- Feb 2014
the Cimmerians, driven from their homes by the nomad Scythians, came into Asia, and took Sardis
1.15. According to the Landmark Herodotus, which cites Assyrian documentary sources, the capture of Sardis by the Cimmerians took place in 644, at which time Gyges was killed.
As soon as Gyges came to the throne, he too, like others, led an army into the lands of Miletus and Smyrna; and he took the city of Colophon
1.15. Gyges engages in conflict with the Ionian cities on the coast of Asia Minor nearest to Lydia. The Lydian kings appear to have a particular antipathy to the Milesians.
Gyges sent many offerings to Delphi
1.14. Gyges dedicates golden and silver offerings at Delphi, including six golden bowls.
So he took possession of the sovereign power and was confirmed in it by the Delphic oracle
1.13. Gyges consults the Delphic oracle, who confirms him in his kingship but warns that retribution will come in the fifth generation.
he stole out and killed Candaules
1.12. Gyges assassinates Candaules and takes the throne of Lydia, establishing the Mermnad dynasty.
She gave him a dagger and hid him behind the same door
1.12. Candaules' wife arms Gyges and hides him in Candaules' bedroom.
1.11. The wife of Candaules instructs Gyges to kill Candaules in his sleep.
Then he asked: “Since you force me against my will to kill my master, I would like to know how we are to lay our hands on him.”
1.11. Gyges, having failed to persuade Candaules' wife not to force him to make this choice, asks how they will kill Candaules.
When Gyges came, the lady addressed him thus
1.11. The unnamed wife of Candaules, having been seen naked by Gyges, offers him a choice: kill the king and take his place, or be killed himself.
Speaking thus, Gyges resisted: for he was afraid that some evil would come of it for him. But this was Candaules' answer: “Courage, Gyges! Do not be afraid of me, that I say this to test you, or of my wife, that you will have any harm from her.
1.9. Candaules rejects Gyges' advice and overrules his hesitation; the situation moves from a consultation to an order from a superior to an inferior.
“Master,” he said, “what an unsound suggestion, that I should see my mistress naked!
1.8. Gyges responds to Candaules' invitation with a warning not to challenge the natural order of things (don't look at women who aren't your own wife naked).
he praised her beauty beyond measure to Gyges son of Dascylus
1.8. Candaules praises his wife's beauty to his bodyguard Gyges, setting in motion the chain of events that will end in his death.
However, the Pythian priestess declared that the Heraclidae would have vengeance on Gyges' posterity in the fifth generation; an utterance to which the Lydians and their kings paid no regard until it was fulfilled
Hdt. 1.13 The oracle told Gyges that the Heraclidae would have vengeance in the fifth generation and they ignored this until it came true.
since among the Lydians and most of the foreign peoples it is felt as a great shame that even a man be seen naked
Hdt. 1.10 See previous note. Great shame to be seen naked, even for men.
When a woman's clothes come off, she dispenses with her modesty, too
Hdt. 1.8 Modesty is an important value/virtue in this culture/time period