109 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2019
    1. There is a difference between an open mind and an empty head.'

      also quoted by Dicks et al 2005

    2. Through comparing data with data, we learn what our research partic-ipants view as problematic and begin to treat it analytically.
    3. we try to understand participants' views and actions from their perspectives
    4. Language plays a crucial role in how and what we code. Most fundamentally, the empirical world does not appear to us in some natural state apart from human experience. Rather we know the empirical world through language and the actions we take toward it.

      importance of recognising language when analysing texts

    5. We want to know what is happening in the setting, in people's lives, and in lines of our recorded data. Hence, we try to understand our participants' standpoints and situations, as well as their actions within the setting.
    6. attempt to portray meanings and actions
    7. For sociologists, generic processes are basic to social life; for psychologists, generic processes are fundamental for psychological exis-tence; for anthropologists, these processes support local cultures. Because they are fundamental, generic processes can apply in varied professions and fields. A grounded theorist can elaborate and refine the generic process by gathering more data from diverse arenas where this process is evident.

      this was done by including similar creators at opposite ends of the political spectrum, and seeing what exactly the generic processes were in their creations, if any.

    8. In a memo, raise them to conceptual categories for your developing analytic framework-give them conceptual definition and analytical treatment in narra-tive form in your memo.

      as i did in describing each gerund in a separate document, to ensure i had the same intention each time.

    9. Precollj:_eptions work their way into how we think and write. Researchers who believe themselves to be objective social scientists often assume that their judgments of participants are correct. This stance can lead to treating one's unexamined assumptions as fact.

      a point to consider in my research of two very different creators, of whom i have very strong but polar opposite opinions.

    10. Some respon-dents or events will make explicit what was implicit in earlier statements or events.

      the goal of the second round of coding i performed.

    11. In vivo codes can provide a crucial check on whether you have grasped what is significant

      like Molyneux's labeling of Mandela as a sociopathic idiot

    12. we look for their implicit meanings and attend to how they construct and act upon these meanings. In doing so, we can ask, what analytic category(ies) does this code suggest?

      an example is how Molyneux describes the characters of his narrative, most interestingly in his framing of Muslims. he never alludes that these are an ethnographically and religiously diverse group with a rich history, which is either something he genuinely, or something he does not think the audience needs to do, perhaps somewhere between the two. the quotes he uses and descriptions he gives them provides us with some insight, but for the coding process, it's safer to use the term he does before drawing conclusions

    13. Those general terms everyone 'knows' that flag condensed but significant meanings o A participant's innovative term that captures meanings or experience • Insider shorthand terms specific to a particular group that reflect their perspective.

      the tips on when to include in vivo codes are also important when creating a lexicon for an emerging subculture

    14. compare incident with incident, then as your ideas take hold, com-pare incidents to your conceptualization of incidents coded earlier.

      another strategy i had to implement, since the data were not organised into lines as they can be for traditionally collected data. it resembled observational fieldwork more, since it was an observed rather than a prompted discourse.

    15. Thomas (1993) says that a researcher must take the familiar, routine, and mundane and make it unfamiliar and new.

      acknowledging and reflecting upon my experiences with the creators i've included enables me to ask myself if i'm assigning a certain meaning because i've come to expect it, or if it's something new i'm learning about them or their community.

    16. Rather than seeing your perspectives as truth, try to see them as representing one view among many.
    17. Concrete, behavioristi.c descriptions of people's mundane actions may not be amenable to line-by-line coding, particularly when you observed a scene but do not have a sense of its context, its participants, and did not interact with them.

      this is partially applicable to my study, since i had no direct interaction with the subjects, and have to infer some meaning based on my experiences with the field prior to collecting fieldwork. my method began with line-by-line coding, but the revision of the codes adopted tips for incident-to-incident coding, since i began comparing similarly themed segments based on their topic or tone, rather than taking each line individually. this was of use for identifying where the speaker chose to make a speculation versus a quote, a statistic versus an anecdote, and theorising what this told me about their relationship to the content.

