42 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2022
    1. This also made me think of church bulletin ads, which all look the exact same way, except maybe it’s just a Catholic thing2?

      I thought of the same aesthetic as well, in part because it wasn't as "busy" as the comic book page aesthetic.

    1. https://www.zylstra.org/blog/2022/06/spring-83/

      I've been thinking about this sort of thing off and on myself.

      I too almost immediately thought of Fraidyc.at and its nudge at shifting the importance of content based on time and recency. I'd love to have a social reader with additional affordances for both this time shifting and Ton's idea of reading based on social distance.

      I'm struck by the seemingly related idea of @peterhagen's LindyLearn platform and annotations: https://annotations.lindylearn.io/new/ which focuses on taking some of the longer term interesting ideas as the basis for browsing and chewing on. Though even here, one needs some of the odd, the cutting edge, and the avant garde in their balanced internet diet. Would Spring '83 provide some of this?

      I'm also struck by some similarities this has with the idea of Derek Siver's /now page movement. I see some updating regularly while others have let it slip by the wayside. Still the "board" of users exists, though one must click through a sea of mostly smiling and welcoming faces to get to it the individual pieces of content. (The smiling faces are more inviting and personal than the cacophony of yelling and chaos I see in models for Spring '83.) This reminds me of Stanley Meyers' frequent assertion that he attempted to design a certain "sense of quiet" into the early television show Dragnet to balance the seeming loudness of the everyday as well as the noise of other contemporaneous television programming.

      The form reminds me a bit of the signature pages of one's high school year book. But here, instead of the goal being timeless scribbles, one has the opportunity to change the message over time. Does the potential commercialization of the form (you know it will happen in a VC world crazed with surveillance capitalism) follow the same trajectory of the old college paper facebook? Next up, Yearbook.com!

      Beyond the thing as a standard, I wondered what the actual form of Spring '83 adds to a broader conversation? What does it add to the diversity of voices that we don't already see in other spaces. How might it be abused? Would people come back to it regularly? What might be its emergent properties?

      It definitely seems quirky and fun in and old school web sort of way, but it also stresses me out looking at the zany busyness of some of the examples of magazine stands. The general form reminds me of the bargain bins at book stores which have the promise of finding valuable hidden gems and at an excellent price, but often the ideas and quality of what I find usually isn't worth the discounted price and the return on investment is rarely worth the effort. How might this get beyond these forms?

      It also brings up the idea of what other online forms we may have had with this same sort of raw experimentation? How might the internet have looked if there had been a bigger rise of the wiki before that of the blog? What would the world be like if Webmention had existed before social media rose to prominence? Did we somehow miss some interesting digital animals because the web rose so quickly to prominence without more early experimentation before its "Cambrian explosion"?

      I've been thinking about distilled note taking forms recently and what a network of atomic ideas on index cards look like and what emerges from them. What if the standard were digital index cards that linked and cross linked to each other, particularly in a world without adherence to time based orders and streams? What does a new story look like if I can pull out a card either at random or based on a single topic and only see it or perhaps some short linked chain of ideas (mine or others) which come along with it? Does the choice of a random "Markov monkey" change my thinking or perspective? What comes out of this jar of Pandora? Is it just a new form of cadavre exquis?

      This standard has been out for a bit and presumably folks are experimenting with it. What do the early results look like? How are they using it? Do they like it? Does it need more scale? What do small changes make to the overall form?


      For more on these related ideas, see: https://hypothes.is/search?q=tag%3A%22spring+%2783%22

  2. Jun 2022
    1. Pretty basic! And yet, noth­ing on the inter­net presently allows me to do this

      Pretty basic and pretty much what Jaiku did. It gave a somewhat holistic social platform view of people with the person in focus. You could see all the social platforms they shared on and what was shared, but also allowed you to turn off listening to platforms for that person.

      On the Jaiku webview I had a my own layer of how I had someone tagged (say foodie or Apple nerd) and I could click on that and seem others I followed who I believed had those interests. Which was a personal version of what I wrote up later as a Granular Social Network (https://www.vanderwal.net/random/entrysel.php?blog=1975).

