any humanities curriculum. As the "Introduction" to the ELA section states:

      Students who meet the Standards readily undertake the close, attentive reading that is at the heart of understanding and enjoying great works of literature.

      Digital annotation, though, is close reading 2.0. The major activity of a service like hypothes.is is "annotation," the highlighting and noting of words, phrases, and sentences, which demands that students keep their thinking and writing "close" to the text and its evidence.

      Moreover, because digital annotation has the potential to be collaborative. It links this mandate for close reading with later calls in the Standards for collaboration. I like to think of hypothes.is as a "A Social Network for Close Reading." Could we make students obsess with annotations on the web like they obsess with Facebook and Twitter posts?...

    1. technology is the American theology

      nice phrase

    2. —both in the future as a better world and as one in which the United States bestrides the globe as a colossus. 2

      On the public version of this PDF at Project Muse (password protected), I've created an annotation at this point in the text. But it does not appear in this local version of the PDF.


      This is my demo PDF for local annotation with hypothes.is. See my sample annotation on the first paragraph of the essay. Add your own test annotations and replies.

    1. Inline Assignment Grading is powered by Crocodoc (http://www.crocodoc.com). Crocodoc is a third-party, cloud-based conversion, display, and annotation service.

      Could hypothes.is be a better version of this?

  3. www.folgerdigitaltexts.org www.folgerdigitaltexts.org
    1. BOATSWAIN FTLN 0016When the sea is. Hence! What cares these 7 9The TempestACT 1. SC. 1 FTLN 0017 roarers for the name of king? To cabin! Silence! FTLN 0018 Trouble us not.

      The waves caused by the storm pay no attention to societal conventions--that is, the face that the boatwain is talking back to the King of Naples.

      So the play begins with subversion of hierarchies playing on the subversion of Prospero in the pre-history if the drama and the sub-plot of usurpation.

    2. Folger Shakespeare Library

      Hello, #moocspeare!

      This is an annotatable version of The Tempest using the hypothes.is app.

      If you sign up for an hypothes.is account, you can annotate the text at this special link.

    1. how to enable scholarship to travel more freely on the open web.


    2. He and his colleagues are keenly interested in the ability to annotate scholarship online, he says; Mellon has made serious investments in annotation tools and the development of open annotation standards by the university community and projects like Hypothes.is, which just received a two-year, $752,000 grant from the foundation to look into digital annotation in humanities and social-science scholarship.
    3. Rethinking how graduate students are trained—an issue also on the agendas of scholarly societies like the Modern Language Association and the American Historical Association, both Mellon grantees—could help. The rise of digital scholarship represents "a huge opportunity," Ms. Westermann says. "Not everyone’s going to love the digital humanities, nor probably does everyone have to, but it would be good to begin to build the opportunity to develop that competency right into doctoral education rather than waiting till 10 years out" from graduate school to do it.

      Love that the academic job market/grad student training is linked here to the opportunities afforded by the emergence of the digital humanities.

    4. Mellon backing of digitally minded scholars and tools has played a considerable role in the rise of the digital humanities, as has its support—quiet, like most Mellon activities, but substantial—for making those tools and their products openly available.

      Emphasis on openly.

    5. the creation of digital editions, including the papers of the Founding Fathers,

      What about bringing annotation to resources like these? Scholarly annotation? Private student annotation?

    1. The ugly little word hung in the air, exuding its aroma of illicit information.

      The man practiced what he preached. This is a great sentence. A powerful image and an extended metaphor, all to describe a single word.

    2. Writing is a powerful search mechanism,

      Takes on whole new meaning with the Googlization of Everything/Is Google Making Us Stupid? question.

    3. how to leave some kind of record of your life

      A simple and elegant description of why we write.

    1. with a cranium so large, bald, and oblong that you can’t help but think of words like “jumbo” and “Grade A.”

      It's truly remarkable:

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    2. “I look to see if someone has a marine strategy, for taking the beach; an army strategy, for taking the country; and a police strategy, for governing the country afterward.”

      What about diplomacy?

    3. movements

      I hate the way this political term has been co-opted by the tech sector.

    4. “co-opitition.”

      A portmanteau of cooperation and competition.

    5. A great V.C. keeps his ears pricked for a disturbing story with the elements of a fairy tale.

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      In that order.