    18. How does the research participant(s) act while involved in this process?

      this was a guiding question for me when describing the tone in each code, which added depth to the person reaction they were experiencing but not necessarily addressing when focusing on different concepts. for example, when were they excited, when were they solemn, when were they sarcastic.

    19. Line-by-line coding works particularly well with detailed data about funda-mental empirical problems or processes whether these data consist of inter-views, observations, documents, or ethnographies and autobiographies.

      the appropriate method for studying the youtube content, since i can break up the speech into sentences or fragments of sentences which are dictated by the speaker, or for comments which are usually short, or the longer ones are separated by punctuation

    20. If you ignore, gloss over, or leap beyond participants' meanings and actions, your grounded theory will likely reflect an outsider's, rather than an insider's view.

      this was a risk during my first readings, since some of the codes i applied were definitely my own interpretations rather an attempt to describe the speaker's perspective, for example, initial codes that assumed the speaker was 'viewing' a topic in a certain way, did not appreciate whether their view was a personal speculation being offered, an overt expression of an emotional response, an assertion of facts, etc. these clarifications were necessary to build my theory of toolsets that youtube creators use to convey meaning

    21. starting from the words and actions of your respondents, preserves the fluidity of their experience and gives you new ways of looking at it

      in my own process, the words i took from the speaker more alluded to their projected convictions on their subject of choice, rather than the action they were performing more literally. for example, i frequently described what Molyneux was implying, using his phrasing to describe what the implication was, though at first it may not have been obvious that it was an implication rather than, say, an assertion.

    22. Codes are also provisional in the sense that you may reword them to improve the fit. Part of the fit is the degree to which they capture and condense meanings and actions.

      i had two phases of initial coding, first having very open and multifaceted descriptions, second narrowing in on the precise methods the speaker was using to communicate

    23. Hence, simultaneous data collection and analy~is can help you go further and deeper into the research problem as well as engage in developing categories.

      at the beginning of my research, i planned on just analysing youtube comments, but saw soon after that the codes i could offer were bare without the content which prompted them.

    24. 'My advisor wants me to use Anselm Strauss's concept of "negotiations".' Such approaches preclude ideas from emerging as you code events.

      nice slight at one of her past mentors

    25. Thus we define what we see as significant in the data and describe what we think is happening.

      there is no way around this, i cannot code for something i don't see or understand. the best I can do is be detailed in my descriptions and thorough in simultaneously watching and listening to the content, until i see from my notes what patterns exist. this can only happen through repeated an honest interactions with the data, acknowledging personal convictions and placing them aside to consider why these words are urgent to the speaker.

    26. Coding impels us to make our participants' language problematic to render an analysis of it. Coding should inspire us to examine hidden assumptions in our own use of language as well as that of our participants.

      the phrasing we use in codes brings to light the type of themes we may be subconsciously looking for. in this case, i found i was repeatedly trying to describe what the creators were saying without really saying it, evidenced through their tone and word choice, where they chose to make overt statements, and when meanings were implied.

    27. scrutinize your data and define meanings within it Through this active coding, you interact with your data again and again and ask many different ques-tions of them. As a result, coding may take you into unforeseen areas and new research questions.

      i was asking very broad questions at the start of my research to accommodate this - how do people communicate, connect, relate, express etc on youtube, is there a common language, or common habits that exist within or between videos and channels, and does the channel creator play a role in this? nearing the end, i find i'm answering the question of how a creator conveys meaning and how they prompt reactions, and how does the community respond to this.

    1. users on reddit will upvote content for performative reasons (in the sense that they do so to make a point). If users are aware that IncelTears and others who dislike them are watching, they will often upvote material that they think is unpopular with those users. Essentially, it’s “upvoting to trigger the libs”.

      awareness that outsiders are also watching, the desire to 'trigger' them is comparable to the cult mentality of aggressively rebutting any challenge to one's beliefs.