    2. Ten mil­lion boards gives us a max­i­mum disk space require­ment of 22.17 gigabytes, eas­ily stored on a com­mod­ity hard drive or a cheap-enough cloud volume. A capa­ble com­puter could even hold that in RAM. Turns out, when you don’t store every user’s entire history, plus a record of every adver­tise­ment they’ve ever seen, your data­base can stay pretty slim!

      the limit on history is interesting and feels like a missed opportunity. in a world where storage is so cheap, we should be able to keep our own histories! thinking about sousveillance vs. surveillance and personal panopticons

    3. You might update your board twice an hour or twice a month; you might amend one sen­tence or reboot the whole thing. Pub­lish­ing a new ver­sion is instantaneous, as easy as tap­ping a button. You don’t have to man­age a server to pub­lish a board; you don’t even have to estab­lish an account on a server.

      reminds me of locket but web-based and with full user agency to create what they want. their own little pocket of the internet. Love the no account part and think that's super important..

    4. It was the expe­ri­ence of draft­ing the spec that changed my view, and my pace. Writing! Gets you every time!
    5. I will just observe that there is some­thing about this tech­nol­ogy that has seemed, over the years, to scold rather than invite; enclose rather than expand; and strip away rather than layer upon.
    6. Ten mil­lion boards gives us a max­i­mum disk space require­ment of 22.17 gigabytes, eas­ily stored on a com­mod­ity hard drive or a cheap-enough cloud volume. A capa­ble com­puter could even hold that in RAM. Turns out, when you don’t store every user’s entire history, plus a record of every adver­tise­ment they’ve ever seen, your data­base can stay pretty slim!

      This is essentially the SSB take too. I don't love it, but the way in which I don't love it is a crotchety computer professional way, not a meaningful one.

    7. Boards are cryp­to­graphically signed in such a way that they can be passed from server to server and, no mat­ter where your client gets a copy of a pub­lisher’s board, you can be assured it is valid.

      Peer to peer content transmission is an awfully big can of worms. Freedom to delete is real contentious in SSB/Fediverse sstuff.

    8. More importantly, every board holds its place, regard­less of when it was last updated.

      One uncomfortable thing about this is that it replicates a scarcity logic of space in an unscarce medium. I keep lots of barely-more-than-defunct feeds in my RSS reader because it costs me nothing to do so and I'd be so happy if they did start publishing again. Looking at an unchanged board for a year would feel different.

    9. I recommend this kind of project, this fla­vor of puzzle, to any­one who feels tan­gled up by the present state of the inter­net. Pro­to­col design is a form of inves­ti­ga­tion and critique. Even if what I describe below goes nowhere, I’ll be very glad to have done this think­ing and writing. I found it chal­leng­ing and energizing.

      This is fun! Maybe I should try sketching some stuff out here before I work further on that web directory SSG template project.

    10. Client appli­ca­tions dis­play all the boards you are fol­lowing together, lay­ing them out on a 2D canvas, pro­duc­ing unplanned juxtapositions, just like the news­stand above.

      Reminds me of the neocities webgardens (that list of creators is incomplete), doing something like this with iframes and friendly convention.

    11. unable to exe­cute JavaScript or load exter­nal resources, but oth­er­wise unrestricted. Boards invite pub­lish­ers to use all the rich­ness of mod­ern HTML and CSS.

      But -- external images? No images? 😔

    12. You prob­a­bly reached this web page through an email.

      looks around shiftily at RSS reader

    13. For my part, I believe presentation is fused to content; I believe pre­sen­ta­tion is a form of con­tent; so RSS can­not be the end of the story.

      Viva! I do still use RSS as more of a notification stream than a consumption stream; I don't really want the consumption to all happen in one place. When Cinni updates in her RSS feed, it's links to her proper pages, and this is right and good because her site is beautiful in a way RSS couldn't (shouldn't) accommodate.

    14. when a user stops speaking, they disappear, and, by corollary, as a fol­lower, you mostly encounter the users who are speak­ing nonstop.

