76 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
  2. May 2019
    1. Struck down with overwhelming shame She shrank within her trembling frame. Each word of Ráma's like a dart Had pierced the lady to the heart; And from her sweet eyes unrestrained The torrent of her sorrows, rained. Her weeping eyes at length she dried,

      Rama's hard words on his real reasons on why he save Sita and his feelings about her broke her heart. With this details about what Sita feels and how she is reacting, the reader is able to create an image of the character int heir mind.

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    1. No fond affection for my wife Inspired me in the hour of strife. I battled to avenge the cause Of honour and insulted laws. My love is fled, for on thy fame

      This following lines express Rama's feelings and thoughts after saving Sita. He basically told her that he fight for his honor and justice not because of his love for her, a love that does not exist in him any more. Here we can see the true colors of Rama, where he only thinks about himself as a superior male and the unbalance toxic relationship that he has with Sita.

      CC BY-NC-ND

    1. Each princess gave her soul to love

      In the whole story of Ramayana, we are facing the extreme loyalty, respect and love that is given to the husband, but not equally to the wife. This quote reflect exactly how enormous this devotion is frm the women side is, as the author is claiming that "each princess gave her soul to love". Refering the husband as "to love", and in Ramayana's case Sita been a devoted wife to Rama no matter what.

      CC BY-NC-ND

    1. “I hereby Give you my word, my solemn promise, that The son born to Satyavati shall be king. I Renounce my right and claim as yuvaraja”

      Bhishma's action reflect the core of Hinduism, getting rid of our vanities and connecting more with the spiritual world. Bhishma teaches us about the abounding flaws of humanity and the ways we can rise above them. Bhishma shows us that we can live a fulfilling life if we abandon our mundane habits. It also teaches us that love can blind us and that good deed are always rewarded. CC BY-NC-ND .

    2. Two sons were born Of Satyavati to Santanu. When the king died, They ascended the throne one after another. Bhishma kept the vow throughout his life.

      Because of his many virtues and sacrifices, Bhishma was and continues to be a role model in Indian culture. The story of Bhishma narrated in the epic of Mahabharata , the most influential book in hinduism; reflects an idealized version of the male. He is Kind, cares about others and kept his word until his final breath even after the sons of Satyavati were born which is more amazing.

    3. The king could Never  imagine what a great sacrifice his son Had made for his sake.

      Bhishma's weakness is his love for his father. He gave up all carnal desires and right to the throne for the lust of Shantanu, which place into perspective this noble action. As a result of his vow he puts at risk the future of his beloved empire, goes against his beliefs and is forced to do things that he knew were wrong. CC BY-NC-ND

    4. “I vow that  I  shall Never marry and I shall always be a celibate.” When he uttered these words of resolve, Which echoed through space, gods from Above showered  flowers on his head and Cries of  “Bhishma”, “Bhishma” filled the air. For, such terrible sacrifice was very unusual. Bhisma means one who takes a terrible vow And fulfills it.

      Devavrata become Bhishma because of his promise of celibacy. Bhishma was such a good son that he did not only gave up his rightful throne but also the right to have family and carnal pleasure. This in what makes Bhishma a hero. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. Spake then his Vaunt[2] the valiant man, Beowulf Geat, ere the bed he sought:— “Of force in fight no feebler I count me, in grim war-deeds, than Grendel deems him. Not with the sword, then, to sleep of death 680his life will I give, though it lie in my power. No skill is his to strike against me, my shield to hew though he hardy be, bold in battle; we both, this night, shall spurn the sword,

      Beowulf is following the same lead as Gilgamesh as the epic hero, as he is going out of his way to preform an epic dead such as killing Grendel with his bare hand in order to show to the danes that he is worthy of praise and to be their king. This is similar to both Siowash and Gilgamesh as the both preform epic deeds though each with there own different reasons.

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    1. Here is an image of Siyavash cover in flames. Siyavash was accuse wrongly but he always believed in himself, that is why he was more than willing and putted himself in that position. He was true to himself and always tried to do the right thing, that along with his noble status, kindness and intelligence is what makes him such a beloved figure. CC BY-NC-ND .