    2. Chans are fast-moving boards with enormous quantities of content produced every hour, and so staying on the front page is extremely difficult unless you create something that stands out. In addition, anons (chan posters are almost always anonymous) pride themselves on shock value, posting content designed to “trigger”, offend, and chime with a particular dark sense of humour. 

      the design of the platform influences the behaviour of users

    1. ersonality variablesalso will influence the extent of this disinhibition

      including ideology and past experiences

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. What’s happening is a kind of intellectual judo, in which the power and enthusiasm of contrary voices are turned against those contrary voices through a carefully rigged internal structure of belief.

      as with conspiracy theorists, however compelling evidence may be, they cannot be brought to reason, and their stance can even be strengthened as consequence.

    2. A cult isolates its members by actively alienating them from any outside sources. Those outside are actively labelled as malignant and untrustworthy.

      the integrity of an influencer can be measured by how they treat opposing views, and how they choose to present their opinion to their audience. how do they represent the opposition? do they want their audience to engage with outside sources, or are they strictly guided down one line of thinking?

    3. An epistemic bubble is when you don’t hear people from the other side. An echo chamber is what happens when you don’t trust people from the other side.
    1. ce. We conclude with a discussion of directions for future research aimed at incorporating comments in the content design pro-cess and for enhancing the user’s experience via new design features in commenting platforms.

      changes in the interface itself could transform the situation

    1. this article advances an approach that grasps the mul-tiplicity of online racism while locating its specificities in relation to the YouTube platform.

      a new approach is needed

    2. we innovate a methodology that reveals YouTube comments as operating in a networked environment. Th

      the unique ecosystem of youtube requires a unique approach

    3. depicting antagonism in YouTube’s comment space as essentially a site of flaming or abuse, fails to realize that users can be engaged in purposeful discussions entangled with a multitude of forms of hostile expression.

      misrepresentation downplays the effect that participation has on the shape of modern discourse.

    4. lack of understanding about how antagonistic racial-ized discourses operate on the Web,

      still insufficient attention

    5. the Web has become a trenchant site of public conver-sations and expressions about race. And that the medium itself needs to be taken seri-ously for spawning neoteric forms of racism. Moreover, there is a paucity of academic studies exploring YouTube’s comment space. While this space is represented negatively, users actively posting comments remain a key mode of engagement on YouTub

      the trolls need to be taken seriously, 'neoteric' racism is abundant and insufficiently defined, much is observed but little is measured

    6. the quasi-anonymous comment space of YouTube enabling viewers to respond to video content has become notorious for online trolling, flaming and abuse, often expressed via forms of racist, homophobic and misogynistic language

      the nature of the commenting system enables the hate speech which is becoming characteristic of the site.

    7. mainstream media representation of the YouTube platform portrays its comment culture as a toxic environment, averse to any kind of intelligible or worthwhile discus-sion

      the site is dismissed as a waste, without meaningful, intelligent content or any kind of benefit. this image is propagated by the mainstream which has delayed its recognition as a valuable tool for learning or data source in studies of modern public discourse

    1. To help understand howsuch groups might differ from one another, we collected data frommany different types of communities discussing some of the sameinformation and ideas

      diversify data to avoid bias or misrepresentation. list of potentially relevant subreddits

    2. First of all, while ourapproach is also observational, our aim is not to study a particularuse case [20], or a small sub sample of tweets collected during fewmonths [6,21,22], but concrete communities, where users sharein-group characteristics, like common ideology or subcultural lan-guage. Moreover, we do not aim to observe a time snapshot, but thefull evolution of these communities from their inception.

      which is possibly on reddit over other SNS. there is value in studying a collective with an established group identity over trends in general online behaviour

