103 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2018
  2. Apr 2018
  3. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. he basket represents multiple layers of meaning on several different l~vel~. As a material object, it possesses a utilitarian function. For the non-Nanve, 1t is also a Mohegan cultural artif.ict. Through its utilitarian function, it serves to reinscribe Mohegan history and cosmology into everyday life. As a gendered cultural form, the basket is the embodiment of the role of women in passing on not only the basket-weaving tradition but cultural know~~ge as we~. F~nally, as a text, the basket assumes primacy over its newspaper linmg, reducing 1t to a utilitarian function devoid of communicative practice.

      Here we restate the importance of the artifact in mohegan culture and how something that is considered communicative in one culture newspapers is reduced to being used for a practical purpose for something that the Mohegan;s themselves consider communicative.

    2. Mohegan Wood--splint Basket The Mohegan manu'da, or basket, pictured here is in the collection of the Con-necticut Historical Society, It ia 12 inches wide, 17 inches long, and 11 inches high. It is rectangular in shape, with sides that curve slightly inward. The rim ia double reinforced and single wrapped, creating a sturdy durable frame. The cover is slightly concave, perhaps from age, with sharply defined comers. The warp and weft of the splits are of medium width. The basket ia decorated on three sides in Mohegan pink and green, and it is fully lined with pages .from an 1817 Hartford, Connectic

      Here we are shown how the basket actually looked this gives a visual component to the article which was just words before. The symbols on the basket in a western context are meaningless but defined within the culture it was created in is vast rich and interesting.

    3. spiritual force is present in this Mohegan manuaa. One of the primary symbols of the basket, perhaps the most important symbol found in Mohe-gan culrure, is the four-domed medallion. It is thought to represent the four directions, or four cardinal points, as well as the interrelationship of the soul, earth, and universe.

      Just like how the supplementary reading was about a disater destroying historic buildings in italy that were historic symbols of italian culture we see that same symbolism in the four domed medallion. The medallion seems to hold a important part in mohegan cosmology just like cathedrals do to the catholic church. Cathedrals are important symbols in catholic tradition showcasing all types of religiosu symbolism that communicates ideas of christ and christianity that have been passed through time.

    4. ohegan belief and cosmology. T

      Cosmology is defined as the science of the origin and development of the universe. in this case mohegan cosomogoly would be the origin and development of the mohegan culture. According to fitzgerald these baskets give us some insight into the development of their culture using symbols and patterns that are unique to mohegan culture.

    5. nn McMullen has suggested that the inscribed texts are political commentaries on the move to Brothertown by a faction of the Mohegan Tribe, spanning the years &om the 1770s to the 1820s. "The message;' she writes, "was that people would lose their Mohegan identity when they left the tribal lands:' 74 Any text is open to multiple readings, but this particular analysis reflects a non-Native bia

      Here we get mention of a non native perspective on native culture. Mcmullen makes an assumption based off current perspectives on Native culture and identity. While Fitzegerald has an entire different interpation based on her knowledge of the culture and its cosmology. We often make assumptions based of preconceived notions that can be wrong. In this case the assumption is based off interpetation the problem with the interpation is that is based on non native assuming the natives were sad about the loss of their culture instead of taking nito account the acual history behind the symbols meaning comnig directly from their cosomology. It also highlights fitzegerald point about people not taking the writings on the basket as writings because in western culture we only view written words as a record and are not use to the idea of people communicating without using text at all.

    6. I choose "Historical treasures lost, damaged in Italian quake" as my supplmentary source. In this article it talks about how a recent eathquake has destroyed /damaged hundreds of cultural/historical sites. Two sites that were in destroyed according to the article was the " Cattedrale di Urbino, an ancient Roman Catholic cathedral in the city of Urbino" and the "The San Giuliano cathedral in the town of Macerata " . According to the website freedictionary a cathedral is defined as "The principal church in a diocese, so called because in it the bishop has his official chair or throne (freedictionary) . Italy is the birth place of the catholic church so this defintly has improtant meaning in italian culture and relates back to main article by fizgerald in how people use things besides traditonal writing to tell their history. Everything from the design of the cathedral down to the various paintings inside communicate ideas about italian culture from the past and what it meant to the people who painted them. The italian toursite turismomacerata states that the only remnant is the capital was a parish church dedicated to Saint Julian and its existence dates back to 1022 ("Cathedral of San Giuliano"). This supplementary in away highlisghts western bias because italians recorded a large portion of their history so alot of this information is freely available on the net for anyone to read. The Mohegans recorded but not in a traditional western sense so you ahve to have knowledge of the culture and some access to the community to actual learn their history. Also in western culture people that ahve written language are often seen as more advanced than culutres who don't have a written language. When people see that a group doesn't have a written language they can easily dismiss their culture and its unique hsitory which has been done with the mohegan people due to the fact they didn't record things in a traditional way that we are used to in western culture.

      Cathedral - Definition of Cathedral - Synonyms, Pronunciation, Spelling from Free Dictionary, www.freedictionary.org/?Query=cathedral..

      “Cathedral of San Giuliano.” Turismomacerata, Turismomacerata, www.turismomacerata.it/en/cathedrals/cathedral-san-giuliano.

    7. ndians made baskets and other woven objects long before European and other settlers reached American shores, and they continue these cultural prac• rices to this day. The baskets and other objects are often covered with symbolic designs containing insightful readings into the particular culture from which they originate, According to the specific cultural context, the designs may take the form of figures, geometric shapes, or A.oral patterns. Baskets, which were and still are ceremonial and utilitarian objects used for transportation and storage of items, prayer ceremonies, and traditional games, fu

      so here we see that baskets and other objects are commonly see across various different indian tribes. They used these baskets for pracical purposes and as a way to communicate ideas and share their history. This relates back to the supplementary readining about the hisoric buildings destroyed in italy. The two discussed in the article were both used for paractical purposes and definitely communicate ideas about the beliefs and customs of the culture it was created in showing that in all cutlures people use forms other than traditional writing as way to showcase their ways of life.

    8. o read the Mohegan narrative of the basket, we must make a critical move that elides the Western print symbolic system in favor of traditional Mohegan communicative practices:

      this means we need to omit the western perspective on printed writing and try to understand these baskets in the context of the culture it was created in which makes perfect sense.

    9. S4 • The Mohegans Many of these basket sellers, noted for characteristics ranging from wit to sto-rytelling to musicianship, became legendary figures in the communities they visited. Few late nineteenth-century northeastern Native baskets were signed by their makers (a practice that is culturally Western).68 The narrative that un-folds in the textual surface of a basket is not an individual creation; it belongs to the tribal community. Authorship, then, is communal rather than individual,

      In western culture we someone is the author of a work tey usually take credit for it with a signature but in Mohegan culture ownership of works belonged to the entire community . In a sense this means authorship is often collaborative and not done by an individual sometimes with people adding on to the work.

