26 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2022
    1. Learnings: - It's easy to assume people in the past didn't care or were stupid. But people do things for a reason. Not understanding the reason for how things are is a missed learning opportunity, and very likely leads to unintended consequences. - Similar to having a valid strong opinion, one must understand why things are as they are before changing them (except if the goal is only signaling).

    1. Our brains work not that differently in terms of interconnectedness.Psychologists used to think of the brain as a limited storage spacethat slowly fills up and makes it more difficult to learn late in life. Butwe know today that the more connected information we alreadyhave, the easier it is to learn, because new information can dock tothat information. Yes, our ability to learn isolated facts is indeedlimited and probably decreases with age. But if facts are not kept

      isolated nor learned in an isolated fashion, but hang together in a network of ideas, or “latticework of mental models” (Munger, 1994), it becomes easier to make sense of new information. That makes it easier not only to learn and remember, but also to retrieve the information later in the moment and context it is needed.

      Our natural memories are limited in their capacities, but it becomes easier to remember facts when they've got an association to other things in our minds. The building of mental models makes it easier to acquire and remember new information. The down side is that it may make it harder to dramatically change those mental models and re-associate knowledge to them without additional amounts of work.


      The mental work involved here may be one of the reasons for some cognitive biases and the reason why people are more apt to stay stuck in their mental ruts. An example would be not changing their minds about ideas of racism and inequality, both because it's easier to keep their pre-existing ideas and biases than to do the necessary work to change their minds. Similar things come into play with respect to tribalism and political party identifications as well.

      This could be an interesting area to explore more deeply. Connect with George Lakoff.

  2. Oct 2021
    1. “Speed kills.” If you are able to be nimble, assess the ever-changing environment, and adapt quickly, you’ll always carry the advantage over any opponents. Start applying the OODA Loop to your day-to-day decisions and watch what happens. You’ll start to notice things that you would have been oblivious to before. Before jumping to your first conclusion, you’ll pause to consider your biases, take in additional information, and be more thoughtful of consequences.

      In che modo si può applicare il modello OODA Loop nella vita quotidiana?

      Semplicemente applicando ad ogni nostra decisione le fasi previste dal modello, rendendo questo processo una abitudine riusciremo ad essere sempre più veloci nell'eseguirlo e questo ci darà la velocità necessaria per sopravvivere e vincere.

    2. When you act fast enough, other people view you as unpredictable. They can’t figure out the logic behind your decisions.

      Quale è il ruolo della velocità e della prevedibilità del nostro operato nel modello OODA Loop ?

      Operare a velocità maggiore degli altri ci rende imprevedibili e questo ci fornisce un vantaggio competitivo, adatto all'OODA Loop che è per definizione un modello fluido.

    3. Boyd made use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. In a closed system, entropy always increases and everything moves towards chaos. Energy spreads out and becomes disorganized. Although Boyd’s notes do not specify the exact applications, his inference appears to be that a fighter pilot must be an open system or they will fail. They must draw “energy” (information) from outside themselves or the situation will become chaotic. They should also aim to cut their opponent off, forcing them to become a closed system.

      In che modo la [[Seconda legge della termodinamica]] si applica all' #incertezza e come possiamo utilizzarla come parte del modello OODA Loop ?

      Il principio afferma che all'interno di un sistema chiuso tutto tenderà sempre all'entropia. Per questo bisogna essere dei sistemi aperti acquisendo ogni volta informazioni dal contesto, così da evitare che la situazione diventi caotica.

    4. The second concept Boyd referred to is Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. In its simplest form, this principle describes the limit of the precision with which pairs of physical properties can be understood. We cannot know the position and the velocity of a body at the same time. We can know either its location or its speed, but not both.

      In che modo si applica il [[principio di indeterminazione di Heisenberg]] nel modello [[OODA Loop]] ed in che modo ci aiuta ad affrontare l' #incertezza ?

      Il principio afferma che è impossibile determinare in maniera specifica due proprietà fisiche allo stesso tempo.

      Boyd estende questo concetto anche alla gestione delle informazioni, cercare di gestire al meglio due variabili informative diverse è troppo difficile ed all'atto pratico induce a maggiore incertezza

    5. Boyd referred to three key principles to support his ideas: Gödel’s theorems, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Of course, we’re using these principles in a different way from their initial purpose and in a simplified, non-literal form.

