39 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2023
    1. The “major” blues scale Some improvisers find it helpful to think of a major blues scale. The difference between a major and minor pentatonic scale is identical to the difference between the major and minor blues scale: the major blues scale is a rotation of the blues scale of its relative minor. Begin the blues scale on me (↓^3)(↓3^)(\downarrow\hat3), and you will get a blues scale for the relative major. These relationships are summarized in Example 5
  2. Jul 2023
  3. Jun 2023
    1. The A Section: A Two-Scale Approach
    2. The expressiveness of the blues comes from the melodic inflections added to particularnotes. When we listen to various vocal or guitar renditions of the blues, these inflectionsare easily recognizable; they stand out because of their emotional charge and slightly “outof tune” sound. 1 The so-called blues scale approximates the sound of these pitchinflections by altering ^3, ^5, and ^7 of the major scale. Figure 9.3 illustrates the content ofthe blues scale and its derivation from the major scale.The blues scale is a six-note collection with the “blue” notes on ≤3, ≤5, and ≤7. Althoughthe presence of ≤7th suggests a chord–scale relationship with the dominant 7th chord,the use of the blues scale is not limited to this chord only. In the context of the bluesscale, the pitches ≤3 and ≤5 constitute expressive embellishments not bound by anyparticular harmonic function or chord type. The blues scale, then, is an androgynous
    3. The hexatonic scale is a six-note collection that conveys characteristics similar to theseven-note modes. Just like pentatonics, hexatonic scales have more interesting intervallicproperties and provide essential notes for melodic lines and harmonic formations. Thehexatonic collections are compartmentalized in the familiar categories and scales are gener-ated from aggregates of pitches that contain all available notes from the particular category.For instance, since the pitch aggregate for the major category contains eight notes, thereare a number of options for creating different major hexatonics. Given the enormous rangeof options, it is best to pick a scale whose pitch content best conveys specific modalcharacteristics.The derivation of hexatonics from the aggregate puts the understanding of pitch hierarchyto the test. The pitch structure of different hexatonics prioritizes only those notes thatare essential to projecting the exact harmonic function and/or intended chord–scalerelationship. Each category below includes two types of hexatonic collection: regular andaltered. Regular hexatonics share common characteristics with the corresponding modes.For instance, Mixolydian ≥11 hexatonic has similar properties to the seven-note Mixolydian≥11 mode, etc. Altered hexatonics are derived from the specific pitch aggregate and theirstructure includes minor variations from regular hexatonics. In labeling altered hexatonics,use the name of the category with Roman numerals specifying different variations (i.e.Major Altered I, Dominant Altered II, etc.)
    4. In jazz, pentatonics represent a rich assortment of scales with a vast potential forimprovisation. They come in a variety of flavors, from the simple blues inflections addedto diatonic pentatonics popularized by Lester Young in the 1930s to the chromaticallyaltered five-note segments common in contemporary jazz styles
    5. Chapter 16 examines the pitch structure, chord–scale relationships, harmonic and melodicpotential of the octatonic scale
    6. The so-called Bebop revolution in the late 1930s was probably one of the most importantmusical events in the history of jaz
    7. The progression shown in Figure 9.9 exemplifies the structure of a minor blues.4The chord structure of the minor blues is characterized by the presence of traditionaltonal progressions. For instance, the tonicization of iv in m. 4 uses a secondary dominant7th, V7/iv, and the motion to V 7 in m. 10 is prepared by the ≤VI7 chord. This particularpreparation of the dominant 7th, ≤VI7–V7, is one of the harmonic trademarks of the minorblues.
    8. Having examined the structure of the blues scale, we can now explore the tonal potentialof the scale.2 Figure 9.4 illustrates the structure of G blues scale.This scale has a minor feel to it; notice the use of ≤3, ≤5, and ≤7. By starting the scale onB≤3 and continuing through the octave, we are able to generate a major scale that, inaddition to having the “blue” 3rd, also contains the major 3rd needed for major anddominant 7th chords. A major blues scale, shown in Figure 9.5, starts on ≤3 of the regularblues scale, contains a perfect 5th, major 6th, and major 9th, and establishes a convincingchord–scale relationship with the B≤6/9, B≤13 or other B≤–based dominant 7th chords.In addition to more generic usage of the blues scale (where a single scale is used in thecontext of different chords), we can be more discerning and assign a regular blues scaleto minor chords and a major blues scale to major and dominant 7th chords.
    9. Chapter 9 discusses the most important form in jazz, the blues, examines the structureof the blues scale, and provides chord–scale relationships for the basic and minor bluesprogressions
    1. Modal jazz rarely adheres strictly to the classical modes (Dorian, Phrygian, etc.), but it creates their flavour, or in some cases that of other non-diatonic scales, such as those of Spanish or Indian music
  4. May 2023
  5. Aug 2020
  6. Feb 2018