    10. he Mohegan word for painting, wuskuswang, is the same word used for writ· ing, inducting painted baskets in a long textual tradition that includes decora· tive birch bark etching, beadwork, wampum belts, and the written word. These practices comprise systems of signification that were and are read as texts. Because they do not conform to Western conceptions of writing, they have been dismissed, ignored, and largely excluded from the historical record, thus obscuring the long history of Native texts and textualities.

      Basically Fitzgerald is saying that the Mohegan have a rich cultural history that still hasn't been unearthed to due to western bias on the unconventional methods they use to write in their culture.

  4. Jan 2018
  5. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. o read the Mohegan narrative of the basket, we must make a critical move that elides the Western print symbolic system in favor of traditional Mohegan communicative practices: We must turn to its surface.

      The Mohegan baskets contain so much detail in them that some one would need to spend more time to view them and understand, than if they just see a text or meaningless painting. Typically history will be told to us through a book or text that we an read word for word and figure out what happened or we will see a painting or picture that gives us an image of exactly what something may have looked like. To understand these baskets and their stories we must switch our way of thinking or we won't ever understand them, or it may take a long time. In order to really perceive the intended meaning of the basket we must completely indulge into their culture.

    2. Few late nineteenth-century northeastern Native baskets were signed by their makers (a practice that is culturally Western).68 The narrative that un-folds in the textual surface of a basket is not an individual creation; it belongs to the tribal community. Authorship, then, is communal rather than individual, and the resulting narrative belongs to the community as a whol

      The creation of these baskets was the Mohegans way of story telling. These baskets told the story of the history the Mohegan culture has gone through. Therefore, many of the creators of these baskets opted to not sign them because they would basically be taking credit for what the Mohegan culture has gone through and their history. If the basket creator were to sign the basket that would be considered very Western and often times were just sold as baskets instead of Mohegan baskets, because they were looked at as having no meaning to the Mohegan tribe

    3. The decoding of the text of a basket requires shifting from a Western to a Native perspective and situating both the basket and its text within a speci6.c tribal context.

      In the Western culture we are more accustomed to viewing old artifacts as text, that specifically tells exactly what was going on at the time depending on the author. In the native (Mohegan) culture they do this differently. These baskets and the symbols on them are of strong importance.(I.E. Trial of Life symbol). Shifting to the Mohegan perspective of story telling, of symbols and designs from what we are routinely used to seeing, which is texts, can be difficult. This often times causes us as the Western community to look at these Mohegan painted baskets as simply designs or decoration, when they are in fact telling a story that has previously had a heavy impact on the Mohegan culture.

    4. One of the primary symbols of the basket, perhaps the most important symbol found in Mohe-gan culrure, is the four-domed medallion. It is

      The medallion has 4 different parts to it. Four half Circular Domes, Four Trees, 13 dots around the center circle, and the red Center Circle. All of these parts of the medallion relate to the Earth and the past generations of the Mohegan tribe. According to a website dedicated to the meaning of the Mohegan flag. The meaning of the four semicircular domes point to each of the four sacred directions, represent "Grandfather Turtle upon whom the earth was formed " The four diagonal lines are four sacred trees reminding us of the"The Sacred Tree" or the "Tree of Life", which is a design seen a lot on Mohegan baskets.

    5. "The message;' she writes, "was that people would lose their Mohegan identity when they left the tribal lands:'

      Ann McMullen said that she beleived once the Natives were forced to leave their land that they would no longer be able to keep their Mohegan identity due to the fact that they would be forced to move and share land with other Native groups that have their own beliefs and cultures. What McMullen said would end up being somewhat correct. After the "Trail of Tears", a significant part of the Mohegan culture ended up lost due to leaving their land. This happened to many cultures and the results are typically the same with them losing a large part of the identity they once had on their land before being forced out. (Sioux, American Buffalo, etc)

    6. Because they do not conform to Western conceptions of writing, they have been dismissed, ignored, and largely excluded from the historical record, thus obscuring the long history of Native texts and textualities.

      Due to the fact that the Mohegan culture and ways of life are so different from the Western culture, it makes it hard for a lot of us in the Western culture to fully understand the value of certain objects in their cultures. In our current culture a basket has no religious traditional, or cultural value at all. It also makes us look at our current culture and how a lot of things that we use everyday have no meaning to it in our mind, but yet it is a big part of our culture and the knowledge of some of these things could help someone outside of our culture understand us more. Just because things are different than our cultural norm does not mean we should discredit its value for another culture.

    7. In sum, by touching every aspect of daily Native life, both past and present, basketry is imbued with cultural and spiritual power.

      Mohegan baskets are used for everyday use by the Natives but also used fro cultural purposes, religious purposes, and traditional purposes. Trying to learn and figure out all of the purposes that these woven baskets are used for can help us learn a lot about the Mohegan culture and their specific way of life in comparison to other native cultures.

    8. a gendered cultural form, the basket is the embodiment of the role of women in passing on

      The practice of making the woven basket is more of a role that the women take on instead of the men of the community. Women were very important within the Mohegan Culture. They were very well known in the areas that they lived in for creating these baskets and selling them as well as keeping the culture and beliefs together. This is clear because the baskets were intended to fully represent what the culture believed and stood for. Women held many positions of power in the Mohegan culture and the basket making was one of these positions.

    9. t serves to reinscribe Mohegan history and cosmology into everyday life. A

      These Mohegan Basket are meant to keep the culture going and not forgotten. It is meant to remind the current natives of where they started and where they come from. After the large migration, many people of the culture died and then after they had a hard time holding onto the culture. This can be compared to the ways that the Black Lives Matter Movement did such an amazing way of gaining awareness to the issue. The hashtag #blacklivesmatter was not widely known at first. However since the Trayvon Martin case was announced the Black Lives Matter Movement has made strong efforts to inform people on police brutality. Black Lives Matter made improvements on gathering awareness on the issue, but they still face adversity from people who may not understand its purpose. However, with them continuing to share this message relates to how the Mohegan culture continues to hold on their identity.

    10. The designs are not only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply culturally significant. The artistic renderings displayed on the basket are representations of both rhe abundant natural landscape and the Mohegan cosmology. As the Mohegan elder Gladys Tantaquidgeon explains, "To the Mohegan, designs and life are more than simple representations of narure.

      The symbols an designs on the baskets represent natural landscape and Mohegan Cosmology. Gladys Tantaquidgeon was a Mohegan medicine woman, anthropologist, author, and tribal council member. She said "to the Mohegan, designs and life are more than simple representations of nature. There is a spiritual force that flows through all things, and if these symbols are true representations of that force, this spirit should be expressed in these designs." To many these designs may not look attractive and if we do not Mohegan cosmology than we have no chance at understanding what they mean. However these baskets have a large power in them to the Mohegan culture. This compares easily with "The Life of an Object ". These baskets do more than just symbolized something. In the Digital Curation project, the student is forced to think of what the object does, rather than what it symbolizes because that would leave the value of it completely up to the viewer. These Mohegan baskets are more than a representation of the culture, they are a part of it.