    6. . The tale ends in heaping treasure chests for all,

      All mentioned above that is.

    7. monetizable dissatisfaction.

      Another great phrase.

    8. After the pitch, he told me that Mixpanel is “a picks-and-shovels business right in the middle of the gold rush.”

      A steady business no doubt, but not a unicorn.

    9. —a “unicorn,” in the local parlance.

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    10. a16z. (There are sixteen letters between the “a” in Andreessen and the “z” in Horowitz.)

      Wow! I've been to these offices and never got the reference 'till now.

    11. seethes with beliefs.

      Love this phrase. Sound like his imagination is angry!

    1. Folger Shakespeare Library

      Hello, #moocspeare!

      This is an annotatable version of A Midsummer Night's Dream using the hypothes.is app.

      If you sign up for an hypothes.is account, you can annotate the text at this special link.

    2. I do wander everywhere,

      Thanks, Puck! Could be a tagline for hypothes.is's (mouthful) ability to annotate the web!!

    3. Therefore the winds, piping to us in vain, FTLN 0456 As in revenge have sucked up from the sea

      All the following metaphors of natural disaster--storms, floods, etc.--are to say that Oberon's jealous rages are literally intemperate.

    4. The spring, the summer, FTLN 0479115 The childing autumn, angry winter, change FTLN 0480 Their wonted liveries, and the mazèd world 43A Midsummer Night’s DreamACT 2. SC. 1 FTLN 0481 By their increase now knows not which is which.

      The confusion of the seasons here is later mirrored in the confusion of the lovers.

    5. Why should not I then prosecute my right?

      Interesting legal language in the third line here, especially considering Lysander's claim on Hermia's love is clearly not sanctioned by the law. Perhaps he is purposefully using the legal language to suggest a new conception of law in this case, one based on true love rather than societal norms.

    6. the great collection put together by his colleagues in 1623, called the First Folio (F).

      First Folio

      About 800 copies were originally printed and over two hundred are known to remain.

      Here's a digitized edition you can explore.

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    7. Come, my Hippolyta. What cheer, my love?

      This seems a hint of Hippolyta's response to Theseus's strict ruling in the case of the lovers. It's likely she is not pleased.

    8. examine well your blood,

      A play on "blood" as in family--listen to your father--and blood--as in sexual desire, passion. Theseus's hint here seems to be that Hermia should consider her choice between celibacy (no sex) and marriage to Demetrius (sex with a partner that is not her most desired).

    9. Thou, thou, Lysander, thou hast given her rhymes

      Given he himself is a poet, it seems likely that Shakespeare would sympathize with Lysander's wooing of Hermia with "rhymes" (poetry).

    10. Hippolyta, I wooed thee with my sword

      This seems a central line setting up the drama of the play: Hippolyta was forced to marry Lysander ("by sword") much like Hermia is being forced to marry Demetrius (by law: the "ancient privilege" that her father Egeus evokes in the speech that follows).

    1. a more recent tool,

      Both Annotation Studio and Lacuna Stories are based on the open-source JavaScript library, Annotater. Folks here might appreciate the fungible Annotater tagline:

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    2. First stop, for me,

      For a great overview on the history of web annotation, check out original ProfHacker Jason B. Jones in his recent article, "There Are No New Directions in Web Writing."

    3. building a web (haha)

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      It's true, though! Annotation (as much as hyperlinking) is part of what shaped the metaphor of "the Web" for the Internet. As Vannevar Bush wrote in "As We May Think" in 1945:

      Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified.

    4. One of my favorite activities is annotation, moving towards thinking about critical editions.

      So cool to empower the student as scholar editing a critical edition: make them responsible for the historical and cultural contextualization, and for leading the reader toward possible interpretations.

    1. . Like Don Quixote

      Wonderful evidence (even if ultimately excised from publication) of the influence of Cervantes!

    1. YOU will rejoice to hear that no disaster has accompanied the commencement of an enterprise which you have regarded with such evil forebodings.

      Maybe it's because I've read the book/know the story, but this assurance within the narrative world of the novel obviously has the opposite effect for the reader: we don't rejoice, but worry.

    1. I might be complicit in the death of the humanities.

      I think there are larger issues with the health of the humanities today: funding, for example, or the role of such curriculum at the secondary level.