    1. Our ship-fenced Ares from the Ionian's might⁠Dire mischief did sustain,⁠In shock of changeful fight; ⁠930⁠The mournful-fated coast shearing[31] and land-bound main.[32] Chorus. Cry woe! search out the worst; woe, woe! ⁠Where now the friendly band⁠Wont at thy side to stand?⁠Such was Pharandaces,⁠Susas, Pelagon, Psammis, Dotamas,⁠Such Agdabates, such Susiscanes,⁠Agbatana who left. Oh say⁠Where now be they? ⁠940 Xerxes. Antistrophe II. ⁠Death-stricken from a Tyrian galley thrown,⁠Yonder I left them prone;⁠Amid the billowy roar, The rock-bound coast they beat on Salaminian shore. Chorus. Where thy Pharnuchos? Woe, on woe!⁠Brave Ariomard and he,⁠Warrior of high degree,⁠Lilaios and the king⁠Seualces; Memphis where and Tharybis,⁠Where are Masistras, and brave Artembar,⁠Ay, and Hystæchmas? Say, oh say, ⁠950⁠Where now be they? Xerxes. Strophe III. ⁠Ah me! Alas! Woe! Woe!⁠They saw the city hoar,⁠Athenè's hated wall, And with convulsive struggle, one and all, Poor wretches, were laid gasping on the shore.   Chorus. ⁠Him, thine all-trusty eye,⁠The hosts of Persia who told o'er ⁠960⁠By ten times fifty score,⁠Alphistos, Batanochos' heir,⁠Sesames' son, who owed his birth⁠To Megabates, him didst leave,⁠Parthos and great Œbares there⁠Didst leave to die?⁠Unhappy men! ah me!⁠Persians of highest worth! For them dire ills on ills I hear from thee,⁠And sighs of anguish heave. Xerxes. Antristrophe III. ⁠Ah me! Alas! Woe! Woe!⁠A thrill of tender pain⁠For my brave comrades' sake, Telling of ills most hateful, thou dost wake. ⁠970 Cries out my very heart, yea, cries amain. Chorus. ⁠We for another mourn,⁠Of Mardia's myriad host the head,⁠Xanthos;—Anchares, Arian-born,⁠Diæxis and Arsaces, who⁠Afield our mounted forces led,⁠Kigdagatas and Lythimnas,⁠War-craving Tolmos—these, alas, ⁠980⁠These mourn we too.⁠Sorrow astounds, ah me,⁠Sorrow astounds my mind These chiefs on tented cars no more to see⁠Thy royal pomp behind. Xerxes. Strophe IV. For lost are they our host who led. Chorus. Lost amid the nameless dead. Xerxes. Woe! Woe! Alas! Woe! Woe! Chorus. ⁠Woe! Woe! in sooth, for lo! Ill so unlooked for and pre-eminent As Atè ne'er beheld, the gods have sent. Xerxes. Antistrophe IV. Stricken are we by heaven-sent blow. ⁠990 Chorus. Stricken, in sooth, too plain our woe. Xerxes. Fresh griefs, fresh griefs, ah me! Chorus. ⁠Meeting Ionian seamen, we Have now, alas, encountered dire disgrace; Unfortunate in war is Persia's race. Xerxes. Strophe V. Stricken, too true, with host so great.   Chorus. Perished hath Persia's high estate. Xerxes. Dost see this remnant of my warlike gear? Chorus. Yea, I behold. ⁠1000 Xerxes. This also—arrows that should hold?

      Xerxes is not playing the traditional gender role as man as he now grieves with the chorus about the loss of his men at the hands of the Ionians.

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    2. What son of mine an armament hath thither led? Inform me. Atossa. Impetuous Xerxes, all the life of wide-spread Asia draining. Darius. By land or sea, unhappy man, made be this mad endeavour? Atossa. By both in sooth; a twofold front there was of twofold army.   Darius. But how could armament so vast on foot pass from the mainland? Atossa. O'er Hellè's strait he artful threw a bridge, and so found passage. Darius. Thus hath he wrought, and so hemm'd in the Bosphoros' strong current! Atossa. So was it, yet some demon-power did haply aid his purpose. ⁠720 Darius. Alas, some mighty demon came, and hath befool'd his judgment. Atossa. True, for the issue clearly shows what evil he accomplished. Darius. And what hath been the fate of those o'er whom ye groan, lamenting? Atossa. The naval army, worsted, drew the land force to de- struction. Darius. So utterly by hostile spear hath the whole army perished? Atossa. Ay, emptied of her warriors, moans all the town of Susa.   Darius. Woe for our levies vainly made, and many-nationed army! Atossa. Perished hath Bactria's martial strength, and not her elders only. Darius. O hapless son, of our allies the youth how hath he ruined? Atossa. Alone, abandoned, so they say, Xerxes, with but few others— ⁠

      Xerxes, trying to play the male gender role, trying to expand his dynasty so that he may follow in the footsteps of his father and his grandfather actually ended up being the means to the downfall of his army. As his hubris lead him to the conclusion that it was neccesary to attack greece and build a bridge in order to do so.

