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Solon said, “Tellus was from a prosperous city, and his children were good and noble
1.30. Solon explains why he chose Tellus.
Croesus was amazed at what he had said and replied sharply, “In what way do you judge Tellus to be the most fortunate?”
1.30. Croesus is unhappy with Solon's answer and asks for clarification.
Solon, offering no flattery but keeping to the truth, said, “O King, it is Tellus the Athenian.”
1.30. Solon replies by citing an unknown Athenian.
Croesus found the opportunity to say, “My Athenian guest, we have heard a lot about you because of your wisdom and of your wanderings, how as one who loves learning you have traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, so now I desire to ask you who is the most fortunate man you have seen.”
1.30. Croesus asks Solon who the most fortunate man he has seen is, expecting the answer to be "You, Croesus".
Solon went to visit Amasis in Egypt and then to Croesus in Sardis
1.30. Solon visits Amasis and Croesus, while staying away from Athens while his laws are implemented. The story is certainly apocryphal, since Solon was archon at Athens as a mature man in the early 6th c. and this meeting would have had to take place at least 40 years later.
Lydians, Phrygians, Mysians, Mariandynians, Chalybes, Paphlagonians, the Thracian Thynians and Bithynians, Carians, Ionians, Dorians, Aeolians, and Pamphylians
1.28. Some of these ethnic designations could probably be associated with regional designations: Lydia, Phrygia, Mysia, Paphlagonia, Thrace, Caria, Ionia, Aeolia, Pamphylia.
As time went on, Croesus subjugated almost all the nations west of the Halys
1.28. The Landmark Herodotus dates this to 560-547 BC.
Then the other answered
1.27. Bias/Pittacus responds by pointing out the ridiculousness of Croesus' plan to attack the islanders on their own terms.
Croesus, thinking that he spoke the truth, said: “Would that the gods would put this in the heads of the islanders, to come on horseback against the sons of the Lydians!”
1.27. Croesus replies to Bias/Pittacus, suggesting that the islanders would be at a disadvantage if they were to attack the Lydians, renowned for their cavalry, on horseback.
asked by Croesus for news about Hellas, put an end to the shipbuilding by giving the following answer
1.27. Croesus asks for news; Bias/Pittacus responds with an ironic statement.
either Bias of Priene or Pittacus of Mytilene (the story is told of both) came to Sardis
1.27. In what is presumably an apocryphal story, one of the Seven Sages of Greek tradition visits Croesus (the fact that the story is told with both Bias and Pittacus makes it even more likely to be apocryphal).
These were the first whom Croesus attacked; afterwards he made war on the Ionian and Aeolian cities in turn, upon different pretexts
1.26. Croesus attacks the Ionian and Aeolian cities on various pretexts, probably ca. 560-550 BC.
After the death of Alyattes, his son Croesus, then thirty-five years of age, came to the throne
1.26. According to the Landmark Herodotus, this happened ca. 560 BC (p. 16).
He was the second of his family to make an offering to Delphi (after recovering from his illness) of a great silver bowl on a stand of welded iron
1.25. Alyattes also makes a dedication at Delphi, as a thank-offering for recovery from an illness: another precious-metal bowl.
When they arrived, they were summoned and asked what news they brought of Arion
1.24. Periander interrogates the sailors who forced Arion to leap from the boat.
Arion asked that, since they had made up their minds, they would let him stand on the half-deck in all his regalia and sing; and he promised that after he had sung he would do himself in
1.24. Arion asks to be allowed to sing before throwing himself into the sea.
told him either to kill himself and so receive burial on land or else to jump into the sea at once
1.24. The Corinthian sailors refuse Arion's plea and instruct him to kill himself instead.
for eleven years
1.18. The chronology is confused, but the Landmark Herodotus suggests 610-598 BC (p. 12).
the Cimmerians, driven from their homes by the nomad Scythians, came into Asia, and took Sardis
1.15. According to the Landmark Herodotus, which cites Assyrian documentary sources, the capture of Sardis by the Cimmerians took place in 644, at which time Gyges was killed.
He took Priene and invaded the country of Miletus
1.15. Ardys, Gyges' son, also makes war on the Milesians.
As soon as Gyges came to the throne, he too, like others, led an army into the lands of Miletus and Smyrna; and he took the city of Colophon
1.15. Gyges engages in conflict with the Ionian cities on the coast of Asia Minor nearest to Lydia. The Lydian kings appear to have a particular antipathy to the Milesians.
For Midas too made an offering
1.14. Midas of Gordion also made offerings at Delphi, most notably a royal seat or throne.
Gyges sent many offerings to Delphi
1.14. Gyges dedicates golden and silver offerings at Delphi, including six golden bowls.
He is mentioned in the iambic verses of Archilochus of Parus who lived about the same time.
1.12. A fragment of a poem of Archilochus mentioning Gyges -- probably the one Herodotus is referring to -- is preserved in Aristotle's Rhetoric and in Plutarch. Perseus cites it as CURFRAG.tlg-0232.26.
