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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Apr 2024
    1. She loved me for the dangers I had passed,And I loved her that she did pity them.

      Ironic because they see (Desdemona) sees tragedy as his heroism and his appeal, the pity she has on him. And yet he only turns more pitiful because he passes more and more tragedies later on. Desdemona is even more of an angel then. Cradling the child of a devil

  3. Jun 2023
    1. Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions appear in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make (Apollonian) order of his unjust and chaotic (Dionysian) fate, though he dies unfulfilled.

      The hero in a story, like Arthur, dies unfulfilled, knowing that he never reached unity.

  4. May 2023
    1. The play is set in Troezen, a coastal town in the north-eastern Peloponnese. Theseus, the king of Athens, is serving a year's voluntary exile after having murdered a local king and his sons. His illegitimate son is Hippolytus, whose birth is the result of Theseus's rape of the Amazon Hippolyta. Hippolytus has been trained since childhood by the king of Troezen, Pittheus. At the opening of the play Aphrodite, Goddess of love, explains that Hippolytus has sworn chastity and refuses to revere her. Instead, he honours the Goddess of the hunt, Artemis. This has led her to initiate a plan of vengeance on Hippolytus. When Hippolytus went to Athens two years previously Aphrodite inspired Phaedra, Hippolytus' stepmother, to fall in love with him. Hippolytus appears with his followers and shows reverence to a statue of Artemis, a chaste goddess. A servant warns him about slighting Aphrodite, but Hippolytus refuses to listen. The chorus, consisting of young married women of Troezen, enters and describes how Theseus's wife, Phaedra has not eaten or slept in three days. Phaedra, sickly, appears with her nurse. After an agonizing discussion, Phaedra finally confesses why she is ill: she loves Hippolytus. The nurse and the chorus are shocked. Phaedra explains that she must starve herself and die with her honour intact and to save Theseus from shame. However, the nurse quickly retracts her initial response and tells Phaedra that she has a magical charm to cure her. However, in an aside she reveals different plans. The nurse, after making Hippolytus swear not to tell anyone, informs Hippolytus of Phaedra's desire and suggests that Hippolytus consider yielding to her. He reacts with a furious tirade and threatens to tell his father, Theseus, everything as soon as he arrives. Phaedra realizes disaster has fallen. After making the chorus swear secrecy, she goes inside and hangs herself. Theseus returns and discovers his wife's dead body. Because the chorus is sworn to secrecy, they cannot tell Theseus why she killed herself. Theseus discovers a letter on Phaedra's body, which falsely asserts that she was raped by Hippolytus. Enraged, Theseus curses his son either to death or at least exile. To execute the curse, Theseus calls upon his father, the god Poseidon, who has promised to grant his son three wishes. Hippolytus enters and protests his innocence but cannot tell the truth because of the binding oath that he swore. Taking Phaedra's letter as proof, Hippolytus proudly defends his innocence, saying that he has never looked at any women with sexual desire. Theseus does not believe his son and still exiles him. As Hippolytus is departing he swears that if he lying then Zeus should strike him down on the spot. The chorus sings a lament for Hippolytus. A messenger enters and describes a gruesome scene to Theseus; as Hippolytus got in his chariot to leave the kingdom, a bull roared out of the sea, frightening his horses, which dashed his chariot among the rocks, dragging Hippolytus behind. Hippolytus seems to be dying. The messenger protests Hippolytus' innocence, but Theseus refuses to believe him. Theseus is glad that Hippolytus is suffering and about to die. But then the goddess, Artemis, appears and rages at Theseus for killing his own son; she brutally tells him the truth and that Aphrodite was behind all their suffering due to her feeling disrespected due to Hippolytus's pride in his chastity: there was no rape, Phaedra had lied, his son was innocent. Theseus is painfully devastated by this revelation. Hippolytus is carried in physically battered and barely clinging to life. In the last moments of the play, Hippolytus forgives his father, kind words are exchanged between father and son, and then Hippolytus dies. Theseus is then left living to dwell on the fact that he killed his beloved son.

