- Mar 2014
While the city was burning, the Lydians and all the Persians who were in the citadel, being hemmed in on every side since the fire was consuming the outer parts and having no exit from the city,
Hdt. 5.101 The Ionians burn Sardis to the ground 498 BCE The Achaemenid Empire is not indestructible. Even the Ionians (notorious servant folk) can be convinced to revolt.
When his words were brought back to the Athenians, they would not consent to them, and since they would not consent, it was resolved that they should be openly at war with Persia.
Hdt. 5.96 Athenians refuse to take Hippias back, thus making their dispute with the Achaemenid Empire public (so it shall be war between us). The Achaemenid are no longer the only open aggressors on the board, free to build their empire at will. Now the threatened territories challenging their authority. This sets up the conflict between the states and also echoes Herodotus' idea of cyclical nations. Nations move from barbarism to simple, masculine, civilization to effeminate opulence. Once a nation reaches a level of effeminate opulence it will surely fall to a more rugged simple-living people.
Artaphrenes, however, bade them receive Hippias back, if they wanted to be safe.
Hdt. 5.96 Artaphrenes responds to the pleas of the Athenians with an ultimatum commanding the Athenians to take Hippias back as their tyrant, 500 BCE.
While Hippias was engaged in these activities, the Athenians heard of it and sent messengers to Sardis, warning the Persians not to believe banished Athenians.
Hdt. 5.96 Athenians sent a message to Artaphrenes in order to dissuade the Persians from believing or helping Athenian exiles (like Hippias), 500 BCE.
but Hippias, having come from Lacedaemon into Asia, left no stone unturned, maligning the Athenians to Artaphrenes, and doing all he could to bring Athens into subjection to himself and Darius.
Hdt. 5.96 Hippias, the deposed tyrant of Athens, seeks help in re-securing power in Athens from Artaphrenes, the governor of Sardis (half brother to Darius)
Then, desiring to make an alliance with the Persians, they despatched envoys to Sardis, for they knew that they had provoked the Lacedaemonians and Cleomenes to war.
Hdt. 5.73 The Athenians come to Sardis to speak to the Persians about becoming allies, -507 BCE. The reader sees the Achaemenids and their past members (current revoltees) being replaced as the active agents in the narrative. Herodotus now has the Athenians and Spartans (Hellenes) speaking for their own interests rather than being dominated by outside forces (Achaemenid or otherwise).
Aristagoras came to Sardis and told Artaphrenes that Naxos was indeed an island of no great size, but that it was otherwise a beautiful and noble island lying near Ionia. Furthermore it had a store of wealth and slaves. “Therefore send an army against that country,” he said, “and bring back the men who have been banished from there.
Hdt. 5.31 After promising to help the Naxians re-gain control of their island, Aristagoras instead tells Artaphrenes (the governor of Sardis) to help him attack it and seize it's wealth. Artaphrenes agrees to attack Naxos provided that Darius approve the plan.
This, then, is what Darius said, and after appointing Artaphrenes, his father's son, to be viceroy of Sardis
Hdt. 5.25 Darius appoints Artaphrenes to governorship of Sardis as he moves to Susa, 510 BCE. The moving of Darius' seat of power from Sardis to Susa sets of the chain reactions of rebellions which follow in the rest of book 5.
let nothing prevent you from coming to me so that I may inform you of certain great purposes which I have in mind.
Hdt. 5.24 Influenced by the advice of Megabazos, Darius recalls Histiaios to Sardis under the suspicion that Histiaios is plotting a rebelling - fortifying his principate as the seat of his tyranny. Instead of punishing Histiaios outright or letting him continue ruling in Myrcinus Darius makes him part of his personal council. Adhering to the old maxim: keep your friends close and your possibly-duplicitous-generals even closer.
- Feb 2014
Solon said, “Tellus was from a prosperous city, and his children were good and noble
1.30. Solon explains why he chose Tellus.
Croesus was amazed at what he had said and replied sharply, “In what way do you judge Tellus to be the most fortunate?”
1.30. Croesus is unhappy with Solon's answer and asks for clarification.
Solon, offering no flattery but keeping to the truth, said, “O King, it is Tellus the Athenian.”
1.30. Solon replies by citing an unknown Athenian.
Croesus found the opportunity to say, “My Athenian guest, we have heard a lot about you because of your wisdom and of your wanderings, how as one who loves learning you have traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, so now I desire to ask you who is the most fortunate man you have seen.”
1.30. Croesus asks Solon who the most fortunate man he has seen is, expecting the answer to be "You, Croesus".
As time went on, Croesus subjugated almost all the nations west of the Halys
1.28. The Landmark Herodotus dates this to 560-547 BC.
Then the other answered
1.27. Bias/Pittacus responds by pointing out the ridiculousness of Croesus' plan to attack the islanders on their own terms.
Croesus, thinking that he spoke the truth, said: “Would that the gods would put this in the heads of the islanders, to come on horseback against the sons of the Lydians!”
1.27. Croesus replies to Bias/Pittacus, suggesting that the islanders would be at a disadvantage if they were to attack the Lydians, renowned for their cavalry, on horseback.
asked by Croesus for news about Hellas, put an end to the shipbuilding by giving the following answer
1.27. Croesus asks for news; Bias/Pittacus responds with an ironic statement.
either Bias of Priene or Pittacus of Mytilene (the story is told of both) came to Sardis
1.27. In what is presumably an apocryphal story, one of the Seven Sages of Greek tradition visits Croesus (the fact that the story is told with both Bias and Pittacus makes it even more likely to be apocryphal).
the Cimmerians, driven from their homes by the nomad Scythians, came into Asia, and took Sardis
1.15. According to the Landmark Herodotus, which cites Assyrian documentary sources, the capture of Sardis by the Cimmerians took place in 644, at which time Gyges was killed.
at length the Lydians were routed and driven within their city wall, where they were besieged by the Persians.
1.80 After the battle, the defeated Medes retreat and the Persian Army lays siege to the city of Sardis.
Pactyes made the Lydians revolt from Tabalus and Cyrus
1.154 Division within the Persians. Pactyes revolts against Cyrus, taking over the treasury of Sardis and leading a rebellion.
So then they were besieged.
The Persian army lays siege to Sardis, the capitol and last foothold of Croesus and the Medes. In the culmination of this siege, Croesus's forces will be overcome and the monarch himself will be captured by his enemies, fulfilling the prophecy from 1.13 and reiterated in 1.53.