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    1. Joseph died at the age of one hundred and ten years; and he was embalmed and placed in a coffin in Egypt.

      Contrary to Hyppolytus and Siyavash, Joseph had a long lasting life and had a family something that the Greek and Persian version did not have. We can argue that the reason why Joseph lived longer was because of his faith in God. A God who always helped him get through the toughest of circumstances. The gods in the Greek version did not help Hippolytus on the contrary it was the reason why he died, while in Siyavash there is no divine powers involved. CC BY-NC-ND .

    1. In here like in the Persian version, Hyppolitus has a tragic end. In this image we see the position in how he died. His ankles are tied and while his horse is running. Is indeed a terrible ending for someone who was not to blame for anything, all thanks to the god Poseidon. Interestingly, the Persian version has not such things as divine beings, there is not even mention of them. This once proves that in order for some things to appeal to other cultures things such as religion, politics and lifestyle need to take part. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. When Siawosh learned this he was sore downcast in his spirit, and he went unto Farangiss and charged her how she should act when he should be fallen by the hands of Afrasiyab, for he held it vile to go forth in combat with one who had been to him a father. So he made ready his house for death. Now when he came to his steed of battle he pressed its head unto his breast, and he wept over it and spake into its ear. And he said- "Listen, O my horse, and be brave and prudent; neither attach thyself unto any man until the day that Kay-Khosrow, my son, shall arise to avenge me. From him alone receive the saddle and the rein."

      This is very unlike what we typically expect of those in playing the male gender role as well as the hero. Normally we would expect one that is in this role to prepare for a battle and go down swinging, however siowash doesnt do this and in fact accepts his fate as being killed by the hands of Afrasiyab. The fact that one is going to die is not accepted by Gilgamesh until the end of the epic.

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    2. "I desire to go before the King, that my father may behold me, and see what manner of man thou hast made of me."

      Siawosh is the representation of a good Persian ruler, like Cyrus The Great. He had confident on himself because of the way his father raise him. He always thought before taking any decisions and always try to both maintain piece and strengthen his connections with other countries. His integrity and diplomacy was both his virtue and tragic flaw. Still, he is the representation of hope and good of the Persian culture. CC BY-NC-ND (http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Literature/Shahnameh/siyawash.htm)

    3. For it came about that Soudabeh beheld the youth of Siawosh, and her eyes were filled with his beauty, and her soul burned after him. So she sent unto him a messenger, and invited him to enter the house of the women. But he sent in answer words of excuse, for he trusted her not. Then Soudabeh made complaint before Kay-Kavous that Siawosh had deafened his ear unto her request, and she bade the King send him behind the curtains of the women's house, that his son might become acquainted with his sisters. And Kay-Kavous did that which Soudabeh asked of him, and Siawosh obeyed his commands.                 But Soudabeh, when she had so far accomplished her longing that she had gotten him within the house, desired that he should speak with her alone. But Siawosh resisted her wish. And three times did Soudabeh entice him behind the curtains of the house, and three times was Siawosh cold unto her yearning. Then Soudabeh was wroth, and she made complaint unto the King, and she slandered the fair fame of Siawosh, and she spread evil reports of him throughout the land, and she inflamed the heart of Kay-Kavous against his son. Now the King was angered beyond measure, and it availed nought unto Siawosh to defend himself, for Kay-Kavous was filled with the love of Soudabeh, and he listened only unto her voice. And he remembered how she had borne his captivity in Hamavaran, and he knew not of her evil deceits. And when she said that Siawosh had done her great wrong, Kay-Kavous was troubled in his spirit, and he resolved how he should act, for his heart went out also unto his son, and he feared that guile lurked in these things. And he could not decide between them. So he caused dromedaries to be sent forth, even unto the borders of the land, and bring forth wood from the forests. And they did so, and there was reared a mighty heap of logs, so that the eye could behold it at a distance of two farsangs. And it was piled so that a path ran through its midst such as a mounted knight could traverse. And the King commanded that naphtha be poured upon the wood; and when it was done he bade that it be lighted, and there were needed two hundred men to light the pyre, so great was its width and height. And the flames and smoke overspread the heavens, and men shouted for fear when they beheld the tongues of fire, and the heat thereof was felt in the far corners of the land.                 Now when all was ready, Kay-Kavous bade Siawosh his son ride into the midst of the burning mount, that he might prove his innocence. And Siawosh did as the King commanded, and he came before Kay-Kavous, and saluted him,