      CC Licensing: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

      Title: Gender Roles and Tragic Consequences in Hippolytus

      The play "Hippolytus" by Euripides explores the complex dynamics of gender roles and the tragic consequences that arise from societal expectations and the manipulation of divine powers. The story revolves around the conflict between Aphrodite, the goddess of love, and Hippolytus, a devoted follower of Artemis, the goddess of the hunt. By examining key quotes and significant events, we can delve into the portrayal of gender roles and the repercussions they have on the characters within the play.

      At the beginning of the play, Aphrodite expresses her frustration with Hippolytus's refusal to revere her and his unwavering devotion to Artemis (2, 1-3). This sets the stage for Aphrodite's plan of vengeance, highlighting the power dynamics between male and female deities and the consequences of defying traditional gender expectations. The conflict between the two goddesses serves as a backdrop for the subsequent events that unfold.

      When Phaedra, Hippolytus's stepmother, falls in love with him due to Aphrodite's influence, it highlights the vulnerability of women in a patriarchal society and their susceptibility to the manipulation of divine powers (2, 6-7). Phaedra's unrequited love for Hippolytus becomes a catalyst for the tragic events that follow, illustrating the destructive consequences of crossing societal boundaries and challenging established gender roles.

      Throughout the play, Phaedra grapples with her forbidden desires and the notion of preserving her honor (5, 19-22). Her internal struggle reflects the societal pressures placed on women to adhere to strict moral codes and maintain their virtuous reputation. Phaedra's ultimate decision to starve herself and die to protect Theseus from shame illustrates the extreme lengths she is willing to go to uphold the expectations of female purity and chastity.

      The nurse, a secondary character, plays a significant role in circulating gender norms and contributing to the tragic outcome. Initially, she appears to be supportive of Phaedra's plight and offers a magical charm to cure her (4, 15-17). However, in an aside, the nurse reveals her ulterior motive, suggesting that Phaedra should yield to her desires (4, 16-18). This manipulation demonstrates the complexities of gender dynamics and the potential for women to contribute to the perpetuation of the patriarchal norms.

      Hippolytus, on the other hand, vehemently rejects Phaedra's advances and fiercely defends his chastity and loyalty to Artemis (5, 17-19). His refusal to yield to Aphrodite's power highlights his unwavering commitment to his chosen deity and his defiance of traditional gender expectations. Hippolytus's unwavering adherence to his principles ultimately leads to his tragic downfall.

      The false accusation of rape leveled against Hippolytus exposes the destructive potential of gender-based assumptions and societal biases. Theseus, Phaedra's husband and Hippolytus's father, believes the fabricated story and condemns his son to exile or death (6, 21-26). Theseus's inability to question the validity of the accusation reflects the deeply ingrained prejudices and expectations placed on women and men within the society.

      The tragic climax of the play occurs when Artemis reveals the truth to Theseus, exposing Aphrodite's manipulations and Phaedra's deception (9, 31-33). This revelation highlights the devastating consequences that arise from the manipulation of gender roles and the abuse of power by divine entities. The final reconciliation between Hippolytus and Theseus serves as a poignant moment, emphasizing the tragedy of a father's realization that he has killed his own son due to his blind adherence to societal expectations.

      In conclusion, "Hippolytus" delves into the complexities of gender roles and the tragic outcomes that arise from the manipulation of societal expectations and divine powers. The play highlights the vulnerability of women, the defiance of male protagonists, and the destructive consequences of rigid gender norms. By examining key quotes and pivotal events, we gain a deeper understanding of the portrayal of gender roles in the play and the profound impact they have on the characters' lives.