      Quali sono i tre principi che possono aiutarci nella gestione dell'incertezza e parte integrante del modello OODA Loop?

      • Il teorema di #Godel
      • [[principio di indeterminazione di Heisenberg]]
      • [[Seconda legge della termodinamica]]
    6. Gödel’s theorems indicate any mental model we have of reality will omit certain information and that Bayesian updating must be used to bring it in line with reality. For fighter pilots, their understanding of what is going on during a battle will always have gaps. Identifying this fundamental uncertainty gives it less power over us.

      In cosa consiste il teorema di #Godel e come si colloca nel modello [[OODA Loop]] ?

      Questo teorema afferma che ogni modello mentale sarà sprovvisto di alcune informazioni, è inevitabile, per questo bisogna applicare il metodo di #Bayes per aggiornare le informazioni ed allinearsi alla realtà.

      Già essere consapevoli di questa inevitabile incertezza ci rende più forti nei suoi confronti e capaci di gestirla.

    7. If the opponent uses an unexpected strategy, is equipped with a new type of weapon or airplane, or behaves in an irrational way, the pilot must accept the accompanying uncertainty. However, Boyd belabored the point that uncertainty is irrelevant if we have the right filters in place.

      Cosa è importante ricordare riguardo l'incertezza che deriva da un contesto in cui le informazioni sono sempre in aggiornamento e sempre cambiano secondo il modello [[OODA Loop]] ?

      La cosa più importante da ricordare è che l'incertezza del contesto è irrilevante se si adoperano i giusti filtri decisionali.

    8. If we can’t cope with uncertainty, we end up stuck in the observation stage. This sometimes happens when we know we need to make a decision, but we’re scared of getting it wrong. So we keep on reading books and articles, asking people for advice, listening to podcasts, and so on.

      In quale situazione rischiamo di ritrovarci se non siamo capaci di gestire l'incertezza?

      Rischiamo di ritrovarci in una situazione in cui la paura di prendere una decisione ci paralizza e continuiamo ad osservare, studiare, analizzare senza mai agire.

    9. Speed is a crucial element of military decision-making. Using the OODA Loop in everyday life, we probably have a little more time than a fighter pilot would. But Boyd emphasized the value of being decisive, taking initiative, and staying autonomous. These are universal assets and apply to many situations.

      Quale è il primo dei benefici più importanti di applicare il modello [[OODA Loop]] nella propria vita?

      Consiste nella velocità con cui si possono prendere decisioni, più si utilizza questo metodo più sarà facile muoversi in contesti dalle informazioni variegate perché il pattern decisionale sarà lo stesso.

    10. There’s a difference between making decisions and enacting decisions. Once you make up your mind, it’s time to take action. By taking action, you test your decision out.

      In che modo si collega la fase di azione del modello [[OODA Loop]] a quella di decisione?

      Si collega perché la fase precedente imposta il mindset mentre questa passa all'effettiva azione.

    11. This part of the loop needs to be flexible and open to Bayesian updating. In some of his notes, Boyd described this step as the hypothesis stage. The implication is that we should test the decisions we make at this point in the loop, spotting their flaws and including any issues in future observation stages

      In che termini è importante ragionare quando si parla della fase di decisione del modello [[OODA Loop]] ?

      È importante ragionare non da un punto di vista granitico, è importante avere un approccio di testing ed essere flessibili. Ogni decisione sarà semplicemente una ipotesi da mettere a confronto della realtà ed in funzione della quale avremo dei risultati che saranno informazioni da poter utilizzare per la prossima decisione.

    12. He recommended a process of “deductive destruction”: paying attention to your own assumptions and biases, then finding fundamental mental models to replace them.

      Quale processo può essere alternativo a quello creato da Munger per raccogliere modelli mentali?

    13. He identified the following four main barriers that impede our view of objective information: Our cultural traditions – we don’t realize how much of what we consider universal behavior is actually culturally prescribed Our genetic heritage – we all have certain constraints Our ability to analyze and synthesize – if we haven’t practiced and developed our thinking skills, we tend to fall back on old habits The influx of new information – it is hard to make sense of observations when the situation keeps changing

      Quali sono le barriere principali che impediscono una giusta applicazione della fase di orientamento nell' [[OODA Loop]] ?