    11. The designs are not only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply culturally significant.

      Baskets were a big part of daily life for Native Americans. Many families had their own family design that they used when weaving baskets. Most of the time though, it was women trying to outdo each other with different designs and colors. Since baskets were made in the winder months, the women of the tribe would spend all summer preparing themselves for the winter. they would gather material to make such baskets. For example, grass was a big part of the basket making process. It was used like a thread, and the women of the tribe would collect a certain type of grass, because of the color and strength of it. They would hike into the mountains, which was a very dangerous thing to do, just to get the right grass for basket weaving. Once the baskets were made they would be used for storage for food and supplies for their shops, as well as using it for trade. Basket making is considered an art to these people, and secret techniques would be passed down from mother to daughter throughout various generations.

    12. t was performed by women to the accompani· ment of stories and songs, which in tum become part of the basket, joining together two traditions, oral and textual.

      According to the Mohegan tribe website, there was a tradition about a giant named Moshup. He represented the large and great beings. in order to keep balance, Moshup marries Granny Squannit, leader of the woodlands little people. There are many stories about Moshup in Mohegan tradition, but there is one story that talks about the landscape of Connecticut. Moshup was trying to build a bridge to the mainland when a crab bit his foot. Angered by this, he used his fiery temper and began throwing stones all over Connecticut, which explains why the landscape there today is very rocky.

    13. Summary of Supplemental Text: http://time.com/time-person-of-the-year-2015-runner-up-black-lives-matter/ Black Lives Matter by Alex Altman

      The article described the creation and impact of the Black Lives Matter Movement. This movement was born out of the sheer amount of reported domestic abuse, inequality, and injustice claims that were witnessed towards African American individuals across the United States. Since the outcomes of cases like Freddie Gray, Trayvon Martin, and others, the Black Lives Matter Movement has looked to shed light on the importance of this issue in society that was thought to have been "fixed" after the Civil Rights Movement. Though BLM has made strides in sharing awareness, they have and currently face strong opposition from right-wing politics and others who disapprove of their validity. Through this, they continue to share their passion for sharing their message as a movement in history.

    14. Because they do not conform to Western conceptions of writing, they have been dismissed, ignored, and largely excluded from the historical record, th

      As modern society continues, the problem of non-traditional artforms being neglected as writing does not cease to continue. In the case of the Black Lives Matter Movement, they are looked at as more of a gang figure at times than an empowering movement, set to shed light on important issues on society. As a historical set-piece, BLM allows our society and look back to see the injustice that black individuals faced and see the change that was called for and asked by the people of the United States of America. As much as many individuals on the opposing viewpoint believe that Black Lives Matter was insignificant, it was a major turning point. This movement, though not a traditional form of written text, can be easily be seen as a historical record marking a turning point, much like the civil rights movement.

    15. it serves to reinscribe Mohegan history and cosmology into everyday life. A

      Much like how Fitzgerald states that the basket "serves to rein-scribe Mohegan history and cosmology into everyday life". The Black Lives Matter serves the same purpose in their fight against inequality. Through the movement, the black struggle is displayed through everyday life, whether it be police interactions or simple interactions with others. By doing this, the inequality and injustice is spread and seen through all aspects of everyday life http://time.com/time-person-of-the-year-2015-runner-up-black-lives-matter/

    16. The combination of traditional symbols su~h as the Trail o~ Life pat· tern with the four-domed medallions creates a fusion of Mohegan history and cosmology. It is no cause for wonder that a basket of this era might depict the migration story.

      As Fitzgerald begins to peer into the symbolic meaning and analysis of the basket, she sees a much different story. She uses her knowledge of the Mohegan culture to view the basket through a native lense. She sees the amalgamation of "tradition symbols" that "fuse Mohegan History and Cosmology" to tell the story of their migration. Rather than assuming it to show their disconnect from their culture, the basket represents their journey to creating a new settlement.

    17. "The message;' she writes, "was that people would lose their Mohegan identity when they left the tribal lands:'

      McMullen writes and begins to explain her analysis as a non-native. She explains that the basket signifies the Mohegan struggle to connect with their past as the lose their identity to the growing English identity and their identity faces persecution. This is much like the Black Lives Matter movement in which they feel like their people are being persecuted and result in a tarnished identity, leading them to work as a movement to fight their opression. Unlike the Mohegans, who simply acknowledged their loss. The BLM movement has allowed for a growing awareness of oppression and great coverage to the injustice that people of African American descent face. http://time.com/time-person-of-the-year-2015-runner-up-black-lives-matter/

    18. A spiritual force is present in this Mohegan manuaa. One of the primary symbols of the basket, perhaps the most important symbol found in Mohe-gan culrure, is the four-domed medallion. It is thought to represent the four directions, or four cardinal points, as well as the interrelationship of the soul, earth, and universe. 73 Through the use of this symbol, the basket pattern offers a view into traditional Mohegan belief and cosmology. T

      Fitzgerald adds in a secondary source along with her analysis of the primary source of the basket to further explain its importance. She goes into explaining the "spiritual force" present in the basket. The designs on the basket greatly signify the importance of Mohegan cosmology in their theological beliefs and traditions and it played a great role in their lives. By utilizing this secondary source, Fitzgerald can further prove the basket's importance to the Mohegan society, especially in their spiritual walks.

    19. The designs are not only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply culturally significant

      The designs are clearly important into magnifying into the Mohegan culture and lifestyle of the time period that they were created in. When viewing the basket, the patterns, symbols, and designs are meant to encompass all aspects how the Mohegans lived and interacted with one other. They utilized these baskets from aspects of agricultural work to their spiritual life. All areas of their life were embodied through the life of a basket and it's multiple uses.

    20. The Mohegan covered manuaa, or basket, pictured here is lined with an 1817 Hartford, Connecticut, newspaper, thereby fixing the date of the basket at 1817 or earlier. Newspaper linings were common practice during the nineteenth cenrury.69

      The particular Mohegan basket that is being discussed is seen to have been lined by an 1817 newspaper from Hatford, Connecticut. At first glance, one may infer that the lining could maybe hinder the date of creation by it being lined by an older newspaper, but the opposite is quite the case. The lining is was used commonly to store the contents and protect the overall structure of this basket. This can go to show that those held these baskets knew that they hold great value to society within their intricate designs and patterns and there was effort to preserve them. Though this is evident, the majority of society set these objects aside rather than viewing them as historical artifacts.