    3. various classification methods to categorise misogyny

      race to develop ai categorisation tools, which may not always work

    4. this notion of community is based on users who have no connectionto each other rather than either supporting or abusing Caroline

      communities do not appear distinctly on twitter

    5. Computational methods have been eitherused toobserveand study the phenomenon of online misogyny[6,20–22], to generate automatic misogynisticcontent detectionmethods [4,12,13], or to use the appearance of misogyny relatedwords in online content as apredictorof criminal behaviour

      applications of computational research

    6. computational techniques can improve upon and enhance existingapproaches, providing more efficient ways of identifying some typesof anomalies and providing a historical picture of the evolution oflanguage and activity over time

      mixed methods are necessary in the digital age

    7. political as it is personal and cultural

      language is natural but guided

    8. Anonymityand technology affordances are believed to play an further aggra-vating role in this phenomenon, by giving perpetrators a way ofvoicing extreme sentiments without taking responsibility for theirwords or their consequences

      online disinhibition

    9. victims of exclusionunder the authority of feminism

      anti-female sentiment, masking deeper insecurities

    10. deeply entrenched or networkedmisogyny, as we see online

      online habits need to be viewed differently for research purposes

    11. efensive hashtags, suchas notallmen or FemalePrivilege, imply that because not all menare misogynist and some women are more powerful than somemen, misogyny does not really exist as part of cultural or politicalhegemony

      skewing facts to divide and ignite hate

    12. However, feminist studies on the nature of misogyny online aretypically conducted by a small number of authors looking at a smallamount of data intensively.

      slow and inefficient but sometimes necessary

    13. Online men’s groups have given space to members’ glorifi-cation of tragedies like the Isla Vista Killings, in which Elliot Rogerkilled 6 people and wounded 14 others, after communicating exten-sively online about his contempt for women (and people of colour)[1]. That rhetoric is believed to have attracted others, includingAlek Minassian, the alleged perpetrator of the Toronto van attackthat killed 10 and wounded 16 people [2]. Along with the #Gamer-Gate and #TheFappening controversies, which impacted hundredsof women [31], there are growing concerns that misogynyonlinehas some worrying qualities in scope and scale that women areunable to avoid [25]

      a case for taking the trolls seriously

    14. summary of a wide range of theories and models of onlinemisogyny from the feminist literature, as well as an analy-sis of the works that have targeted the problem of onlinemisogyny from a computational perspective.•The translation of different categories of misogyny, identifiedin feminist theory, into lexicons of hate terms to study theevolution of language within the manosphere.•An in-depth analysis of different manifestations and evolu-tion of misogyny across the Reddit manosphere.•We corroborated existing feminist theories and models aroundthe phenomenon of the manosphere by conducting a large-scale observational analysis.

      need to build a lexicon and refine knowledge of behaviour

    15. where users group aroundshared interests, ideologies, and subcultural language.

      description of reddit

    16. Twitter (aplatform where communities are not well-defined)

      different platforms good for different reasons

    17. Full manual analysis is impractical and thus, automatictechniques need to be used.

      need for shortcuts in analysing discourse

    18. Feminist analysis of the manosphere concludes that there isanideological shiftaway from the men’s rights topics that usedto unite members toward more misogynistic and violent ideas.

      the path to radicalisation

    19. violent crimes perpetrated in the real world by individualsbelonging to online communities of self-proclaimed misogynists

      link between online speech and real world behaviour

    20. ‘manosphere’ is a group of loosely incorporated websites andsocial media communities where men’s perspectives, needs, gripes,frustrations and desires are explicitly explored.

      entry definition for manosphere

  2. Jul 2019
    1. While technology was key toour raison d’être, our inquiries often evolved to focus on issues of pedagogy thattranscended individual technologies.

      the process of inquiry does not always go to plan. even in a community of practice, if an unforeseen shared goal emerges, it makes sense to stick with it, since they will lead to discoveries which could not have been previously conceived.

    2. This movement, with its focus on classroom-basedevidence, provided key tools and language for the Visible Knowledge Project. I

      unique languages form from guided movements - an effort must be made to put it together

    1. InstituteofVocalStudies

      the rhetorical field would especially contribute to artificially produced vocalisations - how are ai voices received by various groups, how do they compare to naturally made audio pieces, what techniques optimise their acceptance in everyday life.

    1. Walter Benjamin,

      arguably not the best example since cinema is now an equally credible art form, and benjamin was critical only because he did not see the potential of the medium (or any technologically-aided artistic practices).