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    2. 4) I will have a thesis,

      Isn't the very point of a conference paper that the work is in process? Theses are more mandatory for published work, in my opinion. And we might even resist that particular generic convention.

    3. 2) I will not read my paper line by line in a monotone without looking at the audience. I needn’t necessarily abide by some entertainment imperative, with jokes, anecdotes or flashy slides, but I will strive to maintain a certain compassion toward my captive audience.

      Add public speaking to grad training, then. Or to any pre-grad curriculum for that matter.

    4. We have sat patiently and politely through talks read line by line in a monotone voice by a speaker who doesn’t look up once, wondering why we couldn’t have read the paper ourselves in advance with a much greater level of absorption.

      This whole essay reads like an extensive Facebook rant complaining about traffic or some other aspect of daily life that other people besides the speaker are apparently inept at.

    5. Some scholars love conferences. They love the ritual as described above.

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    1. Hirschorn and the rest of the show’s staff are gathered in the artificial twilight of a VH1 editing room,

      Reminds me of the opening of William Gibson's Neuromancer:

      The sky above the port was the color of television, tuned to a dead channel.

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    2. “I knew we offered something YouTube couldn’t: television,” he says. “Everyone wants to be on TV.”

      I wonder if this distinction even still holds? (Article was written in 2003!) I think I'd rather be on YouTube these days--hard to post a link to a TV show on Facebook.

    1. Folger Shakespeare Library

      Hello, #moocspeare!

      This is an annotatable version of Much Ado About Nothing using the hypothes.is app.

      If you sign up for an hypothes.is account, you can annotate the text at this special link.

  4. Apr 2015
    1. with these simple words,

      emphasis on simplicity makes this speech (and American history, future, etc.) accessible to all

    1. wild-meat species.

      never heard this phrase.

    2. Maintain or restore ecosystem integ- rity.

      human-induced problem/human-induced solution?

    3. but we now face a massive human-induced extinction crisis,

      yikes! an this was written in 2002!!



    1. teaching, studying, researching, and practicing the humanities.

      A lot of this is taking place not in colleges and universities (not even junior colleges, etc.). Does MLA have any interest in including secondary teachers/institutions?

    2. dispiriting professional climate

      only in how we imagine its scope!

    3. from developing MLA Commons into our town square

      hear ye, hear ye, from cathedral to bazaar!

    1. The exceptions do not apply to supplemental wages greater than $1,000,000.

      not a problem

    1. and that perhaps we could try to remind our elected officials that one never knows which languages might become strategic tomorrow.

      Not to make light, but this reminds me of how Max Fisher viciously destroys and then subsequently saves the Latin program at Rushmore:


    2. “enemy languages.”

      Not a phrase coined by Scholes in fact, but by the US government who discouraged the speaking of so called enemy languages during World War II through this kind of propaganda:

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      Of course, Berube is arguing that the US government has now changed their position: now they want people to learn so called "enemy languages" so as to better combat those cultures.

    3. The idea that Americans might also serve as “informal cultural ambassadors and engage in an exchange of knowledge and culture while overseas” is now unthinkable in official Washington even though it is part of the language of Fulbright-Hays.

      From "The World is Our Classroom" on the DOE website.

    4. Adjunct Project, a Web site that would allow contingent faculty members to upload the details of their working conditions.

      Now subsumed by The Chronicle.

    5. In fact, the year has been somewhat encouraging on that front. Upon returning from Washington in January, I reported on the New Faculty Majority summit for Inside Higher Ed

      Found here.

    1. Facebook’s terms of service are not international law.

      Nor even guidelines for daily etiquette.

    2. If social media is no longer made up of people, what is it?

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    3. One Indonesian click farmer told me that he had funneled two million Facebook likes to a candidate in his nation’s hotly contested July 2014 presidential election.


    4. (Ring JPMorgan Chase or Microsoft customer support, and there’s a good chance you’ll be connected to a Filipino in Cebu City whose excellent English is part of the legacy of the American colonization of the Philippines.)

      Dissertation topic: "The Long Tail of European Colonialism." So interesting that there is real human labor behind a "bot."

    5. Facebook claimed 1.39 billion active monthly users

      Does "Ashley Nivens" count?