      Siawosh plays the male gender role and role of a hero differently. Siawosh does not use his ability to have relations with the wife of his father because of the teachings that he had received from Rostam. This highlights the differences between the male gender role at the time of the writing of the Epic of Gilgamesh and in the Epic of siawosh. NC-BY-CC-ND

    1. This star of heaven which descended like a meteor from the sky; which you tried to lift,-but found too heavy, when you tried to move it it would not budge, and so you brought it to my feet; I made it for you, a goad and spur, and you were drawn as though to a woman. This is the strong comrade, the one who brings help to his friend in his need. He is the strongest of wild creatures, the stuff of Anu; born in the grass-lands and the wild hills reared him; when you see him you will be glad; you will love him as a woman and he will never forsake you. This is the meaning of the dream

      The mother of Gilgamesh being asked what the meaning of her dream is by her son is a representation of one of the female gender roles that exist within the epic. As the mother to Gilgamesh, she imparts to him the wisdom that he lacks in order for him to make sense of his dream so that he may act accordingly. NC-BY-CC-ND

    2. The Epic Of Gilgamesh41THE COMING OF ENKIDUGILGAMESH went abroad in the world, but he met with none who could withstand his arms till be came to Uruk. But the men of Uruk muttered in their houses, ‘Gilgamesh sounds the tocsin for his amusement, his arrogance has no bounds by day or night. No son is left with his father, for Gilgamesh takes them all, even the children; yet the king should be a shepherd to his people. His lust leaves no virgin to her lover, neither the warrior's daughter nor the wife of the noble; yet this is the shepherd of the city, wise, comely, and resolute

      Gilgamesh pillages his own kingdom in this translation of the epic. as he is too strong to be stopped from doing so. This is typical of those that are playing the masculine gender role. In the modern day world we want our male figures to be strong and wise, exactly what Gilgamesh is portraying during this point of the story. However, the way that he does this is drastically different than how Siyawash does so, as he acts noblely rather than as a pillager of his own kingdom. NC-BY-CC-ND

    1. To me the real hero of the story is not Gilgamesh but Inkidu. Gilgamesh full of human vices despite being a demigod. But Inkidu was the reason why Gilgamesh started to live. Gilgamesh would have being nothing without his partner, he would not have suffer in like without Inkidu's death, and would have not turn his life around either. This is why Inkidu is the hero. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. Gish understood the dream. 43[As] Enki[du] was sitting before the woman, 44[Her] loins(?) he embraced, her vagina(?) he opened. 45[Enkidu] forgot the place where he was born. 46Six days and seven nights 47Enkidu continued 48To cohabit with [the courtesan].

      In this older version , the translation is clear and more explicit. While in other versions these actions are cover under a bunch of metaphors and wordiness. So it looks like when we, ourselves, became more civilize the amount of censorship we created for ourselves also grew. Just think about that Inkidu and Gilgamesh were lovers, and this was not something new, other cultures also practice this. But later became taboo with the help of Christianity. It is just now that we are starting to accept that everyone does not have the same sexual preference, everyone should be free of choosing a partner regardless of sex. Uncivilized does not mean close minded. CC BY-NC-ND

    2. “My mother, during my night 4I became strong and moved about 5among the heroes; 6And from the starry heaven 7A meteor(?) of Anu fell upon me: 8I bore it and it grew heavy upon me, 9I became weak and its weight I could not endure.

      The story of Gilgamesh dates back to thousands of years but it was first written between 2150 - 1400 BCE. Gilgamesh is narrating his dream to his mother so that she could later interpreted. He says that something like a meteor fell him. This dream would become his reality when he encounter his complement , Inkidu.However, when we see the translation by Stephen Langdon, the thing become a person. Why is this? CC BY-NC-ND

    1. Oh harlot, take away the man. 6Wherefore did he come to me? 7I would forget the memory of him.”

      In the modern version of Gilgamesh the women who civilizes by having intimacy with Inkidu is now a prostitute (harlot) not a priestess. What does this says about our current relation with sexuality? CC BY-NC-ND

    2. “My mother! during my night 4I, having become lusty, wandered about 5in the midst of omens. 6And there came out stars in the heavens, 7Like a … of heaven he fell upon me. 8I bore him but he was too heavy for me.