  5. Mar 2023
    1. he decimation of the existing incentive models for internet creators and communities (as flawed as they are) is not a bug: it’s a feature

      replacing the incentives to share on the open web are not a mere by-effect of it being abstracted away by generative AI, but an aimed for effect. As it may push people to seek the gains of sharing elsewhere, i.e. enclosed web3 services.

  6. Jan 2023
    1. the tragedy of the Commons is not so much that it's Commons per se but that it's a cooperation problem that he described I 00:01:48 think very clearly that environmental degradation is often a social dilemma is often a cooperation problem and be it a commons or not the regulatory structure 00:02:02 or the the social structure can vary but cooperation problems are are important however of course he said his famous line this paper is you know solution is mutual coercion mutually agreed upon and and so that's 00:02:18 institutions right so the solution is institutions and of course we have other people who have said that very clearly and with a lot of wonderful evidence to back it up Elinor Ostrom being at the 00:02:31 top of that list and and her work on common pool resources and contains this fantastic list of sort of key design 00:02:44 elements that have emerged from studying small-scale common pool resource communities and and these are these are factors that tend to make those communities more successful in managing 00:02:56 those resources sustainably so so that's great

      !- mitigating : tragedy of the commons - Elinor Ostrom's design principles - It's often a cooperation problem - it is a social dilemma pitting individual vs collective interest

  7. Dec 2022
    1. Ultimately, after identifying some critical aspects of the doctrines of common goods, I will try to examine the possibility to guarantee all people the fundamental right to access to food by using the “public utilities made available by the local government”. Otherwise, if we let the laws of the market be the ones that can guarantee food, we risk legitimizing a “juridical paradox” that the constitutional order (at least the Italian one) by no means can tolerate.

      Juridical perspective to verify the possibility to consider food as a common good. Being said that Italian constitutional doctrine has not covered this particular aspect. Bringing up the very common, yet taken for granted, concept of 'private' and 'public provided by the constitution into consideration.

  8. Sep 2022
    1. tighter regulations and highercorporate taxes increase costs and make firms and nations less competitive.

      !- tragedy of the commons : DSG example - A Deep Humanity analysis can add insight to unpack the problem - When I read this sentence, it triggers the following words to emerge from my salience landscape: - self / other dualism - different levels of othering - at each level, the self is competing to maximize sales - the other is alien, nebulous, unknown and this helps reinforce competition and not caring for the other, dominating the other - in ALL cases, each self-centered business entity views regulations as reducing competitive price advantage - this view is myopic because it does not consider the bigger picture of how the production is impacting nature and people - the normal view is habitually NOT a circular WEconomy view - manufacturing products that create environmental externalities present in the manufacturing process, in its usage and end of life is based on an assumption of negligible impact on nature. Total net impacts were far from planetary boundaries. - however, due to the exponential increase in the scale of production due to population pressures, this assumption has become obsolete a long time ago - Producers of products that continue environmental damage are enabled by current policies so will not change on their own because they all need the short term benefits the jobs provide - as an example, the fossil fuel industry and its millions of direct employees are knowingly destroying the life support system of the planet - when externalization exists, it is a policy reflecting collective disconnection from nature because it we are deeply connected to nature and externalization on this scale destroys our life support system - regulations are constraints that are needed for our own good. Instead of seeing it as anti-competition, the bigger picture is that it is pro-civilization - when each business looks out for itself for its own wellbeing and competing against others within an externalizing economic system, a tragedy of the commons occurs

  9. Mar 2022
    1. Elinor Ostrom
    2. the tragedy of the commons is a multiplayer prisoner's dilemma. And she said that people are only prisoners if they consider themselves to be. They escape by creating institutions for collective action. And she discovered, I think most interestingly, that among those institutions that worked, there were a number of common design 00:12:04 principles, and those principles seem to be missing from those institutions that don't work.

      collaborative institutions relying on common design principles are seen helping to avoid the tragedy of commons