    1. West sought to account for the suffering of black America by steering between the arguments of conservative behaviorists and liberal structuralists. He thought it was important to acknowledge self-inflicted injuries as well as dehumanizing forces.

      Two opposing sides of the debate over poverty and crime etc in urban black communities in postindustrial America: Conservatives who argued pathological black culture ("behavior") was to blame and Liberals who argued that societal "structures," like poor schools and housing were the cause.

    2. A photo of the exchange exists: West frozen like a dear brother in the headlights as he smiled broadly and stood speechless.

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    3. writing is about contrived naturalness: rigging the system of meaning to turn out the way you want, and making it look normal and inevitable in the process.
    4. Writing is an often-painful task that can feel like the death of one’s past. Equally discomfiting is seeing one’s present commitments to truths crumble once one begins to tap away at the keyboard or scar the page with ink.

      So true that the "ecstasy" of argument or articulation can quickly be killed by the deliberate act of putting ideas down on a page.

    1. hese students now face, for their pains: Naturalism.

      Naturalism as a literary genre the equivalent of winter in Cambridge?

    2. It is the beginning of December in Cambridge.

      I think this is the same Lisa...

    1. WHEN lilacs last in the dooryard bloom'd,

      not in boston in april, just showers there as per eliot

    2. In the swamp in secluded recesses, A shy and hidden bird is warbling a song. Solitary the thrush, The hermit withdrawn to himself, avoiding the settlements, Sings by himself a song.

      The bird described here is a hermit thrush and one of the three major symbols of the poem. This is its first of many appearances throughout.

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      The hermit thrush's song was one Whitman was familiar with as it inhabited his native Long Island, and his description here is naturalistic. Notes about the bird that relate to its use here can be found in Whitman's notebooks:

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      With its own solemn hymn, the hermit thrush is a parallel for the poet himself as he composes and sings his own elegy--below he calls the bird "dearest brother." Later the speaker of the poem asks:

      O how shall I warble myself for the dead one there I loved? And how shall I deck my song for the large sweet soul that has gone?

    1. Since Number Five is out of the bathroom now, We think of lukewarm water, hope to get in it.

      Such kitchenettes were single-room apartments, subdivided from a larger apartment, so they might all share a single bathroom.

      "Number Five" refers to a neighbor in one of the other kitchenette apartments. That they are not given a name only further emphasizes the dehumanization of these living conditions, in which they can't even expect hot water.

    1. Unreal City, Under the brown fog of a winter dawn,

      Why is the city, London in this case, "unreal"? The weather has given it a mystical quality no doubt. But more deeply, the city seems unreal in that it is not realizable, that is comprehensible, to Eliot in the modern sense. In short, he can't make sense of it.

    1. send to friends, colleagues, facebook friends, twitter followers, people on reddit, etc.

      They won't need h accounts!

    2. Once you’ve left an annotation on a page,

      You'll need an hypothes.is account to do this.

    1. it also gives you control over your own annotations so that you’re able to collect them elsewhere.

      it does?

    2. Indeed, it would be possible to have classes construct their own self-edited anthologies of source materials—

      Students as editors of literary anthologies, etc., empowered as knowledge producers.

    3. What Bush and Engelbart dramatize is a world in which that experience is made vivid and accessible.


    4. Lurking behind their imaginative essays is an ideal of full comprehension–that we might be able to truly understand one another if we could just track down all the relevant influences and contexts and motives. We can also see how such a vision becomes oddly depersonalizing.

      Isn't "full comprehension" the ideal of personalization?

    5. Vannevar Bush’s hypothetical “memex,”

      Love this term.

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    6. those who find delight in the task of establishing useful trails through the enormous mass of the common record. The inheritance from the master becomes, not only his additions to the world’s record, but for his disciples the entire scaffolding by which they were erected.

      The advantage of this type of learning/scholarly process seems to be in speed--your research trail makes my project progress more rapidly--but a speed that enables depth.

    7. Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified.

      I like the idea of annotation as "associative trails." Makes me think of the convenience afforded the inquirer as they investigate a chosen topic.

      "Amplification"is a common term when discussing digital marginalia: an historically silent practice made audible, made into a conversation.

    8. as well the ability to see how others read.