Discovering this, he earnestly entreated them
1.24. Arion the lyre-player begs the Corinthian sailors plotting to kill him to take his money but spare his life.
the Lydians and Milesians ended the war and agreed to be friends and allies
1.22. The Lydians and Milesians end the war and enter into an alliance. One might treat this agreement as the result of personal negotiations between the tyrant of Miletus and the Lydian king.
he heard an account contrary to his expectations
1.22. Alyattes receives the report of the herald he sent to Thrasybulus. The herald, fooled by Thrasybulus' strategem, indicates that the Milesians have plenty of supplies.
offering to make a truce with Thrasybulus and the Milesians
1.21. Alyattes offers to make a truce with the Milesians while he rebuilds the temple that was burned.
Periander son of Cypselus, a close friend of the Thrasybulus who then was sovereign of Miletus, learned what reply the oracle had given to Alyattes, and sent a messenger to tell Thrasybulus
1.20. Periander, tyrant of Corinth, passes on the oracle's response to Alyattes to his fellow tyrant Thrasybulus of Miletus.
But when the messengers came to Delphi, the Pythian priestess would not answer them before they restored the temple of Athena at Assesos in the Milesian territory,
1.19. The Pythia refuses to answer the question about the illness until the Lydians rebuild the temple of Athena at Assesos.
Alyattes fell ill; and, as his sickness lasted longer than it should, he sent to Delphi to inquire of the oracle
1.19. Alyattes, king of Lydia, consults the Delphic oracle about a persistent illness. The Landmark Herodotus suggests that this may have taken place ca. 598 BC (p. 12).
Alyattes, who waged war against Deioces' descendant Cyaxares and the Medes
1.16. Alyattes, king of Lydia, wages ware against the Medes under Cyaxares, probably in the late 7th or early 6th c. BC.
So he took possession of the sovereign power and was confirmed in it by the Delphic oracle
1.13. Gyges consults the Delphic oracle, who confirms him in his kingship but warns that retribution will come in the fifth generation.
he stole out and killed Candaules
1.12. Gyges assassinates Candaules and takes the throne of Lydia, establishing the Mermnad dynasty.
She gave him a dagger and hid him behind the same door
1.12. Candaules' wife arms Gyges and hides him in Candaules' bedroom.
1.11. The wife of Candaules instructs Gyges to kill Candaules in his sleep.
Then he asked: “Since you force me against my will to kill my master, I would like to know how we are to lay our hands on him.”
1.11. Gyges, having failed to persuade Candaules' wife not to force him to make this choice, asks how they will kill Candaules.
When Gyges came, the lady addressed him thus
1.11. The unnamed wife of Candaules, having been seen naked by Gyges, offers him a choice: kill the king and take his place, or be killed himself.
Speaking thus, Gyges resisted: for he was afraid that some evil would come of it for him. But this was Candaules' answer: “Courage, Gyges! Do not be afraid of me, that I say this to test you, or of my wife, that you will have any harm from her.
1.9. Candaules rejects Gyges' advice and overrules his hesitation; the situation moves from a consultation to an order from a superior to an inferior.
“Master,” he said, “what an unsound suggestion, that I should see my mistress naked!
1.8. Gyges responds to Candaules' invitation with a warning not to challenge the natural order of things (don't look at women who aren't your own wife naked).
he praised her beauty beyond measure to Gyges son of Dascylus
1.8. Candaules praises his wife's beauty to his bodyguard Gyges, setting in motion the chain of events that will end in his death.
the Phoenicians do not tell the same story about Io as the Persians
1.5. Herodotus claims that the Phoenicians have an alternate version of the story of Io, in which she eloped willingly with the ship's captain because she was pregnant. This is an example of one type of account that Fehling thinks Herodotus invented (the story according to national bias). It is also example of what Dewald describes as Herodotus' "narrative surface", where Herodotus highlights his own process of data collection.
They sailed in a long ship to Aea, a city of the Colchians, and to the river Phasis: and when they had done the business for which they came, they carried off the king's daughter Medea
1.2. Herodotus reports the story of Jason and the Argonauts, without naming names. He frames the departure of Medea as an abduction, as with Io and Europa, rather than a willing elopement, as the story appears in e.g. Euripides' Medea.
For my part, I shall not say that this or that story is true, but I shall identify the one who I myself know did the Greeks unjust deeds, and thus proceed with my history, and speak of small and great cities of men alike.
1.5. Herodotus speaks to the reader again.
So he carried off Helen
Io and others were seized and thrown into the ship
1.1. Io is seized by an unidentified Phoenician merchant.
1.1. Herodotus introduces himself to the reader/listener.
- Jan 2014
5.43: The Landmark Herodotus notes that this is a city near Tanagra in Boeotia, the precise location of which is unknown (Strassler 2009, note to 5.43.1a, p. 384).
Many stories are told of Cyrus' death; this, that I have told, is the most credible.
Hdt. 1.214: Cyrus seems to have been buried at Pasargadae, where there is a built tomb associated with him (http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/922693/location-of-tomb-of-cyrus-the-great).
and carried off the king's daughter Europa. These Greeks must, I suppose, have been Cretans. So far, then, the account between them was balanced. But after this (they say), it was the Greeks who were guilty of the second wrong.
[test] Cf. Euripides, Medea, lines XX-XX
- Dec 2013