    21. Both the variety of design patterns and symbols on Mohegan baskets of the early nineteenth cenrury and Mohegan cultural memory support the theory that basket patterns were used as communicative or narrative devices.

      these traditions of basket making have dated back to the 18th century, but by then the tradition had been well developed. These basket designs were used as a forum for the political opinions of the basket makers. Many basket makers expressed the opinion that one would not lose their Mohegan identity just by leaving Mohegan boundaries, since the medallions were made both inside and outside Mohegan territories. Many basket makers use the medallions to represent those who lived inside the boundaries, and other motifs, such as strawberries, to represent those outside of the Mohegan boundaries.

    22. >lative

      In the article,"Standing Rock Sioux Claim 'Victory and Vindiction' in Court", the Sioux tribe came into legal conflict with the U.S. army corps of engineering when they planned to construct a pipeline within the area of where the Siuox tribe inhabits. What the court did not consider was the economic consequence that would happen if there was to be an oil spill of some sort. The outcome could ruin the everyday life of the Sioux tribe, because it would kill off the fish that live in the river, also where the tribe fish; The water would also be contaminated so the game that drinks from the water would also become very sick, preventing the Sioux to be able to hunt these animals. After a year long legal battle with the court, the Sioux tribe would get their first victory against the pipeline, and the construction would be put on hold for now. The Sioux tribe would be able to protect the land that they have so much history on for now.

    23. In sum, by touching every aspect of daily Native life, both past and present, basketry is imbued with cultural and spiritual power. 63

      According to the Mohegan tribe website, there was this tradition that the Mohegan people had about Makiawisug, otherwise known as "little people". These were considered as good spirits, but they were also to be treated with respect. What the Mohegan people did during nightfall was to carry baskets out to the woods where they would leave various types of food out for these spirits. After a certain time the Makiawisug would collect the baskets. The thing about these spirits were that they had their own form of etiquette. You weren't suppose to look them in the eyes for it was considered rude; with a single point they would root you to the ground and take all of your belongings. You weren't allowed to talk about them in the summertime either, because that's when they were most active. In return, the spirits taught the Mohegan people man skills such as growing corn, and utilizing healing plants. The spirits keep the Earth healthy as well as others who honor them.

    24. One of the primary symbols of the basket, perhaps the most important symbol found in Mohe-gan culrure, is the four-domed medallion. It

      According to the Mohegan tribe website, the Medallion of the Mohegan culture had four different parts to it: Four SemiCircular Domes, Four Sacred Trees, 13 dots around the center circle, and the Sacred Center Circle, as shown below

      Each part listed on the medallion all have a different meaning, but they all correlate to the Earth and the past generations of the tribe, for example how the four semi-circular domes represent the back grandfather turtle where the Earth was grown upon; or the thirteen circles that represent the past generations since the Uncas.

    25. a gendered cultural form, the basket is the embodiment of the role of women in passing on not only the basket-weaving tradition but cultural know~~ge as we~.

      The woven basket was a feminine form of expression for the mohegan people, it showed exactly the role that women played in the daily lives of the Mohegan people and Native Americans in general. Women were more that just women to their culture. They represented divinity, fertility, and the building of the people. The woman being a strong willed and lasting person was critical to the Native American people, and the Mohegans modeled their baskets after the woman because of the same concept. The baskets were meant to be lasting and to represent everything that the culture entailed.

    26. The significance of these two cardinal directions is found in other aspects of Mohegan life, such as the eastern-and western-facing openings in the ceremo-nial arbor.

      Daily mohegan life was based around ceremonial and spiritual practices. They used different elements in nature to weave the painted wood splint baskets, even though it was a object in use by them regularly. The land was represented by using strawberries and stylized leaves weaved inside the baskets. The spiritual connection the Mohegans had with the land led to the baskets meaning more than just the physical aspect of the land, but also the food and medicine the land provided. The four domed medallion also had a specific design on the baskets because it showed the energy that the baskets brought to mohegan culture. The mohegans believed that the baskets were more like channeled energy that flowed through its people. The medallion was made of four semicircular domes, four sacred trees, thirteen dots around the center circle, and the sacred center circle.

    27. t is no cause for wonder that a basket of this era might depict the migration story. In 1775, some forty-two years before the confirmed date of the basket, Samson Occom, the Mohegan minister and tribal elder, led a group of Mohegans and Long Island Indians to create a s~ttl~ment at Broth~on, New York, to escape both white inffuence and white mfringement on Indian lands.

      Art and history are intertwined. This is an example of how art can be used to document historical events. When native land was seized by the settlers it began a long journey of them preserving, their culture. These baskets are just one of many types of native art, but they explain so much. One thing that can be determined is that they were in tune with their surroundings. The nature depicted on the baskets represented a nod to the world around them, showing mindfulness and appreciation. These weren’t savages. Many of the baskets depicted cosmic mappings, symbols, and history. This is a clear sign of not only worldly intelligence but spiritual maturity.

    28. The designs are not only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply culturally significant. The artistic renderings displayed on the basket are representations of both rhe abundant natural landscape and the Mohegan cosmology.

      Even I am guilty of eruocentricity. To understand the cultural significance of an artifact you have to get to know the culture. Nature is very sacred and important to the Mohegan. It was praised, and expressed through their artwork. They embraced the world around them and rightfully held it on a pedestal. The importance of historical artifacts from other places such as Spain and Italy verses the discredit of native artifacts shows the obvious dismissal of native history. If these achievements aren’t highlighted it’s easier to continue the narrative that the natives were savages. Crediting art work like these intricate baskets shows that the natives were advanced and multifaceted people.

    29. The designs are not only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply culturally significant. The artistic renderings displayed on the basket are representations of both rhe abundant natural landscape and the Mohegan cosmology. As the Mohegan elder Gladys Tantaquidgeon explains, "To the Mohegan, designs and life are more than simple representations of narure. There is a spiritual force that Rows through all things, and if these symbols are true representations of that force, this spirit should be expressed in the designs:

      Companies such as Energy Transfer Partners main goal is to do nothing but make money; which is the point of all businesses. However, like most western developers, they lack the empathy. Not only is it imperialistic to force natives to give up their land but these companies have no concern for the long term effects something like an oil pipeline can have. Native ideologies consider nature sacred and worthy of the upmost respect. It is not far-fetched to say that if we don’t take care of the planet we depend on for survival that it won’t take care of us. When a river is polluted it cannot produce what we need to live such as: drinkable water, food, and trees. These companies ignore long term effects, but you can’t count money with no oxygen.

    30. Because they do not conform to Western conceptions of writing, they have been dismissed, ignored, and largely excluded from the historical record, thus obscuring the long history of Native texts and textualities.