      The social aspect of collaborative online annotation is indeed key. We need to be able to follow others and receive notification of their activity. @judell

    1. John Perry Barlow

      John Perry Barlow was a lyricist for the Grateful Dead and then became an early advocate of the free web.

      Here's him reading the declaration with musical accompaniment.

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    2. Governments of the Industrial World,

      In retrospective, despite the recent NSA revelations, seems like Barlow should have been worried about corporations not the government.

    1. American Online (AOL) recruits volunteers to be “guides”. Guides spend nine hours online a week policing the AOL service and an additional two hours reading email and filling out reports. Guides greet new members and make them feel welcome, answer user questions about AOL, promote online attractions and events, complete market research, and enforce the AOL’s terms of service. Guides monitor chat rooms, newsgroups, and email messages. AOL expects guides to report to AOL officials and to enforce the AOL’s rules by warning rule violators.

      AOL volunteers

    2. architectural algorithm

      great phrase

    1. So many stories

      I hate how the word "story" has become a fancy tech way of saying "data." Though I think Ceglowski and Zuckerman are probably playing on this slippage.

    1. the capacity to capture a moment and contribute to the ongoing constitution of a nonuni- fied collective intelligence outside and in between the blind alleys of the silicon age.

      me too!

    2. The pervasiveness of such production questions the legitimacy of a fixed distinction between production and consumption, labor and culture.

      compare carr on digital sharecropping

    3. It is fundamental to move beyond the notion that cyberspace is about escaping reality in order to understand how the reality of the Internet is deeply connected to the development of late postindustrial societies as a whole.

      escape reality v. grounded in economics

    4. connections between the “digital economy” and what the Italian autonomists have called the “social factory.” The “social factory” describes a process whereby “work processes have shifted from the factory to society, thereby setting in motion a truly complex machine.” 2 Simultaneously voluntarily given and unwaged, enjoyed and exploited, free labor on the Net

      social factory and digital economy

    5. “moronic management of new media companies.”


    1. By making the classic texts of the New Folger Editions available in electronic form as Folger Digital Texts, we place a trusted resource in the hands of anyone who wants them

      And now we can annotate these digital texts together, reading Shakespeare in community.

    1. normal spindle assembly

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    2. Temporal and spatial regulation

      Aren't we all hemmed in by time and space, though?

    3. transcriptionally quiescen

      beautiful phrase



      But what of centralization in the sense of universality, common language?...

    2. But the net itself was born of a fairly good regulatory framework that made sure de facto net neutrality existed for decades, paid for basic research into protocols and software, cleared the way for business use of the internet, and encouraged the growth of the commercial web.

      html etc.

    3. AdSense.

      Google's ad algorithm related to is search algorithm...

    4. paid ads that pretend to be related links.

      What is information?

    5. We're addicted to 'big data' not because it's effective now, but because we need it to tell better stories.


    6. What happens if Facebook goes out of business, like so many of the social networks that came before it? Or if Facebook gets acquired by a credit agency? How about if it gets acquired by Rupert Murdoch, or taken private by a hedge fund? What happens to all that data?

      “Sorry, that page doesn’t exist!”

    7. You could argue (and I do!) that this data is actually safer in government hands. In the US, at least, there's no restriction on what companies can do with our private information, while there are stringent limits (in theory) on our government. And the NSA's servers are certainly less likely to get hacked by some kid in Minsk.

      Amazon/Google/Facebook scarier than US gov

    8. The relationship between the intelligence agencies and Silicon Valley has historically been very cozy. The former head of Facebook security now works at NSA. Dropbox just added Condoleeza Rice, an architect of the Iraq war, to its board of directors. Obama has private fundraisers with the same people who are supposed to champion our privacy.

      intimacy govt and tech industry

    9. The degree of centralization is remarkable. Consider that Google now makes hardware, operating systems, and a browser. It's not just possible, but fairly common for someone to visit a Google website from a Google device, using Google DNS servers and a Google browser on the way.

      Googlization of evrything

    10. Over the past year, we've learned a lot about the extent to which the American government monitors the Internet.


    11. What the cloud is is a big collection of buildings and computers that we actually know very little about, run by a large American company notorious for being pretty terrible to its workers. Who knows what angry sysadmin lurks inside the cloud?