      Hmm. I don't know that there's a way to get around the 90-9-1 ratios there. I had to resort to user scripts even for my own stuff. I'm reminded of this whole thing, too.

    15. I am not shar­ing, at this time, code for a client or server, although I have ref­er­ence imple­mentations of both that I’m test­ing with a cou­ple of friends.

      I am forcibly reminded of this orange site comment that makeworld had shared though I guess I haven't really gotten it out of my head in the first place.

    16. 2217 bytes

      why that number?

    17. For my part, I believe presentation is fused to content; I believe pre­sen­ta­tion is a form of con­tent; so RSS can­not be the end of the story.

      This is probably where Fraidycat falls down. But still, as you don't mention it, Robin, are you familiar with it?

    18. fol­low peo­ple

      Just follow? Not interact with? Build relationships with?

    19. And yet, noth­ing on the inter­net presently allows me to do this

      First thought: https://fraidyc.at/

      But I expect the discussion below to clarify how that does not suffice (?).

    20. What do you want from the inter­net, anyway?

      Literally laughed out loud to this.

    21. It needs, instead, close con­sid­er­a­tion and gen­er­ous imagination.

      This seems like a good opportunity to try hypothes.is again. I've been meaning to get back to using it. As an experiment, I'm going to try and annotate this post as I read it.

    1. spring ’83 boards are so inherently creative, it’s beautiful to have that kind of customisation not only encouraged but really forced

      is it? I feel like you could certainly participate with raw markdown styled with Robin's defaults. hard to know how people who aren't Like Us would use the form because of course it's people Like Us who want to

    1. But the profound magic trick of the signature: that it allows a piece of content to flow around the internet, handed from peer to peer, impossible to tamper with... it's too good to pass up.

      I wonder if, given that boards are supposed to expire anyway, the key rotation shouldn't involve publishing old secrets such that it's not possible to use an old key to pin someone down as having published something (which would be long after its intended expiry anyway)? With the caveat that I don't know nothing about cryptography, I'm just a horrible little goblin typing in a Hypothes.is pane.

    2. New boards should be transmitted to peers asynchronously. The server must wait at least five minutes before sharing, but it may wait longer. In this way, the server acts as a buffer, absorbing and "compacting" rapid PUTs.

      This is interesting. I could imagine wanting a more instant version of a tiled view of those I follow -- back when I was on Twitter, there was something cool about the implicit group liveblog of e.g. a major news event. I would have liked to be able to see it all tiled out in one view.

    3. Simple. This means the protocol is easy to understand and implement, even for a non-expert programmer.

      I'm not sure implementation difficulty is the same thing as simplicity. Gemini also says those things are the same. This is also really tricky to evaluate in a world of libraries and linking; we're not mentally including the difficulty of Ed25519 cryptography in our assessment of the protocol's "simplicity" because we're not absolute loons and would use a library for that... but it's part of the fabric being woven.

    4. Accordingly, a Spring '83 realm is limited to 10 million boards

      My gut desire is always for social media accommodating closer to Darius's 50-ish, Dunbar's tiers. I wonder how allowing for media publishers needs to change those numbers.

    5. display each board in a region with an aspect ratio of either 1:sqrt(2) or sqrt(2):1

      Is this really compatible with "[embracing] the richness, flexibility, and chaos of modern HTML and CSS"? I don't have a big negative opinion about it because fixed display size is how webgardens work, too, but articulating the root of the design decision (to allow things to tile nicely?) could open interesting discussion.

    6. load any images, media, or fonts linked by the board

      sobs

    7. (It also means the protocol doesn't provide any mechanism for replies, likes, favorites, or, indeed, feedback of any kind. Publishers are encouraged to use the full flexibility of HTML to develop their own approaches, inviting readers to respond via email, join a live chat, send a postcard... whatever!)

      This has chafed at the users of Gemini even while its designers seem to be proud of holding the line.

    1. please assume that any- thing I'm not commenting on is an enthusiastic "wow this is cool!"

      Yeah, ditto.