      Native Americans have a long history of being dismissed, bullied, and having their culture exterminated. It didn’t stop in the 1800’s. In fact, just last year 2017 the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe had a year-long stand-off protesting The Dakota Access Pipeline. The Pipeline runs 1,100 miles across the Great Plains through Native American reservation territory. It not only posed an environmental threat to the land, and the tribes living on it, it broke a treaty. Native Americans have established many treaties with the U.S government in order to insure reparations and to grant land to the tribes. Activists from all over joined the protest for many reasons. Some environmental activists were protesting the dangers a possible oil spill would pose to the land, rivers along the pipeline, and the water supply near the reservation. Civil rights activists also gathered in protest because native land was invaded by big business, for a one-sided benefit. Stephanie Fitzgerald was correct in stating Native Americans have been dismissed. This word choice, specifically, is a great representation of the history of how they have—and continue to be—treated. Initially they were forced off of their homeland, and now centuries later that pattern is repeating. On Jun 14th 2017, the court ruled in favor of the Standing Rock tribe. James Boasberg, who sits on D.C. district court, said that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers failed to perform an adequate study of the pipeline’s environmental consequences when it first approved its construction. Here, there’s another example of the carelessness, and brutality these natives face. The way Energy Transfer Partners being an astronomical construction project without conducting thorough environmental impact report is the very definition of dismissive. The victory was a huge milestone for native rights however, the win was bitter sweet. Although the court has ruled in favor of the Sioux tribe, the pipeline is still allowed to operate until another environmental report is conducted.

    31. Few late nineteenth-century northeastern Native baskets were signed by their makers

      Western civilization has an entitled mindset. It was built on imperialism and today those ideals still infiltrate our world through many ways. Native cultures didn’t indulge in the concept of ownership. The idea that something could belong to one person was foreign to them. To natives this land and everything that comes from it is for everyone to use, and when we pass we give it all back. Essentially, nothing belongs to anyone; we are only borrowers.

    32. The basket represents multiple layers of meaning on several different l~vel~

      The Mohegan people are very spiritual people, and hold their tradition and culture to a very high standard. They not only hold the past of their ancestors who brought them to the newfound land through "The Great Fresh Water" but also the cultural work that comes from the people. The cultural works mean more than the actual work, but represent the deeper meaning behind the civilization as a whole. The Standing Rock Sioux tribe challenged the United States government heavily trying to preserve their culture and traditions that the Dakota Access Pipeline threatened. Fishing and hunting was not only the way they maintained their livelihood, but also a part of their traditions and culture.The Mohegans, just like the Sioux are being threatened not just to the extent of current artifacts that are perishable, like the fish and game along the pipeline, but the complete history of the people and what their ancestors fought for and believed in.

    33. I read the design pat-tern of this basket as a possible retelling of the Mohegan original migration story

      according to scientific evidence, the Mohegans, also known as the Wolf Clan, had shown presence in the area for 10,000 years. They were mostly settled in what is now know as upstate New-York, but had migrated to Connecticut because of European migration. It wouldn't be until they came to Connecticut that they would be known as the Mohegan Tribe.

    34. Indians made baskets and other woven objects long before European and other settlers reached American shores, and they continue these cultural prac• rices to this day

      When they say Indians continue their practices to this day, they are not wrong. Even today, many tribes are continuing their lifestyle that they had back then. for example, the Standing Rock Sioux tribe. The Sioux Tribe had been in a legal battle with the U.S. army corps of engineers about a Dakota Access Pipeline. The only problem with it is that it could endanger the everyday life of the Sioux tribe if there were to be some accident in the river. The members of the tribe still hunt game and fish near the river to this day. Along with many other tribes to this day, their practices are being endangered with government advances.

    35. It ia 12 inches wide, 17 inches long, and 11 inches high. It is rectangular in shape, with sides that curve slightly inward.

      In the beginning, Woodsplint baskets were made freehand, meaning without using knives or other tools. It wouldn't be until later on where tribes such as the Mohegans would use a draw knife, which is a a blade with a handle on each end to use for both hands. when they designed their medallions onto the baskets, each tribe would have a unique way in how they would created their medallions. these medallions represented their tribe in someway, whether it be the people in their group, or their strength in unity.

    36. The baskets and other objects are often covered with symbolic designs containing insightful readings into the particular culture from which they originate,

      The baskets often had designs that in someway told a story about how the earth came to be or something about the past. There were often symbols that represented the past generations of the tribes, but was there ever a design that in someway talked about future generations, and what they are now? Would there have been some sort of design that would predict the struggles Native Americans would have with the Europeans that would eventually drive them out of their homeland?

  6. Jun 2017
    1. Bill Fitzgerald provides some useful tips recently in a webinar in regards to Terms of Service. He suggested searching for the following words associated with consent forms: third party, affiliations, change, update and modify.

  7. Sep 2016
  8. atlspaceplacerhetf16.robinwharton.net atlspaceplacerhetf16.robinwharton.net
    1. Trail of Life and Path of the Sun design patterns, the box embodies the continuity of Mohegan cultural traditions and identity in a time of tremendous change.

      According to the Mohegan tribe's vision statement, they "walk as a single spirit on the Trail of Life" and they are "guided by thirteen generations past." This not only exemplifies the continuity of their traditions, but it also explains their intense sense of community--the tribe views itself as a single entity.

      ("Our Vision." The Mohegan Tribe. Web. 05 Sept. 2016.)

    2. weft

      I wasn't sure what this term meant, so I looked up the definition. "Weft" is defined by Merriam-Webster as "the threads that run from side to side on a loom or in a woven fabric." ( "Weft." Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, 2016. Merriam-Webster.com. Web. 06 Sept. 2016.)

    3. Finally, as a text, the basket assumes primacy over its newspaper lining, reducing it to a utilitarian function devoid of communicative practice.

      This is a bit ironic, considering that newspaper, a widely recognized form of communication, does not function as expected. The basket does the talking, so to speak, while the newspaper becomes mundane and insignificant.

    4. four-domed medallions

      One of the four-domed medallions described by the author. It also as the symbol for the Mohegan tribe.

      (Mohegan Tribe Logo. Digital image. The Mohegan Tribe. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2016.)

    5. Most scholarship on Native decorated artifacts has focused on material aspects.

      The lack of depth of the study of these and the decision to focus on the material aspects of the artifacts seems to reflect Western culture in that it is preoccupied with the outward beauty or immediate value of an item rather than its cultural significance or the messages that it could convey.

    6. Any text is open to multiple readings, but this particular analysis reflects a non-Native bias

      This makes me wonder how accurate a single translation or interpretation of a basket can be. How were the meanings of the symbols initially determined? I can only assume that the translations were passed on orally, but the article does not discuss how the author knows what the symbols represent, nor does she explore the history behind them.

    7. Authorship, then, is communal rather than individual, and the resulting narrative belongs to the community as a whole.

      This sense of community identity can be seen in western culture as well, in some areas more than in others. For example, urban areas that have large populations and a high density of people are generally more community oriented, as they lack personal space. This sense of community may no influence the creation of artifacts, but it can shape politics and even the built environment of the area.

    8. Baskets, which were and still are ceremonial and utilitarian objects used for transportation and storage of items, prayer ceremonies, and traditional games, function as com

      Much like the dollhouses that Cooley describes in her article, these artifacts have a use that has been lost to time. While in the past dollhouses were used to teach young girls how to set up and manage a household, the baskets were used to communicate.