      In the old Babylonian version what fell from the sky was something not a person. But yet, in this 18th century translation by Langdon says "He". We later know that, that he was Inkidu but Langdon takes all of the excitement and mystery out of it. Maybe is because during that era people were not as imaginative and patient. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. At the end of the day, the only hero in the story was Nina herself. Rama was a complete self absorbed jerk and Sita was completely submissive and did not think of her even once. While Nina went through modern similar faces of rejection and self worth, she came to terms with herself, and accepted the fact that her ex boyfriend was not worth her pain and that she had to move on in life. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. My sons!Father?Return to Ayodhya Palace to rule with me for eternity!But then, he wants to take Luv and Kush back,but he's still hesitant about taking her back.Sita! Well, yes, of course, Sita...All Sita has to do is prove her purity again.Another trial by fire, perhaps?

      When Rama finds his sons by coincidence he wants to take the boy with him, but not Sita. So he suggest another trial to confirm her purity. The only reason why he seems to "Care" about his songs is because they are boy, I am sure that if they were girls Rama would not have care. But he wants a successor and now he has it. Thought out the story Sita needs to prove herself but no Rama. Sita's Value depends on how valuable Rama think she is. And right now she is garbage to him. Now that he has his songs there is no more use for her. CC BY-NC-ND

    2. Hello?Please take me back! Please please please!I'll do anything! PLEASE

      In the modern intake of Nina Paley. She is dump by her ex. His reasons: he was bored of her already. Yet, despite of being treated so badly by her boyfriend Nina insist and begs him to go back with her, just like Sita when Rama wants to take his sons with him back to the palace. CC BY-NC-ND

    3. Perfect man, perfect son, Rama's loved by everyoneAlways right, never wrong, we praise Rama in this songSing his love, sing his praiseRama set his wife ablazeGot her home, kicked her outto allay his people's doubtRama's wise, Rama's just, Rama does what Rama mustDuty first, Sita last,Rama's reign is unsurpassed!

      This song is sings by Sita and Rama's sons and it say a lot about the sexist culture in Hindu society. To everyone Rama is perfect, therefore he is never wrong. When he kicks Sita out of his kingdom because people were talking about Sita even though Rama knew she was pure and innocent. Yet, he does it "for the good of the people". When in reality his fragile and huge ego was the one to blame. Also "Duty first, Sita last" once more demonstrates the gender inequality. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. In this image we can observe the difference between man and women in Sita Sings the Blues. While Rama is being taking care of to make sure he is dry, Sita is under the rain with no protection while admiring Rama from afar. However, Rama seems to only care about himself and looks proudly forward without even looking at his wife. CC BY-NC-ND

  3. May 2018
    1. If I fall, I will establish my name. Gish, the corpse(?) of Huwawa, the terrible one, has snatched (?) from the time that My offspring was born in ...... The lion restrained (?) thee, all of which thou knowest. ........................ .............. thee and ................ open (?) ........ like a shepherd(?) ..... [When thou callest to me], thou afflictest my heart.

      I am completely lost in this passage, what is supposed to be happening?

    2. Strong(?) ... Gish Against him [Enkidu proceeded], [His hair] luxuriant. He started [to go]

      I am not following what is happening in these lines, i know lines are missing but i feel as if they could have done something here.

    3. "[To have (?)] a family home Is the destiny of men, and The prerogative(?) of the nobles. For the city(?) load the workbaskets! Food supply for the city lay to one side! For the King of Erech of the plazas, Open the hymen(?), perform the marriage act!

      I believe Gilgamesh has this dialogue with Enkidu, but i am not too sure as to why this is happening.

    4. His spirit was loosened, he became hilarious. His heart became glad and His face shone. [The barber(?)] removed The hair on his body. He was anointed with oil.

      I realize here is saying what is happening to him but the translation isn't as clear as it should be.

    5. Furthermore, our investigation has shown that to Enkidu belongs the episode with the woman, used to illustrate the evolution of primitive man to the ways and conditions of civilized life, the conquest of Huwawa in the land of Amurru, the killing of lions and also of the bull

      This passage here just further shows how much power the woman did have for that brief period of time of teaching Enkidu. Once Enkidu knew how to survive, he knew his role already. His abilities were extremely important to his role against all of his challenges.

    6. Enkidu consents, and now the woman takes off her garments and clothes the naked Enkidu, while putting another garment on herself. She takes hold of his hand and leads him to the sheepfolds (not to Erech!!), where bread and wine are placed before him. Accustomed hitherto to sucking milk with cattle, Enkidu does not know what to do with the strange food until encouraged and instructed by the woman. The entire third column is taken up with this introduction of Enkidu to civilized life in a pastoral community, and the scene ends with Enkidu becoming a guardian of flocks.