    2. how can we convey to such students the deep engagement we feel with challenging literary texts? I argue that we cannot do this effectively if our teaching does not take place in the zone of proximal development, that is, if we are focused exclusively on print close reading.
    3. literary studies teaches literacies across a range of media forms, including print and digital, and focuses on interpretation and analysis of patterns, meaning, and context through close, hyper-, and machine reading practices.

      the future of literature

    4. . Most of these programs are not difficult to use and provide the basis for wide-ranging experimentation by students and teachers alike.

      offering a place for readers to engage in the activities mentioned, encouraging growth in the practices she values

    5. Because their mission is to encourage wide-spread use across and among campuses and to foster collaborations among academic, government, corporate, and community stakeholders, they see humanistic inquiry and artistic creation as missing parts of the picture that enrich the mix.

      there is a need for more interdisciplinary efforts and projects to birth transdisciplinary projects that unite and alter the nature of established fields, to more digitally appropriate equivalents.

    6. it offers students traditional literary training; it expands their sense of how they can use digital media to analyze literary texts; and it encourages them to connect literary methodologies with those of other fields they may be entering. It offers close reading not as an unquestioned good but as one methodol-ogy among several, with distinctive capabilities and limitations. Moreover, because de-cisions about how to encode and analyze texts using software programs require precise thinking about priorities, goals, and methodologies, it clarifies the assumptions that undergird close reading by translating them into algorithmic analysis
    7. On the other hand, machine reading may reveal patterns overlooked in close reading

      interrelated reading strategies

    8. Close and hyperreading operate synergistically when hyperreading is used to identify passages or to home in on a few texts of interest, whereupon close reading takes over.

      the method in my own research - there are far too many youtube comments for anyone to possibly analyse manually, so machine reading will be used to choose the most popular comments and analyse those as examples of common practices in the community

    9. keyword searches exhaust the repertoire of machine reading and that the gap between analy-sis and interpretation yawns so wide as to form an unbridgeable chasm rather than a dynamic interaction.

      limited views arise from ignorance/lack of in-depth investigation

    10. which implies that drawing conclusions from machine analysis is a mechanical exercise devoid of creativity, insight, or literary value.

      effective summary of how some view digital reading habits

    11. ensure that deep attention and close reading continue to be vibrant components of our reading cultures and interact synergistically with the kind of Web and hyperreading in which our young people are increasingly immersed

      both types of reading can and should co-exist

    12. For me, the topic is much more than the latest research fad, because it hits me where I live: the college classroom.

      personal involvement to strengthen the point, and relate importance to those in similar professions

    13. (hayles, “hyper and Deep Attention”)

      mention of experience and qualification in this area

    14. The scientific research is valuable and should not be ignored, but our experiences are also valuable and can tell us a great deal about the advantages and disadvantages of hyperreading compared with close reading, as well as the long-term effects of engaging in either or both of these reading strategies

      personal experiences are valuable in rationalising, testing and expanding understanding of what is learned through active readings of academic studies.

    15. Obviously, few scholars in the humanities have the time—or the expertise—to backtrack through cited studies and evaluate them for correctness and replicability.

      if scholars don't, then how are the general public expected to practice this for news items, or amateurish information sources?

    16. , the example illustrates the unsurprising fact that read-ing someone else’s synthesis does not give as detailed or precise a picture as reading the primary sources themselves.

      importance of fact-checking any material before accepting the information it presents

    17. [t]here may be cases in which enrichment or complexity of the hypertext experience is more desir-able than maximizing comprehension and ease of navigation

      linked to concerns raised earlier in the text

    18. Carr has tilted the evidence to support his view.

      a well-respected figure distorting facts to push an agenda

    19. circular methodology in which the hypothesis affects how the data is seen

      which can be a problem for a multitude of methodologies, and is mentioned by Glaser and Strauss as a limitation of many qualitative methods

    20. how valid is this conclusion?

      important to evaluate sources

    21. very short forms such as tweets that encourage distracted forms of reading

      but now threads of tweets are a regular practice - in which the author instead is required to write a concise series of paragraphs (or even a concise single tweet), which spark further conversations. admittedly they can be difficult to follow, since an infinite amount of threads can come from a single tweet.