    9. In sum, by touching every aspect of daily Native life, both past and present, basketry is imbued with cultural and spiritual power.

      It seems fitting that these items, which initially seem mundane in nature, should be used to communicate and convey messages. The history and culture is literally woven into the basket this item of practical use, which I find very impressive.

    10. Mohegan Wood-splint Basket

      Nicole Cooley's "Dollshouses Weren't Invented for Play" details the history of doll houses and their unexpected origins. The original purpose of dollhouses differs greatly from the understood use of the modern doll dollhouse--play. The first dollhouses served a purpose that was precisely opposite: show. Called "miniature houses," they were symbols of wealth and social status, or otherwise served as tools to teach young girls how to manage a household. After the industrial revolution, however, when dollhouses and miniatures were mass-produced, they became common toys and their image shifted dramatically. No longer were these structures and their contents viewed as indicators of wealth. They were simply playtoys.

      With the advent of social media, dollhouses and miniatures have again begun to take on a new identity. Rather than being locked away in the parlors of large houses or the bedrooms of little girls, digital images shared across dozens of social media platforms have given these objects new life. Dollhouses and miniatures have come to represent a cultural era and can be enjoyed by millions worldwide. They are reflective of a maker movement that fosters a cultural identity and sense of community that was simply not present in the past.

      Cooley, Nicole. "Dollhouses Weren't Invented for Play." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 22 July 2016. Web. 05 Sept. 2016.

    11. .Wood-splint basket making was not a solitary effort; it was one that involved contributions of labor from within the community

      The Mohegan people were very social and relied on one another for everything from survival to basket-making. Such a heavy emphasis on community helps to keep the traditions of the Mohegan people alive and ensures they are passed from generation to generation. For example, Indian culture is also very community-centric, particularly in regards to family. Cooking traditional Indian food is generally a task that involves help from the whole family. My grandmother has kept this tradition alive and as a result, she has passed down recipes that I make with my roommates in our apartment together. Community keeps traditions like these alive and help to facilitate the passing down of such traditions.

    12. present-day Mohegan Natio

      Mohegan culture has stood the test of time. They are still a very traditional and active people. I found this picture of one of the elders of the Mohegan tribe, showing that even in the modern day, the Mohegans are fully rooted in their heritage.

      Credit: “d1fa17863692fd76045c8099096273e2.jpg (JPEG Image, 174 × 251 Pixels).” Accessed September 7, 2016. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/d1/fa/17/d1fa17863692fd76045c8099096273e2.jpg.

    13. The baskets and other objects are often covered with symbolic designs containing insightful readings into the particular culture from which they originate.

      The symbolic designs captured on the baskets tell their own stories, and therefore make a very convincing argument to include them as texts. The longstanding tradition of making these baskets can provide centuries worth of information about the Mohegan way of life. As stated in the first annotation referencing the supplemental text, these baskets contain a plethora of information that could provide much insight into Mohegan life.

    14. Early “Native Literaciesin N ew England

      In the article, "Mini Object Lession: Gender in Flight", author Christopher Schaberg addresses how gender is essentially irrelevant when it comes to air travel. Airplanes have gender-neutral bathrooms, and previous stereotypes depicting female stewardesses and male pilots have recently faded. Schaberg's major point in the article is that there is more to a person than their gender. Likewise, the reading about the baskets makes it very clear that there is more than meets the eye when it comes to these baskets. There is a much deeper meaning to these baskets than just a means of carrying fruit. They are decorated with intricate designs and paintings that have their own separate meanings; some even tell stories about historical events. Schaberg argues as well that when a woman seated in the exit row is asked if she is willing and able to help other passengers exit, she is not being accused of weakness for being a female. She is quite literally being asked if she is willing and able-- physically and mentally. Similarly, it matters more whether or not your neighbor on the flight is "an armrest hog, an endless talker, or if they are emitting an overpowering fragrance" than if they are male or female. (Schaberg). When the deeper, more important qualities are overlooked, there doesn't seem to be more to a person or a basket than their gender or basic function. In reality, most things---not just baskets and people-- are more than what is first perceived.

      Schaberg, Christopher. “Mini Object Lesson: Gender in Flight - The Atlantic.” Accessed September 7, 2016. http://www.theatlantic.com/notes/2016/06/mini-object-lesson-gender-in-flight/486620/.

    15. "To the Mohegan, designs and life are more than simple representations of nature. There is a spiritual force that flows through all things, and if these symbols are true representations of that force, this spirit should be expressed in the designs.”

      It's interesting that the Mohegans so valued material possessions, but not in the same way that we do in the current day. The Mohegans believed in a life force that flows through everything, whether it be animate or inanimate. Today, we don't generally believe that but we still highly value our material possessions. Why is this? Maybe because, as we discussed in Dr. Fernandez's class, our material possessions represent our class standing.

    16. Because they do not conform to Western conceptions of writing, they have been dismissed, ignored, and largely excluded from the historical record, thus obscuring the long history of Native texts and textualities

      What could the reason for this be? Possibly because when we think of how we teach history here in the U.S. its obviously easiest to refer people to written texts. But that doesn't mean other historical artifacts are excluded from the record or aren't studied with the same degree of scrutiny.

    17. — Roger W illiam sA Key into the Language of America

      A Key into the Language of America was a book written by Roger Williams in 1643 describing the Native American languages in New England in the 17th century. Williams seems to have not taken the cultural aspect of these baskets into account from this quote. Initially I assumed from the quote that he was in the majority of early American colonists who antagonized Native Americans. From a bibliographical website I found however, Williams was actually known for peacekeeping between colonists and Native Americans.

      “Roger Williams Biography.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.rogerwilliams.org/biography.htm.

    18. t is 12 inches wide, 17 inches long, and 11 inches high. It is rectangular in shape, with sides that curve slightly inward. The rim is double reinforced and single wrapped, creating a sturdy durable frame.

      After reading the essay, this intro seems lacking in comparison to how Fitzgerald describes the Mohagens' baskets. Perhaps she wrote the intro in this way to play on our expectations of what something as simple as a basket can be.

    19. The instability of the Mohegan reality of home almost necessitates a physical transcription of their history; divided by migrations and further stratified by tension, oral stories would not endure like the tangible symbols of a basket. Basketry provided a secure way to maintain a sense of identity despite the tumult of white settlement.