  3. Oct 2021
    1. Author Response:

      Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

      In this manuscript by Gilbert et al., the authors found that MLC1 is required for postnatal maturation of perivascular astrocyte coverage. Through various detailed experiments, they further found that Mlc1 KO mice showed a number of defects, including the reduced VSMC contractility, neurovascular coupling and parenchymal CSF flow. The data is well presented, however there are several points that need to be addressed to strengthen the manuscript.

      1) Since many PvAP proteins showed the normal expression after P60 in Mlc1 KO mice, it is also possible that many of the phenotype that the authors presented, such as the reduced VSMC contractility, neurovascular coupling and parenchymal CSF flow, can be recovered after P60. This would be important as well to understand the prime pathological cause of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy induced by MLC1 deletion.

      Although some protein levels are normal in Mlc1 KO mice, PvAP coverage and gliovascular unit morphology are altered at P60. We also now show (using TEM) that PvAPs are swollen in 1-year-old Mlc1 KO mice (the new Fig. S4) - indicating that edema develops progressively in Mlc1 KO mice. Myelin vacuolation starts at 3 months and progressively worsens (Dubey et al., 2015). Taken as a whole, these data show that MLC is a degenerative disease. Under these conditions, the recovery of gliovascular unit function after P60 is very unlikely.

      All the molecular morphological and functional changes in gliovascular unit described in our manuscript precede myelin degradation, which starts at the age of 3 months in Mlc1 KO mice (Dubey et al., 2015). Moreover, our previous study (Gilbert et al., 2019) demonstrated that MLC1 expression starts around P5 and that the MLC1/GlialCAM complex is only mature at P15. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that gliovascular unit alterations are the primary pathological events in MLC.

      Dubey M, Bugiani M, Ridder MC, Postma NL, Brouwers E, Polder E, Jacobs JG, Baayen JC, Klooster J, Kamermans M, et al. 2015. Mice with megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts: a developmental angle. Ann Neurol 77: 114-131.10.1002/ana.24307. Gilbert A, Vidal XE, Estevez R, Cohen-Salmon M, and Boulay AC. 2019. Postnatal development of the astrocyte perivascular MLC1/GlialCAM complex defines a temporal window for the gliovascular unit maturation. Brain Struct Funct 224: 1267-1278.10.1007/s00429-019-01832-w.

      2) Does CBF get differed only after neuronal stimulation in Mlc1 KO mice? It is unclear whether the basal CBF/neurovascular coupling level is disrupted as well in Mlc KO brains and how this defect is related to the reduced vasoconstriction in these mice.

      The baselines of the functional ultrasound experiments were aligned prior to stimulation. This technique measures the percentage increase in blood flow after neuronal stimulation (here, whisker movement) but does not measure the basal flow and does not enable one to distinguish between an abnormal basal cerebral blood flow (as suggested by the reduction of the arterial diameter) and the loss of vascular contractility - both of which probably contribute to the defect in neurovascular coupling.

      3) The reduced cohesiveness of PvAPs and the associated neuronal fibers to the vessel in Mlc1 KO brains should be validated with additional experimental approach.

      To strengthen our analysis, we now give the results of a parallel quantitative immunofluorescence analysis of purified brain vessels (presented in a new figure, Fig.5). The results show that part of the Aqp4 and NF-M perivascular immunolabeling is absent in the Mlc1 KO. Taken as a whole, our data demonstrate that PvAPs and the associated neuronal fibers (which normally remain attached to brain vessels during mechanical purification) are lost during the purification process in Mlc1 KO mice but not in the WT. In conclusion, the absence of MLC1 reduces the mechanical cohesiveness of PvAPs and the associated neuronal fibers.

      4) The defective polarity of astrocytes should be better described by using other markers other than GFAP. The distribution of Aquaporin4, Cx43 or several glutamate transporters in the specific compartment of astrocytes can be examined.

      GFAP is the marker typically used to analyze the astrocytes’ overall morphology and polarity. Nevertheless, we agree that it is of interest to study the molecular polarity of PvAPs. Indeed, morphological changes in the PvAPs and astrocytes and changes in polarity in Mlc1 KO might all influence the localization of molecules in PvAPs. To address this question, we performed a quantitative stimulated emission depletion (STED) analysis of protein localization in PvAPs. Our results indicate that the perivascular localization of aquaporin 4 was not affected. However, the density and size of Cx43 puncta were greater - indicating that the gap junctions in PvAPs are not organized in the same way in the Mlc1 KO as in the WT. This observation is consistent with our electron microscopy observations of perivascular astrocytic processes stacked on the top of each other and linked by extended gap junctions.