    22. “harrison Bergeron,”

      a story I read in secondary school, but do not remember close reading. I believe it was merely an example of a short story, rather than an exercise in considering implications of political landscapes and dangers of totalitarianism.

    23. changes in brain architecture that makes close reading more difficult to achieve.

      calling for a re-structure of the education system itself, to accommodate these naturally occurring changes in how people consume and use academic material in all forms.

    24. In digital environ-ments, hyperreading has become a necessity.
    25. The research shows that Web pages are typically read in an F pattern

      which likely determines ad placement

    26. In 1999, James Sosnoski presciently introduced the concept of hyperreading, which he defined as “reader-directed, screen-based, computer-assisted reading”
    27. if the distance is too great between what one wants someone else to learn and where instruction begins, the teaching will not be effective.
    28. we must start close to where they are, rather than where we imagine or hope they might be.

      meet your audience where they're at - don't assume knowledge, or put yourself above the responsibility of areas you know not everyone is versed in. e.g. tendencies of contrapoints vs mexie

    29. We are tired of symptomatic reading.
    30. the text is an alibi for ideological formations that are subtextual.

      this can be applied to online discourse now that there are significant bodies of textual introspective thought and cultural critique in public online spaces.

    31. If that McLuhanesque view of media is prologue, then digital technologies, Guillory suggests, may be launch-ing the epilogue.
    32. lose reading justifies the discipline’s con-tinued existence in the academy, including the monies spent to support literature fac-ulty and departments. More broadly, close reading in this view constitutes the major part of the cultural capital that literary studies relies on to prove its worth to society

      the practice must be justified to maintain integrity and funding. if this is the primary defining and useful practice of the discipline, then questioning it's validity cannot be an option (for some).

    33. ethics, or bad philosophy”
    34. “This [close reading] is the only teaching that can properly be called literary; anything else is history of ideas, biography, psychology,
    35. Close reading then assumed a preeminent role as the essence of the disciplinary identity.

      but as many even interested in these fields feel "I couldn't stand the thought of close reading Heidegger for the rest of my life", Natalie Wynn on Ezra Klein. it feels like a chore to those who can simultaneously appreciate the importance of close reading established literature, but also the need to address newer content that were not designed for that type of engagement.

    36. While literary studies continues to teach close reading to students, it does less well in exploiting the trend toward the digital.

      and continues to do so, as I've experienced up to college level, and my younger siblings experience as they near the end of primary school. one could argue they're not yet at the age where this is a priority - but encouraging them to read novels at their level is near impossible when they have access to the internet near constantly. I did not consider myself an active reader at that age, having read only a handful of novels by the time I entered secondary school, and only a few more by the time I entered college, but I'm always shocked when I see how reluctant they are to read for fun.

    37. they fail to measure how much digital reading is going on or its effects on reading abilities

      thoughtful critique of an accredited source.

    38. examples obviously weighted toward showing the inanity of online chats, blogs, and Facebook entries.

      which are in fact becoming more thoughtful, since even twitter is now considered a legitimate platform for political discussion.

    39. The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future,

      I wonder how prolific these opinions still are today in teaching professionals who discount online, self-directed learning habits of children as a form of learning, rather than embracing the habits as aids to institutional learning.

    40. how to make effective bridges between digital reading and the literacy traditionally associated with print.
    41. how to convert the increased digital reading into increased reading ability
    42. No Child Left Behind

      questionably successful to begin with?

    43. and I of course agree

      appropriate use of self-involvement

    44. people read less print, and they read print less well.

      is this consistent across cultures? are there potential influences from school funding on performance? is this still true today, now that online novels, newspapers and academic journals are more commonplace?

  3. Dec 2018
    1. connecting with one another at the same time.

      sharing and building on shared knowledge can potentially continue infinitely, changing the way we think and act at every level. as a society we might not know yet how to appreciate or allow for this kind of learning.