      "The Century Quilt" by Marilyn Waniek describes a quilt handed down among generations of a particular family. The poem recounts the history associated with each generation, and its semblance of heritage as well as potential to the youngest member of the family. These texts reveal a human tendency to allocate ancestry to tangible artifacts; family trees, quilts, heirlooms and baskets. Our physical preservation of the past asserts that the human identity is often largely derived from heritage, and this emphasis of lineage places a greater importance on the hope of posterity. The legacy one generation leaves with the next is its only guarantee of immortality; subconsciously, humans reproduce in an attempt to remain eternal through the endurance of their offspring and their bloodline. The Mohegan baskets are an attempt to physically bind and subsequently immortalize their heritage or sense of self for future generations. It is no coincidence that these baskets were distributed by the Mohegan community when they had lost their land, connection to a culture steeped in nature, and ultimately their sense of self.

      http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-_ke4LLouM4k/UC5Psgip0tI/AAAAAAAABv8/_LLET3aBv9I/s1600/Family+Quilt.JPG

    20. The article “Dollhouses Weren’t Invented for Play” by Nicole Cooley is about the cultural significance of dollhouses and their reflection of the established paradigms of a society. Initially, Cooley traces the origins of dollhouses to northern Europe, where the exhibit of rare and miniature collectibles served as symbols of wealth and status. Their use shifted with the progression of European society to reflect the role of women, as girls practiced management and housekeeping with the figurines. It was not until the 19th century that dollhouses assumed the childlike renown the toys garner today. A renewed fascination with dollhouses and miniatures has reached contemporary youth, especially through social media platforms.

      Throughout their history, dollhouses have manifested the regulations of a society upon its children. Initially, the houses were locked upon display; this embraces the idea of public and private space discussed in Graphic Novels, especially the characterization of the home as private space. In the 17th century girls learned management of the house and its servants through dollhouses; the practice immediately associates wealth with power, and establishes clear and distinct castes in society and a strict adherence to its hierarchy. The simplistic role of dollhouses in contemporary American society demonstrates a shift in the definition of childhood, more relaxed and lenient than preceding connotations. A dollhouse's ability to reflect culture mimics the purpose of Mohegan baskets, but while dollhouses represent flexible values in a society, basketry conveys established truths of a native culture. However, they maintain similarities through the establishment of roles in society, especially the domesticated roles of women in European and Mohegan culture.

      Cooley, Nicole. "Dollhouses Weren't Invented for Play." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 22 July 2016. Web. 5 Sept. 2016.

    21. Further research determined that the box had been sent by minister Samson Occom from the Mohegan community in Brothertown to his sister Lucy at Mohegan as a record of the journ

      The baskets have more than just a strictly ‘tale-telling’ purpose. Samson sent it to his sister to show her what his trip was like through narrative, giving the baskets a deeper, more complex meaning to the Mohegan Culture.

    22. To read the Mohegan narrative of the basket, we must make a critical move that elides the Western print symbolic system in favor of traditional Mohegan communicative practices: We must turn to its surfac

      Although we have information from the newspaper, to truly understand the message of the box, we have to ignore our western instincts and look at the outside of the box. This is problematic and what Fitzgerald is trying to point out is that historically, artifacts like the baskets have been overlooked by Westerners solely because it doesn’t conform to its standard of sharing information.

    23. Early

      "Dollhouses Weren’t Invented For Play" is an article written by Nicole Cooley. She begins by talking about the history of dollhouses, where they came from and their original purpose. Their beginnings are rooted in Germany, Holland, and England in the 17th century. They served two main purposes, display and pedagogy, which is the method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept. “Nuremberg Houses” is a term coined to describe them, and the dollhouses became a way to teach young girls how to take care of the house and become ‘The Woman of the House’. As time went on, the dollhouses almost disappeared completely. They popped up again in England during the 18th century as “Baby Houses” that were exact miniatures of the owners actual home. They did not reemerge again until the mid to late 20th century. With their revival, they took on a new purpose. Dollhouses became a whole new world, for the owners, adults and children, to lose themselves in. She describes how they have transformed themselves into a part of her culture. Its something special with her and she can share it with her daughters.

      Cooley, Nicole. "Dollhouses Weren’t Invented For Play." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 22 July 2016. Web. 05 Sept. 2016.

    24. 17 Hartford, Connectic

      This is a visual of where the Mohegan tribe was located

      Original Inhabitants of what is now Massachuusetts. Digital image. Native American Tribes of Massachusetts. Native Languages of the Americas Website © 1998-2015, n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    25. ize, form, style, and varying degrees of decoration all play a role in the making of the meaning and function.

      This portion shows how detailed the Native way of communication was, which provides us with evidence of their sophistication. By this point in history, the baskets and complicated language are indicative of how art and leisure played a role in the formation of the Mohegan culture and ways of life. They weren't a people that were starving and therefore only focused on hunting and gathering; they had the time to develop sophisticated ways of storytelling.

    26. The Mohegan word for painting, wuskuswang, is the same word used for writ­ing, inducting painted baskets in a long textual tradition that includes decora­tive birch bark etching, beadwork, wampum belts, and the written word.

      The Mohegans included the words "painting" and "writing" under their meaning for the work wuskuswang. This shows how they viewed art forms other than writing as being in the same category, such as "decorative birch bark etching, beadwork, [and] wampum belts".(Fitzgerald, 52) The Mohegans felt as if all of these different forms were appropriate ways of retelling history.

    27. The Cultural Work of a Mohegan Painted Baske

      Christopher Schaberg’s Gender in Flight discusses how modern day gender issues may be less “pressing and more profuse” than some would have you believe through the example of the commercial airplane. He notes how airplane bathrooms have been gender neutral for years without incident, how gender doesn’t determine who flies the plane or who passes out the pretzels. He asserts that the reason for this might be abundant “pragmatism” in airplanes where people are mostly focused on getting from one point to another. This isn’t to say we are all one big happy family when stuck in those flying “metal tubes”, but rather we are looking out for signs of a fellow passenger’s character; will this person be obnoxious, friendly, possibly dangerous? Airplanes are a very public space where we try our best to remain intact in our own private world.

      “Mini Object Lesson: Gender in Flight - The Atlantic.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.theatlantic.com/notes/2016/06/mini-object-lesson-gender-in-flight/486620/.

    28. Finally, as a text, the basket assumes primacy over its newspaper lining, reducing it to a utilitarian function devoid of communicative practice.

      A Mohegan Basket lined with newspaper

      Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. “A Woodsplint Basket.” Harvard Magazine, March 1, 2002. http://harvardmagazine.com/2002/03/a-woodsplint-basket.html.

    29. Indians made baskets and other woven objects long before European and other setders reached American shore

      This is important because Europeans historically overlooked the native’s way of life, or even claiming a native custom as their own.

    30. Thus, this basket bears witness to the particular cultural and historical moment that it inhabits.

      This makes me wonder, what other methods did the Mohegans use for storytelling aside from written text?

    31. The narrative that un­folds in the textual surface of a basket is not an individual creation; it belongs to the tribal community.

      The Mohegans likely had a strong sense of collective identity. They saw themselves as part of a unit tied together through culture. The fact that we don't see much of this now could be related to the emphasis of "private space" we discussed in Dr. Fernandez's class.