      We have also added results for Kir4.1, a potassium channel that is expressed preferentially in PvAPs. The Kir4.1 expression level in Mlc1 KO was lower at all stages of development, indicating that perivascular potassium homeostasis was probably perturbed. These results are interesting because (i) epilepsy is a significant component of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy (Dubey et al., 2018; Yalcinkaya et al., 2003), and (ii) Kir4.1 deletion or downregulation is associated with greater susceptibility to epilepsy (Sibille et al., 2014). These points are now discussed.

      Dubey M, Brouwers E, Hamilton EMC, Stiedl O, Bugiani M, Koch H, Kole MHP, Boschert U, Wykes RC, Mansvelder HD, et al. 2018. Seizures and disturbed brain potassium dynamics in the leukodystrophy megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts. Ann Neurol 83: 636- 649.10.1002/ana.25190. Sibille J, Pannasch U, and Rouach N. 2014. Astroglial potassium clearance contributes to short-term plasticity of synaptically evoked currents at the tripartite synapse. J Physiol 592: 87- 102.jphysiol.2013.261735 [pii] 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.261735. Yalcinkaya C, Yuksel A, Comu S, Kilic G, Cokar O, and Dervent A. 2003. Epilepsy in vacuolating megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts. Seizure 12: 388-396.10.1016/s1059-1311(02)00350-3.

      5) The authors provide interesting observations such that the formation of perivascular astrocyte coverages is required for the dissociation of the contacts between neuronal components and the vessel during development. The authors need to discuss more about potential regulation and implication of this phenomenon.

      This is indeed a fascinating phenomenon. The postnatal period is also an intense synaptogenic phase in the mouse brain (Chung et al., 2015), during which astrocytes and neurons might compete for the perivascular space. In the absence of MLC1 and thus PvAPs, the neurons might expand into the free space. We now comment on this point.

      Chung WS, Allen NJ, and Eroglu C. 2015. Astrocytes Control Synapse Formation, Function, and Elimination. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 7: a020370.cshperspect.a020370 [pii] 10.1101/cshperspect.a020370.

      6) It is interesting that DOTA-Gd tracer shows different traces in Mlc1 KO brains. However, it is unclear how MLC1 deletion affects glymphatic system. Does the tracer normally enter to the perivascular spaces in Mlc KO brains? Does the tracer leak out more from the perivascular spaces in Mlc1 KO mice? Is the general clearance or drainages of the tracer impaired in Mlc1 KO mice? Would these defects be originated by the reduced perivascular astrocyte coverage or the reduced vasoconstriction itself?

      Paravascular transport (as revealed by the injection of a tracer into the CSF) depends mainly on dispersion of the tracer in the subarachnoid space (SAS), the cisternae, and the parenchyma (including the interstitial and perivascular spaces). The uneven, slow dispersion of the tracer within the SAS (compared with dispersion in the blood) means that the tracer’s kinetics in the parenchyma are regiondependent. These differences can be accentuated by regional differences in the anatomy of the brain’s vasculature, i.e. the presence or absence of a perivascular space and the vessel’s topology. Lastly, the amount of DOTA-Gd available for diffusion within the parenchyma depends directly on its local concentration in the SAS. This can be seen on our contrast concentration maps (see Fig. 8), where the highest DOTA-Gd concentrations are found near the injection site (the cisterna magna), in line with previous reports (Iliff et al., 2012). In the Mlc1 KO model, dispersion of DOTA-Gd is presumably affected in the SAS and the parenchyma.

      With regard to tracer dispersion in the SAS and the cisternae, our anatomical MRI showed that the brain volume is greater in the Mlc1 KO mouse than in the WT (see Fig. 1). These variations in the geometry of the SAS may account for much of the difference between the Mlc1 KO mice and WT mice. Although tracer concentrations appear to be similar in the cerebellum (close to the injection site), they are much lower in the more distant septal area of Mlc1 KO mice - suggesting that tracer transport within the SAS is restricted.