      Here the woman is teaching him the ways of the land where if it had not been for her, Enkidu would have been lost and might not have fulfilled his fate. The role of the woman here is extremely important, she was almost like a catalyst in starting this motion of events.

    7. Column 4 gives in detail the meeting between the two, and naïvely describes how the woman exposes her charms to Enkidu, who is captivated by her and stays with her six days and seven nights. The animals see the change in Enkidu and run away from him. He has been transformed through the woman

      In this passage, the woman actually has power over the man having the ability to change him from the inside out. He has lost his connection with the animals which is extremely visible to them.

    8. "Go, my hunter, take with thee a woman, etc."

      You can see here that the woman did not have a choice but to follow Enkidu when Enkidu had the opportunity to do what he pleases with her. The male viewing her as an object to change.

    9. That Enkidu originally played the part of the slayer is also shown by the statement that it is he who insults Ishtar by throwing a piece of the carcass into the goddess' face, [93] adding also an insulting speech; and this despite the fact that Ishtar in her rage accuses Gilgamesh of killing the bull.

      You can see here that the woman acts extremely volatile when she gets rejected by Enkidu. The roles here play a part because i feel as if she lusts for him for his manly attributes and extreme exaggeration of his power. Enkidu's role was not to be Ishtar's for he had another fate to fulfill.

    10. That Enkidu originally played the part of the slayer is also shown by the statement that it is he who insults Ishtar by throwing a piece of the carcass into the goddess' face, [93] adding also an insulting speech; and this despite the fact that Ishtar in her rage accuses Gilgamesh of killing the bull.

      You can see here that the woman acts extremely volatile when she gets rejected by Enkidu. The roles here play a part because i feel as if she lusts for him for his manly attributes and extreme exaggeration of his power. Enkidu's role was not to be Ishtar's for he had another fate to fulfill.

    11. "[I saw him and like] a woman I fell in love with him."

      The relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu was far more intense than a friendship.

    12. In reply, the father advises his son to take a woman with him when next he goes out on his pursuit, and to have the woman remove her dress in the presence of Enkidu, who will then approach her, and after intercourse with her will abandon the animals among whom he lives.

      The power of a woman was able to convert Enkidu from beast to human.

    1. Anu

      highest god, creator of all gods and beings

    2. like a god thou art.

      Enkidu is a superlative being, notion of gods as being human-like and vice versa

    3. hierodule 4 5[   ] forgot where he was born. 6Six days and seven nights 7came forth Enkidu 8and cohabited with the courtesan. 9The hierodule opened her mouth

      hierodule - being a priestess, her having sex with Enkidu is not seen as a shameful thing. opposite of most religions that demand chastity for their priestesses

    4. she that knows all things

      Goddess being omniscient in Assyrian religion

    1. But well for him that after death-day may draw to his Lord, and friendship find in the Father’s arms!

      notion of the Christian afterlife, purifying of soul

    2. e’er could the prince[8] approach his throne, —’twas judgment of God,—or have joy in his hall.

      judgement of God - declaring the throne and hall of Heorot holy, cannot be usurped by enemies of God

    1. Of Cain awoke all that woful breed, Etins[12] and elves and evil-spirits, as well as the giants that warred with God weary while: but their wage was paid them!

      mixture of Christianity (Cain and Abel) and Paganism (elves, giants, etc)

    2. I Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings, leader belovéd, and long he ruled 55 in fame with all folk, since his father had gone away from the world, till awoke an heir, haughty Healfdene, who held through life, sage and sturdy, the Scyldings glad.[1] Then, one after one, there woke to him, 60 to the chieftain of clansmen, children four: Heorogar, then Hrothgar, then Halga brave; and I heard that —— was ——’s queen,[2] the Heathoscylfing’s helpmate dear. To Hrothgar[3] was given such glory of war,

      At the very beginning of this Epic they are already trying to not show importance to the women, instead showing how string and how much glory the men had. Ann Marie Taylor

    1. He let me such treasures 45 Gain for my people ere death overtook me.

      all of Beowulf's victories due to God in Beowulf's eyes. even his death is not a sad event to him as he sees it as God's will

    2. At the wall ’twill befall us as Fate decreeth, Let Fate decide between us. 65 Each one’s Creator.

      even in a boast, Beowulf equates the result of his actions as being the will of God. almost negates the concept of personal responsibility