  10. Nov 2021
    1. contrasting 00:28:28 climate change against uh the kobe 19 pandemic is very revealing while both of them are now considered to be a crisis and they are very different in nature 00:28:40 the pandemic is an immediate threat and the government failure to respond to the the kubernetes pandemic is in the eyes of the constituencies 00:28:54 a real failure and and they will uh lose their future votes and because of this failure for these politicians while climate change is more of a 00:29:07 creeping uh risks it's coming slowly it is a crisis and uh and it's also everybody's crisis right then this is a a typical 00:29:21 collective action problem failure to come up with the funding for addressing climate change in the eyes of the local and domestic 00:29:33 constituencies is not considered to be such a bad thing so uh and then a lot of politicians will choose to be a free writer on this then 00:29:45 uh you know what happens and we all understand this too well will be the tragedy of the comments i think the it's really the nature of the this uh two problems to crisis are very different 00:29:58 and this is really really the talent the i think the ultimate talent for the human beings to when it comes to solve this collective action problem

      The speaker points out that covid-19 is perceived as a more immediate threat, while climate change is less directly perceivable as a immediate threat. It takes place graduallyl over time. Climate change is a tragedy of the commons because a lot of individual leaders choose to free-ride.

  11. Feb 2020
    1. In 1968, Garrett Hardin, a biologist, published an article about social dilemmas in the journal Science, called ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’.
  12. Dec 2019
    1. tragic poetry of Greece

      Shelley probably means the great fifth-century Greek tragedies, such as Sophocles' Antigone, Oedipus the King and others.

  13. May 2019
    1. In here like in the Persian version, Hyppolitus has a tragic end. In this image we see the position in how he died. His ankles are tied and while his horse is running. Is indeed a terrible ending for someone who was not to blame for anything, all thanks to the god Poseidon. Interestingly, the Persian version has not such things as divine beings, there is not even mention of them. This once proves that in order for some things to appeal to other cultures things such as religion, politics and lifestyle need to take part. CC BY-NC-ND

  14. Jun 2017
    1. So, fare you well at once; for Brutus’ tongue Hath almost ended his life’s history: Night hangs upon mine eyes; my bones would rest That have but labour’d to attain this hour.

      Marcus Brutus has been regarded as the "noblest Roman of them all" who acts only with the interest of the State at heart. The assassination of Caesar was even justified by him; he exclaimed to the public "it’s not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more."

      In his last moments, it is obvious that Brutus was feeling remorseful of the past atrocities, but is this enough to ground Brutus as a fundamentally heroic character? Is Brutus in fact delusional, attempting to redeem himself via radical patriotism? Do his actions speak louder than his words?

      Therefore, my question is:

      Is Brutus deserving of a tragic hero status, or does he portray a more antagonistic character in the play?

  15. Feb 2017
    1. The classic libertarian solution to this problem is to try to find a way to privatize the shared resource (in this case, the lake).

      This is a hard problem, but the lake must have an owner, or some bizarre magical special juridical property that someone must come up with. Anyway, this whole example treats it as "public" resource, hence the tragedy of the commons follow.

      Ok, it seems that the lake may be owned by someone and the rivers that go into it owned by other people, so the problem arises. This seems to me to be a case for law: https://hypothes.is/a/PBirDvnYEeaWvjeIs4H9kg.

      Probably there could be a way for the lake owner to sue the people who are damaging the lake, or these sue the lake owner for their lack of productivity.

    1. The reason we find ourselves in this mess with ubiquitous surveillance, filter bubbles, and fake news (propaganda) is precisely due to the utter and complete destruction of the public sphere by an oligopoly of private infrastructure that poses as public space.

      This is a whole new tragedy of the commons: people don't know where the commons actually are anymore.

  16. Feb 2016
    1. Experienced maintainers have felt the burden. Today, open source looks less like a two-way street, and more like free products that nobody pays for, but that still require serious hours to maintain.This is not so different from what happened to newspapers or music, except that nearly all the world’s software is riding on open source.
  17. Apr 2015