      With regard to parenchymal dispersion, we showed that MLC1 is essential for the position of the astrocytes’ perivascular endfeet. Thus, in Mlc1 KO mice, the formation of the perivascular space (as a conduit for solute distribution) is likely to be deficient. This aspect is revealed by the slope of the tracer’s concentration-time curve, which indicate slower kinetics in Mlc1 KO mice; this might be due to poor integrity of the perivascular space. The higher volume of fluid in the Mlc1 KO parenchyma (reflected by the increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); Fig. 1 and S1) might also be involved in this phenotype.

      The heart beat is the main driver of CSF circulation in the perivascular space (Iliff et al., 2013). The heart rate is very rapid and so the heart exerts a much greater driving force on the CSF than the vasodilation of the vessels induced by neuronal activity. Alterations in vascular contractility observed in Mlc1 KO mice might be involved in the impaired CSF flux but this is unlikely.

      All these points are now discussed in the revised version of the manuscript.

      Iliff JJ, Lee H, Yu M, Feng T, Logan J, Nedergaard M, and Benveniste H. 2013. Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI. Journal of Clinical Investigation 123: 1299-1309.10.1172/jci67677. Iliff JJ, Wang M, Liao Y, Plogg BA, Peng W, Gundersen GA, Benveniste H, Vates GE, Deane R, Goldman SA, et al. 2012. A paravascular pathway facilitates CSF flow through the brain parenchyma and the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid beta. Sci Transl Med 4:147ra111.10.1126/scitranslmed.3003748.

      Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

      This very interesting manuscript by Gilbert and colleagues uncovers that the astrocyte specific membrane protein MLC1, the mutation of which causes a rare disease called megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical Cysts (MLC), plays a fundamental role in the postnatal development of the gliovascular unit and the organization of the perivascular astrocyte processes, in particular. To reach this conclusion, the authors used an elegant multiscale approach including in vivo MRI, in vivo functional ultrasound, ex vivo analysis of vascular constriction, anatomical approaches at the light and electron microscopic level, and molecular characterization of the gliovascular unit from isolated microvessels. The manuscript is very well-written although it uses too many (unnecessary) abbreviations, which prevents a fluid reading of the manuscript, results are well illustrated and convincing and the discussion is reasonable.

      I have a major concern regarding the results reported in Figure 4D, which seem somewhat contradictory to those shown in Figure 6A-F. Indeed, the authors report in Figure 4D that there is less Neurofilament-M protein around isolated microvessels in MLC1 KO mice, whereas Figure 6A-F shows that these animals have more neuronal processes in contact with the vessels than in wiltypes. How can the authors explain this?

      The two situations are not comparable. On one hand, we observed the structure of the gliovascular unit in situ in fixed tissues. On the other, we mechanically purified microvessels. The detachment of astrocytic processes and associated neuronal fibers (linked to the mechanical dissociation of microvessels in the Mlc1 KO mouse) was clearly not counterbalanced by the presence of neuronal fibers contacting the vessels.

  4. Aug 2020
    1. 6.2.15. WIRE ROPE When power source and load are located at extreme distances from one another, or loads are very large, the use of wire rope is suggested. Design and use decisions pertaining to wire ropes rest with the user, but manufacturers generally will help users toward appropriate choices. The following material, based on the Committee of Wire Rope Producers, "Wire Rope User's Manual," current edition, may be used as an initial guide in selecting a rope.