    32. The Mohegan word for painting, wuskuswang, is the same word used for writ­ing, inducting painted baskets in a long textual tradition that includes decora­tive birch bark etching, beadwork, wampum belts, and the written wor

      This is an insight into their history and their way of life. We can read into their culture through the baskets.

    33. , Mohegan basket design patterns contain spiritual connotations that serve to reinforce their aesthetic value and provide meaning for those who can read the basket text

      This quotes just gives insight into who the Mohegan people are. Instead of valuing aesthetics purely for the visual and artistic pleasure, they put the value in the meanings behind the beautiful craft. To me, this is a fantastic quality of the Mohegan people as a whole.

    34. The trail design that encloses the central medallion may symbolize the Trail of Life or the Path of the Sun. Together, the symbols and designs of the basket text create a narrative for the reader to decode.

      I can't find anything on The Trail of Life or The Path of the Sun. What were these, were they similar to the infamous Trail of Tears?

    35. Both the variety of design patterns and symbols on Mohegan baskets of the early nineteenth century and Mohegan cultural memory support the theory that basket patterns were used as communicative or narrative devices

      This is the evidence supporting the fact that it is a narrative, but only as a whole. To get the whole story, the patterns and the symbols must be together.

    36. Many of these basket sellers, noted for characteristics ranging from wit to sto­rytelling to musicianship, became legendary figures in the communities they visited

      If the Mohegan Culture, as a whole, didn’t value aesthetics and didn’t see the baskets as a materialistic value, why did people become legendary figures due to the baskets?

    37. The designs are nor only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply culturally significant

      The same can be said about dollhouses. They are incredibly ornate for their minuscule size, and as of late, they represent our cultures need and want for family and home, not a physical place, but an emotional place to call home.(Cooley, “Dollhouses Weren’t Invented for Play”)

    38. Size, form, style, and varying degrees of decoration all play a role in the making of the meaning and functio

      This just goes to show you how complex and in depth the boxes and their story telling can go, and shows us that there is much to learn about their culture and even the baskets themselves. Also, this relates to dollhouses in the 17th century because they were of many different styles, decoration, and size. However, unlike the Mohegan Baskets, the dollhouses represented wealth and social status. (Cooley, “Dollhouses Weren’t Invented for Play”)

    39. For example, one prominent Mohegan design, the Trail of Life symbol, explains the "east-to-west passage of spirits,” following the path of the sun

      This reminds me of something the read in Dr. Collins American Literature about how natives are very deeply in tune with nature, so this supports that claim.

    40. The basket represents multiple layers of meaning on several different leve

      The same can be said about dollhouses. On a basic level, they are an ornament or toy. But just like the Mohegan Baskets, if you look deeper, they represent someone’s story, whether its through the symbols telling the story, or the way the house is structured or decorated.(Cooley, “Dollhouses Weren’t Invented for Play”)

    41. Symbolism also exists in the idea of a woven basket, where all parts are interconnected. According to the article "Traditional Native Concepts of Death," "One common theme found in many of the Indian cultures in North America is the idea of reincarnation" (Ojibwa.). Interwoven baskets embody this sense of cyclicality in nature, a reflection of core Native values.

      Ojibwa. “Native American Netroots.” Native American Netroots. 1 Sept. 2014. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    42. This directly relates to the initial use of dollhouses, which allowed girls the opportunity to practice management of a household and its servants (Cooley, Nicole.). The practice of basketry defines the role of women in Mohegan society as cultural messengers.

      Cooley, Nicole. "Dollhouses Weren't Invented for Play." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 22 July 2016. Web. 5 Sept. 2016.

    43. 6 The weaving of Mohegan baskets was gener­ally a communal winter activity.

      We don't see the same community fueled projects as often anymore, possibly because we are so culturally diverse here in Atlanta that we don't have any one cultural project to center on.

    44. This allocates a sense of sovereignty to daily activities, reminiscent of Confucian values. In AP World History, we discussed how Confucianism allocates divinity to the most mundane interactions, that our monotonous contact with the world is a form of idiosyncratic worship. The Mohegan baskets attempt to bring that same holiness to everyday life.

    45. This further validates the aforementioned idea that interwoven baskets symbolize the connectedness and cyclicality of life. The emphasis of nature and its influence on the design characterizes the immensity of Mohegan dependence on nature.

    46. What would a history of Native print culture look like if it included three-dimensional texts such as baskets or tipis

      This essay really broadens my understanding of what can be studied as a historical "text". When we include non-textual sources such as sculpture and painting, we see the full picture with regards to a nation's culture and history.

    47. The entire process of basketry, from the storytelling to the distribution, elevates the Indian culture; it allocated a sense of prestige to the customs of the culture, and garnered respect from other communities- even non-Natives.

    48. According to "Baskets Carry Meaning," an article electronically published on a website devoted to the Oneida community, basketry helped Oneida Indians to economically adjust after their land was taken. They crafted baskets to sell to non-natives, beginning around the 1970s.

      “Baskets Carry Meaning.” Oneida Indian Nation. 6 March 2013. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    49. The extension of communication beyond words is an idea addressed in our Graphic Novels class, where images maintain as much significance as the text. The novelty of the analysis of this text is reflected in the disdain for graphic novels and comics, and childish or unsophisticated literature.

    50. It was performed by women to the accompani­ment of stories and songs, which in turn become part of the basket, joining together two traditions, oral and textual.67

      Women are described as having the same duty as ancient scribes: to document oral histories and other stories into some form of writing. At the time the Mohegans were making these baskets, most of the scribes in other countries were exclusively male. Writing and documenting stories was seen as something scholarly that could only be done by men. This shows how the Natives possibly valued women more so than most European and other Eastern societies did.

    51. The elaborate and obviously practiced design of the basket reveals the availability of leisure time to the Native American community. Their society has progressed beyond supplying basic necessities for survival, which characterizes an advanced culture.

    52. 3 Through the use of this symbol, the basket pattern offers a view into traditional Mohegan belief and cosmolog

      This seemingly small symbol opens up a lot about the Mohegan culture and beliefs. It relates them to not only the Earth and nature, but to space as well. Their spirituality is rooted in this sort of compass through their souls.

    53. What would a history of Native print culture look like if it included three-dimensional texts such as baskets or tipi

      Three-dimensional texts have the possibility to expose so much more about the lives of the Natives than most written texts. As discussed in English 2130, objects have much more meaning than is apparent at first glance. The emotional symbolism that is held in objects, such as these baskets, far exceeds that of the written word. Therefore, these baskets hold more information and would be a more accurate representation of Native print culture.

    54. The Mohegan manu’da, or basket, pictured here is in the collection of the Con­necticut Historical Society. I

      This is the first sentence.

    1. On his return, Roger Williams started a trading post at Cocumscussoc (now North Kingstown) where he traded with the Indians and was known for his peacemaking between the neighboring colonists and the Indians.

      This is the quote I referred to in a previous annotation.