    3. Devil-shaped woman, her woe ever minded, 10 Who was held to inhabit the horrible waters, [Grendel’s progenitor, Cain, is again referred to.] The cold-flowing currents, after Cain had become a Slayer-with-edges to his one only brother, The son of his sire; he set out then banished, Marked as a murderer, man-joys avoiding, 15 Lived in the desert. Thence demons unnumbered

      again, origin being of Cain - evil begetting evil

    4. Fate offcarried him

      one of the few times where fate is mentioned without being linked to God's will

    5. To God he was hostile

      repeated again, continuously reaffirming the evil of Grendel by siding him against God

    6. By the might of himself; the truth is established

      "truth is established" - God is the declarer of what is and isn't true. reality itself is bent to God's will. Whoever is on the side of God is on the side of truth, therefore Beowulf = the truth

    7. They invoke the aid of their gods. 60 At the shrines of their idols often they promised Gifts and offerings, earnestly prayed they The devil from hell would help them to lighten Their people’s oppression. Such practice they used then, Hope of the heathen; hell they remembered 65 In innermost spirit, God they knew not,

      idols = paganism. first mention of the devil. "God they knew not" declaring them to be heathens.

    8. Judge of their actions, All-wielding Ruler, No praise could they give the Guardian of Heaven, The Wielder of Glory. Woe will be his who Through furious hatred his spirit shall drive to 70 The clutch of the fire, no comfort shall look for, Wax no wiser; well for the man who, Living his life-days, his Lord may face And find defence in his Father’s embrace!

      insinuation that they deserve punishment because of their paganism

    9. In the land of the giants, when the Lord and Creator Had banned him and branded. For that bitter murder, 55 The killing of Abel, all-ruling Father Cain is referred to as a progenitor of Grendel, and of monsters in general. The kindred of Cain crushed with His vengeance

      Cain, direct reference to Bible. awkward insertion of Christian narrative/origin. Evil begotten from one of the first sins. No mention of the devil, evil as something unfavorable to God

    10. Whom God-Father sent to solace the people.

      God-Father: God as creator, maybe taking place of Odin as father/creator of all beings.

      "sent to solace the people" - god-sent, chosen, given divine status

    11. A foe in the hall-building: this horrible stranger2 50 Was Grendel entitled, the march-stepper famous Who3 dwelt in the moor-fens, the marsh and the fastness; The wan-mooded being abode for a season [5] In the land of the giants, when the Lord and Creator Had banned him and branded. For that bitter murder, 55 The killing of Abel, all-ruling Father Cain is referred to as a progenitor of Grendel, and of monsters in general. The kindred of Cain crushed with His vengeance;

      Absolutely unnecessary to add all this nonsensical Christian stuff to the text. The story would have flowed much better without it.

    12. Since first he found him friendless and wretched, The earl had had terror: comfort he got for it, Waxed ’neath the welkin, world-honor gained, Till all his neighbors o’er sea were compelled to 10 Bow to his bidding and bring him their tribute: An excellent atheling! After was borne him A son is born to him, who receives the name of Beowulf—a name afterwards made so famous by the hero of the poem. A son and heir, young in his dwelling, Whom God-Father sent to solace the people. He had marked the misery malice had caused them,

      Only took 9 lines to go from being lonely and depressed to having a devoted friend. Time really does fly.

    13. Boldly to swallow4 them, as of yore he did often The best of the Hrethmen! Thou needest not trouble A head-watch to give me;5 he will have me dripping [17] In case of my defeat, thou wilt not have the trouble of burying me. 75 And dreary with gore, if death overtake me,

      His pride seems to overshadow the safety of his brethren. e

    14. I shall manage the matter, with the monster of evil, The giant, decide it. Thee I would therefore 55 Beg of thy bounty, Bright-Danish chieftain, Lord of the Scyldings, this single petition: Not to refuse me, defender of warriors, Friend-lord of folks, so far have I sought thee, That I may unaided, my earlmen assisting me, 60 This brave-mooded war-band, purify Heorot. I have heard on inquiry, the horrible creature Since the monster uses no weapons, From veriest rashness recks not for weapons; I this do scorn then, so be Higelac gracious, My liegelord belovèd, lenient of spirit, 65 To bear a blade or a broad-fashioned target, A shield to the onset; only with hand-grip I, too, shall disdain to use any. The foe I must grapple, fight for my life then, Foeman with foeman; he fain must rely on The doom of the Lord whom death layeth hold o

      Quite a monologue for a man of action, Beowulf wants them to see him win- he is making a point with his action. This does not hold up when he meets Grendel's mother

    15. “We are sprung from the lineage of the people of Geatland,

      We, as in identity. Tribalism FTW

    16. But launching them little, unless looks are deceiving, And striking appearance. Ere ye pass on your journey As treacherous spies to the land of the Scyldings 65 And farther fare, I fully must know now What race ye belong to. Ye far-away dwellers, Sea-faring sailors, my simple opinion Hear ye and hearken: haste is most fitting Plainly to tell me what place ye are come from.”

