- Jul 2014
- Mar 2014
1.30. Croesus has Solon come to Sardis. Croesus expects Solon to be enthralled by what he sees and thus would tell Croesus that indeed he is the luckiest man of all. However, Solon explains to Croesus that to be the happiest man of all time, he would have to die a happy man since living jeopardizes one's potential to downfall. The story of Cleobis and Biton is then explained to Croesus and how they can be conceived as being the happiest men to ever live. There seems to a moral agenda to the Histories that explains a simple life is a good life. We see this later on how luxury and things that are associated with luxury makes a people soft. It seems the best life to live is a simple good 'ole country life and to work hard.
Hdt. 1.17. Herodotus starts his Histories with the rise of the Lydian empire. Why is that? The people who would have been reading his work would have been Greek. Does he start with them because they are not totally 'barbaric' and actually share some of the same customs. They were sort of an "in-between country" and thus are preparing the Greek readers to cultures which Herodotus will be getting into. That is, he will give a history of the Persians (who believe in a total different political system but are somewhat 'civilized.' Furthermore, he will go into details about the Scythians, the Man-Eaters, and so forth which are groups who are as far from Greek customs as possible. And yet have Greek origin explanations.
- Feb 2014
Solon said, “Tellus was from a prosperous city, and his children were good and noble
1.30. Solon explains why he chose Tellus.
Croesus was amazed at what he had said and replied sharply, “In what way do you judge Tellus to be the most fortunate?”
1.30. Croesus is unhappy with Solon's answer and asks for clarification.
Solon, offering no flattery but keeping to the truth, said, “O King, it is Tellus the Athenian.”
1.30. Solon replies by citing an unknown Athenian.
Croesus found the opportunity to say, “My Athenian guest, we have heard a lot about you because of your wisdom and of your wanderings, how as one who loves learning you have traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, so now I desire to ask you who is the most fortunate man you have seen.”
1.30. Croesus asks Solon who the most fortunate man he has seen is, expecting the answer to be "You, Croesus".
Solon went to visit Amasis in Egypt and then to Croesus in Sardis
1.30. Solon visits Amasis and Croesus, while staying away from Athens while his laws are implemented. The story is certainly apocryphal, since Solon was archon at Athens as a mature man in the early 6th c. and this meeting would have had to take place at least 40 years later.
Lydians, Phrygians, Mysians, Mariandynians, Chalybes, Paphlagonians, the Thracian Thynians and Bithynians, Carians, Ionians, Dorians, Aeolians, and Pamphylians
1.28. Some of these ethnic designations could probably be associated with regional designations: Lydia, Phrygia, Mysia, Paphlagonia, Thrace, Caria, Ionia, Aeolia, Pamphylia.
As time went on, Croesus subjugated almost all the nations west of the Halys
1.28. The Landmark Herodotus dates this to 560-547 BC.
Then the other answered
1.27. Bias/Pittacus responds by pointing out the ridiculousness of Croesus' plan to attack the islanders on their own terms.
Croesus, thinking that he spoke the truth, said: “Would that the gods would put this in the heads of the islanders, to come on horseback against the sons of the Lydians!”
1.27. Croesus replies to Bias/Pittacus, suggesting that the islanders would be at a disadvantage if they were to attack the Lydians, renowned for their cavalry, on horseback.
asked by Croesus for news about Hellas, put an end to the shipbuilding by giving the following answer
1.27. Croesus asks for news; Bias/Pittacus responds with an ironic statement.
These were the first whom Croesus attacked; afterwards he made war on the Ionian and Aeolian cities in turn, upon different pretexts
1.26. Croesus attacks the Ionian and Aeolian cities on various pretexts, probably ca. 560-550 BC.
After the death of Alyattes, his son Croesus, then thirty-five years of age, came to the throne
1.26. According to the Landmark Herodotus, this happened ca. 560 BC (p. 16).
But Croesus the Lydian, who was present, was displeased by their advice and spoke against it.
1.207 Of all Cyrus' generals and advisors Croesus speaks out against the agreed upon plan of 1.206 He instead advises Cyrus to cross the Araxes River and seek battle in the enemy territory.
at length the Lydians were routed and driven within their city wall, where they were besieged by the Persians.
1.80 After the battle, the defeated Medes retreat and the Persian Army lays siege to the city of Sardis.
when Cyrus arrived and encamped face to face with Croesus, there in the Pterian country the armies had a trial of strength. The fighting was fierce, many on both sides fell, and at nightfall they disengaged with neither side victorious.
1.76 The forces of Cyrus and Croesus engage in battle near Pteria , Cappadocia. Neither side is victorious but there were huge losses on each side.
So Cyrus uttered his thought; but Croesus feared that he would destroy Sardis, and answered him thus:
1.155 Cyrus consults Croesus on what he should do about the rebellion of Pactyes. Croesus gives a respectable and helpful answer but is still seen as looking after the well-being of his former dominion: Sardis. He doesn't want to see the city sacked.
. “Since the gods have made me your slave,” replied the Lydian, “it is right that if I have any further insight I should point it out to you.
1.88 Cyrus makes Croesus his royal advisor, consulting him on points of conquest and statecraft. Croesus, as a conquered royal, doesn't seem to resent this lower position. Herodotus portrays him as placid and serviceable in his new vocation: living to serve the rule of Cyrus as he takes over the former Median kingdom and its neighbors.
He ordered that the blazing fire be extinguished as quickly as possible, and that Croesus and those with him be taken down, but despite their efforts they could not master the fire.
1.86 Cyrus redacts his orders to burn Croesus on a pyre. Whether he does this to be in good standing with the gods or through some realization of humanity is up for debate (according to Herodotus).
e. The Persians took him and brought him to Cyrus, who erected a pyre and mounted Croesus atop it, bound in chains
1.86 Croesus is captured after the siege is broken and taken to Cyrus to be sacrificed. All this in fulfillment of prophecy.
So then they were besieged.
The Persian army lays siege to Sardis, the capitol and last foothold of Croesus and the Medes. In the culmination of this siege, Croesus's forces will be overcome and the monarch himself will be captured by his enemies, fulfilling the prophecy from 1.13 and reiterated in 1.53.
So when battle was joined, as soon as the horses smelled and saw the camels they turned to flight, and all Croesus' hope was lost.
1.80.5 Cyrus scores a definitive victory over the forces of Croesus, employing camel cavalry corps. This is the beginning of the end for Croesus who begins grasping at strings and looking for allies to help him defeat the Persians.
- Jan 2014
Herodotus 1.70. To show their gratitude to Croesus, the Spartans sent a bronze bowl to him in Sardis; however, the bowl never reached him. There are two different stories on why the bowl never got their. The question that should be asked though should be, "what was the relationship between the Samians, the Spartans, and the Lydians."
Herodotus 1.69. A network has been established between Croesus and the Spartans. The text gives an instance where Croesus instead of trading with the Spartans actually gives them a free gift.