    12. One of them pretends to be more open than the other, but it's mostly a matter of marketing. In practice they both have complete control of their ecosystem.

      I.e. Google.

    13. There's another reason, besides fear, that's driving us to save everything. That reason is hubris. You've all seen those TV shows where the cops are viewing a scene from space, and someone keeps hitting "ENHANCE", until pretty soon you can count the bacteria on the criminal's license plate. We all dream of building that 'enhance' button. In the past, we were going to build it with artificial intelligence. Now we believe in "Big Data". Collect enough information, think of a clever enough algorithm, and you can find anything. This is the classic programmer's delusion, the belief that if you look deep enough, there's a hidden deterministic pattern. Tap the chisel on the right spot and the rock will crack open.

      "enhance" anecdote/analogy for big data

    14. I'd much rather look at this bird than at Scoble.
    15. Online, everything is recorded by default, and you may not know where or by whom. If you've ever wondered why Facebook is such a joyless place, even though we've theoretically surrounded ourselves with friends and loved ones, it's because of this need to constantly be wearing our public face. Facebook is about as much fun as a zoning board hearing.

      Isn't the scarier point that we don't exactly where a public face, at least not the one we'd show up to municipal government meeting with. Facebook is more like showing up for a zoning board meeting dressed for a club.

    16. And then when I grew up, I helped build it for real.

      The Internet IS the mythical "permanent record”!

    17. Look at this guy! Isn't he great?

      Of course, cute animal pics (and cute animals!) preceded the evolution of the Internet, but they also hold a special place in the history of the web:

      Image Description

    1. When the view control is set to “All” users can create public and private annotations

      Can we know if the user is in a group and populate that as an option even if they are toggled to all/public?

      Maybe i'm checking out the public stuff and then want to add something privately to the group?

    2. All.”


    3. [User clicks on view control]

      this button/dropdown doesn't exist yet, right?

      i think "all" is confusing here. why not "public"?

    4. Joining a page group as simple as clicking the link. Anyone who visits the page group url is taken to the webpage the group was made on, with the page group set as view.

      so it's not truly private, just hard to discover? if i have the URL i can join, no matter who i am?

    5. Possible name: Margins

      i don't understand how this connotes "group." it's a spatial referent about the page, not the actors on the page.

    1. Here’s a browser with a local PDF in one tab

      Just to slow this down a bit, if you have a PDF on your computer, you can drag it directly into a tab in the Chrome browser (or open it through the File menu as pictured).

      Image Description

    1. the potential to recover for readers some of the utopian potential of networked writing spaces

      Not to mention prove the theorization of literary scholars that texts are always already networked in this way, writ through with their own histories of production and reception.

    2. You can get a feel for the platform by seeing some of the commentary on this Atlantic piece about ad-driven media content.


    3. to .pdfs,

      More here from @judell.

    4. The next wave of networked annotation aims at enabling communities of users to scribble in the margins of web pages.

      This was actually one of the early dreams of the Internet. Marc Andreessen wanted there to be annotation functionality within Mosaic, the first web browser, but it didn't work out then.

      Here's an excerpt from an email from Marc at the time:

      How it works: every time you access a document in Mosaic, the group annotation server [if you’re using one] is queried with the URL of the document you’re viewing; if any group annotations exist for that document, the group annotation server returns to Mosaic corresponding hyperlinks which are inlined into the document just like personal annotations.

    5. Note: I used digress.it for these latter projects, a “fork” in the development of CommentPress that has floundered in recent years.


    6. and allows a comment to be pegged to a particular paragraph.

      But this only takes us part of the way there. It's line by line commentary that we really should be teaching our students, right?

    7. Unlike traditional, print-based annotating, these newer practices emerging in networked digital platforms are intensely social.

      Making reading quite literally the intensely social process that scholars have always theorized it to be.

    8. One of the most striking aspects of the Web-saturated lives we lead is that we constantly write on things: comments on blog posts (like this one: you know you want to!), captions or reflections on Instagram images or Facebook updates, and even product reviews on Amazon constitute a major form of public sphere participation for us and especially our students.

      YES! For me, Twitter is the ultimate non-annotation annotation tool, constant commentary hinged to texts and other artifacts of daily life.

    9. even jotting down students’ comments on the chalkboard during class discussions

      "Annotating" a live conversation. Interesting!