      Some underlying racism- "Yer' not from 'round here are ya, boy"

      Note this to describe the general affect race has on perception

    1. ‘Woman, I promise you another destiny. The mouth which cursed you shall bless you! Kings, princes and nobles shall adore you. On your account a man though twelve miles off will clap his hand to his thigh and his hair will twitch. For you he will undo his belt and open his treasure and you shall have your desire; lapis lazuli, gold and' carnelian from the heap in the treasury.

      Enkidu realizes after cursing the harlot that he was wrong in doing so. After all, she was the woman who civilized him and found his perfect match and companion. He praises her and promises her good fortune in her future. Although he did curse her at the beginning, men do have respect for women (after they realize they are wrong) sort of like Gilgamesh when Siduri give him life advice and he rejects it. Later on he realizes that he was wrong and began to appreciate his life.

    2. His body was rough, he had long hair like a woman's; it waved like the hair of Nisaba, the goddess of corn. His body was covered with matted hair like Samugan's, the god of cattle.

      The epic challenges the idea of gender and sexuality. There is no specific classification of gender and sexuality in the text. Women and men are treated differently, but there is no specification on what women and men do differently.

    3. Enkidu was grown wea k , for wisdom was in him, and the thoughts of a man were in his heart. So he returned and sat down at the woman's feet, and listened intently to what she said

      Women represent not only temptation and ruin but also power. Enkidu only thought with his heart whereas she was able to lead him in the right direction. Women are the greatest aid to the hero since they provide the men with the information they require to change themselves and the world.

    4. She answered, ‘Gilgamesh, where are you hurrying to? You will never find that life for which you are looking. When the gods created man they allotted to him death, but life they retained in their own keeping. As for you, Gilgamesh, fill your belly with good things; day and night, night and day, dance and be merry, feast and rejoice. Let your clothes be fresh, bathe yourself in water, cherish the little child that holds your hand, and make your wife happy in your embrace; for this too is the lot of man

      One of the prominent women in the Epic of Gilgamesh is Siduri. She gives advice to Gilgamesh who was blinded by the death of Enkidu. She encourages him to put away his grief and actually enjoy the life he is living instead of seeking immortality. He was busy trying to run away from death that he forgot to enjoy the things he had. As usual he ignored her advice and suffers greatly as his search for immortality was a failure.

    5. When Ishtar heard this she fell into a bitter rage, she went up to high heaven.

      Nature can be dangerous especially for those who travel in the wild. This is also a comparison to the Goddess Ishtar. She is powerful and can be an agent of destruction. When Gilgamesh not recognizing this aspect of the feminine caused destruction in his life. The death of Enkidu was the result of Gilgamesh rejecting her temptations.

    1. I. THE LIFE AND DEATH OF SCYLD. {The famous race of Spear-Danes.} Lo! the Spear-Danes' glory through splendid achievements The folk-kings' former fame we have heard of, How princes displayed then their prowess-in-battle. {Scyld, their mighty king, in honor of whom they are often called Scyldings. He is the great-grandfather of Hrothgar, so prominent in the poem.}

      This versions is nothing compared to the Seamus Heaney versions this is so difficult to understand not just by the font of the text but language is difficult to understand. I don't think this is the best translation to fully grasp the understanding of what this text is about. i found this surprising that it was published in 2005. Ann Marie Victoria

    1. But the man remembered his mighty power, the glorious gift that God had sent him. in his Maker’s mercy put his trust for comfort and help: so he conquered the foe, felled the fiend, who fled abject, 1275reft of joy, to the realms of death, mankind’s foe. And his mother now, gloomy and grim, would go that quest of sorrow, the death of her son to avenge. To Heorot came she, where helmeted Danes 1280slept in the hall. Too soon came back old ills of the earls, when in she burst, the mother of Grendel. Less grim, though, that terror, e’en as terror of woman in war is less, might of maid, than of men in arms

      Another moment in the story of manipulation with God. This shows man trying to give an example of why we should control women into being submissive because if not she will turn into Grendel mother someone/something without god behind her but her fury and terror is much more than man if man did not have God. Ann Marie Taylor