      • Le tradizioni culturali: molte di quello che consideriamo oggettivo o ovvio è in realtà una semplice convenzione;
      • Limiti genetici;
      • Limiti razionali, le capacità di pensiero e raziocinio sono frutto di addestramento e quindi possono essere maggiori o minori;
      • La frequenza di aggiornamento delle informazioni nel contesto;
    14. To orient yourself is to recognize any barriers that might interfere with the other parts of the OODA Loop. Orientation means connecting yourself with reality and seeing the world as it really is, as free as possible from the influence of cognitive biases and shortcuts.

      In cosa consiste all'atto pratico la fase di orientamento dell' [[OODA Loop]] ?

      Consiste nel riconoscere le barriere che potrebbero interferire con l'esecuzione delle altre fasi del processo OODA.

    15. If you want to make good decisions, you need to master the art of observing your environment.

      Quale è uno dei presupposti fondamentali da considerare per applicare il modello [[OODA Loop]] ?

  3. Jul 2021
    1. How a memory palace works When we’re learning something new, it requires less effort if we connect it to something we already know, such as a physical place. This is known as elaborative encoding. Once we need to remember the information, we can “walk” around the palace and “see” the various pieces. The idea is to give your memories something to hang on to. We are pretty terrible at remembering things, especially when these memories float freely in our heads. But our spatial memory is actually pretty decent, and when we give our memories some needed structure, we provide that missing order and context. For example, if you struggle to remember names, it can be helpful to link people you meet to names you already know. If you meet someone called Fred and your grandmother had a cat called Fred, you could connect the two. Creating a multisensory experience in your head is the other part of the trick. In this case, you could imagine the sound of Fred meowing loudly. To further aid in recall, the method of loci is most effective if we take advantage of the fact that it’s easiest to remember memorable things. Memory specialists typically recommend mentally placing information within a physical space in ways that are weird and unusual. The stranger the image, the better.

      This notion of using spatial memory to encode other concepts - or even the P-A-O sytem where a 2 digit number encodes a person performing an action is an interesting idea for someone like me who forgets quite a bit.

  4. Mar 2021
  5. Feb 2021
    1. To prompt this kind of revolution in your own life, Rose and Ogas suggest creating a micromotive, or a goal tailored to an extremely specific activity that truly inspires you. For example, when Korinne Belock left her job as a political aide to form Urban Simplicity, a firm that declutters and redesigns homes and offices, her micromotive was “organizing physical space.” Note that she didn’t say “doing something creative” or “starting my own business.” Those declarations are too general and fuzzy to be acted on. Instead, she identified a task that sparked within her an outsized amount of curiosity and pleasure and used it as her guide.

      To escape a boring and unfulfilled life, create a micromotive, where we tailor an extremely specific activity that burns the spirit inside you.

  6. Nov 2020
    1. We’ve always wanted to build a layer on top of the web where every person can have their mental model of how the whole world works, and they can start to share ideas across everything.

      Conor's idea of Roam was a layer on top of the web where everyone can have their mental model of how the world works.

  7. Jul 2020
    1. Imagine a large population of people living, seeing, learning, doing and generally going about their lives. As they do so, they accumulate beliefs. Depending on how smart they are, they also compress beliefs via abstraction, metaphor, subconscious pattern-recognition circuits, muscle memory, ritual, making and consuming art, going p-value fishing, exploring tantric sex, generating irreproducible peer-reviewed Science! and so on.

      Compression of knowledge through abstractions ~ mental models.

  8. May 2020
    1. The Map is Not the Terrain

      As George Box said, "All models are false, some are useful." Understanding the importance and value of mental models is vital, but it must be balanced with an understanding that they are, at best, an approximate representation of reality, not reality itself - the map is not the terrain

    1. The map/territory relation describes the relationship between an object and a representation of that object, as in the relation between a geographical territory and a map of it.

      The core of what constitutes a mental model (https://ltcwrk.com/worldly-wisdom/mental-models/)

    1. You should construct evergreen (permanent) notes based on concepts, not related to a source (e.g. a book) or an author.

      Your mental models are compression functions. You make them more powerful by trying to use them on new information. Are you able to compress the new information with an already acquired function? Yes, then you've discovered an analogous concept across two different sources. Sort of? Then maybe there's an important difference, or maybe it's a clue that your compression function needs updating. And finally, no? Then perhaps this is an indication that you need to construct a new mental model – a new compression function.

  9. Sep 2019
    1. Ep. 1 - Awakening from the Meaning Crisis - Introduction

      Pscyho-technology ~ Mental Models ~ Mental Frameworks