  5. Mar 2015
    1. SCENE I. Elsinore. A platform before the castle. FRANCISCO at his post. Enter to him BERNARDO BERNARDO Who's there? FRANCISCO Nay, answer me: stand, and unfold yourself.

      Image Description

      This has to be one of the most intense opening scenes in all of literature. We are immediately thrown into a moment of panic as each guard responds wearily to the other's approach. In general these opening lines set the tone of the play to be one of apprehension.

    1. its interests in relationship to those who have no property and thus no calculable interests, and who are therefore imagined to harbor a potentially criminal disregard for propertied order.

      So the concept of "service" to a larger public is illusion?

    1. ohn C. Urschel Department of Mathematics, Penn State University, Pennsyl vania, USA Email: urschel@math.psu.edu

      To add to his impressive and diverse resume: Urschel is also an offensive lineman for the Baltimore Ravens.

      Image Description

      More here.

    1. It also undermines Gilroy's distinction between work as "servitude, misery and subordination" and artistic expression as the means to self-fashioning and communal liberation. The increasingly blurred territory between production and consumption, work and cultural expression,

      blurring of labor and leisure

    2. ncludes the activity of building Web sites, modifying software packages, reading and participating in mailing lists, and building virtual spaces on MUDs and MOOs

      And sooo much more since this seminal article was written 15 years ago!!

    3. the glamorization of digital labor,

      What's this referring to exactly? The utopianism of crowd-sourcing as democratic knowledge production?

  6. www.researchoninnovation.org www.researchoninnovation.org

      Impressed that this is what Dan reads for fun.

    1. they are structurally inhibited from making our own lives meaningful.

      I don't buy that.

    2. we are compensated not with wages but with a stronger sense of self, measurable in hard, quantifiable terms. How many friends do you have? How often do they update? How many photos have you shared? How many times have they been looked at? And so on.

      Is there not a qualitative benefit in Facebook another social networking tools? The act of curation can be a self-reflective one. Online intimacies surely can't be dismissed as merely accretive.

    3. The more effort we put into crafting identity online, the more material we supply to Facebook and search engines to associate with contextual ads and other marketing initiatives.

      If we admit that we are indeed participants in a commercial economy--we buy groceries at a supermarket, travel on airplanes, etc.--contextualizing ads in this way seem a public good, one inline with individual desire rather than corporate mandate.

    4. social media essentially allows us to interact with one another as brands.

      Like some perverse reversal of the Citizens United decision--corporations as people.

      But couldn't this be viewed as empowering/democratizing. The chances of an unknown singer of making it big are surely higher in the age of YouTube than they were before the Internet. You can literally broadcast yourself into EMI today.

    5. Services like Facebook succeed by making the process of ordering our social lives much more convenient

      So do planners. Should they be free?

    6. to take on the characteristics of what autonomist Marxists like Paolo Virno and Toni Negri call the social factory, in which the effort we put into our social lives becomes a kind of covert work that can be co-opted by the tech companies that help us “share” and “connect.”

      Are sharing and connecting so specious, so “scary,” as to require quotes?

    1. 395'000'000 / 1320'000'000 = .30 So, the average user would earn about 30 cents, per quarter.

      This assumes that all users are equal. Could there be some metric to value different users differently?

    1. In the culture of surveillance, evidence collection is never-ending, a shadow to every activity. These daily interactions with (and production of) data, however unwitting they may be, are mediated by some interface somewhere. Their codes of transmission permeate our offline lives: the hashtags, likes, swipes, physical and metaphorical embodiments of intimate data exchanges.

      This IS an incredibly intensive archival process. Is the argument that the archiving is out of our control and being done from the pov, as traditionally, of power?

    2. this perspective reflects a certain hegemonic order of knowledge.

      I agree that a certain centralized and limited power is at work here, but "hegemony" seems to restrictive a term for it. There must be some new way of thinking about the dispersed but no less focused knowledge creation of the Web...

    3. As our relationships with interfaces progress, we may find that no amount of design improvement can allow the platforms to address our needs automatically and anticipate our changes of heart.

      Fair enough, but doesn't the Amazon algorithm get it right? I DO need a matching bottle for the baby doll I'm buying my daughter!