      Wire rope is composed of (1) wires to form a strand, (2) strands wound helically around a core, and (3) a core. Classification of wire ropes is made by giving the number of strands, number of minor strands in a major strand (if any), and nominal number of wires per strand. For example 6 × 7 rope means 6 strands with a nominal 7 wires per strand (in this case no minor strands, hence no middle number). A nominal value simply represents a range. A nominal value of 7 can mean anywhere from 3 to 14, of which no more than 9 are outside wires. A full rope description will also include length, size (diameter), whether wire is preformed or not prior to winding, direction of lay (right or left, indicating the direction in which strands are laid around the core), grade of rope (which reflects wire strength), and core. The most widely used classifications are: 6 × 7, 6 × 19, 6 × 37, 6 × 61, 6 × 91, 6 × 127, 8 × 19, 18 × 7, 19 × 7. Some special constructions are: 3 × 7 (guardrail rope); 3 × 19 (slusher); 6 × 12 (running rope); 6 × 24 and 6 × 30 (hawsers); 6 × 42 and 6 × 6 × 7 (tiller rope); 6 × 3 × 19 (spring lay); 5 × 19 and 6 × 19 (marlin clad); 6 × 25B, 6 × 27H, and 6 × 30G (flattened strand). The diameter of a rope is the circle which just contains the rope. The right-regular lay (in which the wire is twisted in one direction to form the strands and the strands are twisted in the opposite direction to form the rope) is most common. Regular-lay ropes do not kink or untwist and handle easily. Lang-lay ropes (in which wires and strands are twisted in the same direction) are more resistant to abrasive wear and fatigue failure.

      Cross sections of some commonly used wire rope are shown in Fig. 6.2.123. Figure 6.2.124 shows rotation-resistant ropes, and Fig. 6.2.125 shows some special-purpose constructions.

      Figure 6.2.123 Cross sections of some commonly used wire rope construction. (Reproduced from "Wire Rope User's Manual, " AISI, by permission.) binary://mheaeworks/d03c7ddb475211da/158e7be668be00fdf011bdadd2ef3b2300f542e92687c6e02a998fc06e5a48d6/06x02_123.png Open in new tab Share Figure 6.2.124 Cross section of some rotation-resistant wire ropes. (Reproduced from "Wire Rope User's Manual, " AISI, by permission.) binary://mheaeworks/e19ef67be879c4d0/9ab225782b323010f79e566c12a458512274145d6877d8209774da72c34eda94/06x02_124.png Open in new tab Share Figure 6.2.125 Some special constructions. (Reproduced from "Wire Rope User's Manual, " AISI, by permission.) binary://mheaeworks/8627b14662f8a537/bb284940d47ada0df68e2027b63f42e8b5f813ef1a6eb57a1dc9e1bdcb726b5b/06x02_125.png Open in new tab Share The core provides support for the strands under normal bending and loading. Core materials include fibers (hard vegetable or synthetic) or steel (either a strand or an independent wire rope). Most common core designations are: fiber core (FC), independent wire-rope core (IWRC), and wire-strand core (WSC). Lubricated fiber cores can provide lubrication to the wire, but add no real strength and cannot be used in high temperature environments. Wire-strand or wire-rope cores add from 7 to 10 percent to strength, but under nonstationary usage tend to wear from interface friction with the outside strands. Great flexibility can be achieved when wire rope is used as strands. Such construction is very pliable and friction resistant. Some manufacturers will provide plastic coatings (nylon, Teflon, vinyl, etc.) upon request. Such coatings help provide resistance to abrasion, corrosion, and loss of lubricant. Crushing refers to rope damage caused by excessive pressures against drum or sheave, improper groove size, and multiple layers on drum or sheave. Consult wire rope manufacturers in doubtful situations.

      Wire-rope materials and their strengths are reflected as grades. These are: traction steel (TS), mild plow steel (MPS), plow steel (PS), improved plow steel (IPS), and extra improved plow (EIP). The plow steel strength curve forms the basis for calculating the strength of all steel rope wires. American manufacturers use color coding on their ropes to identify particular grades.

      The grades most commonly available and tabulated are IPS and EIP. Two specialized categories, where selection requires extraordinary attention, are elevator and rotation-resistant ropes.

      Elevator rope can be obtained in four principal grades: iron, traction steel, high-strength steel, and extra-high-strength steel.

      Bronze rope has limited use; iron rope is used mostly for older existing equipment.

      6.2.15.1. Selection of Wire Rope Appraisal of the following is the key to choosing the rope best suited to the job: resistance to breaking, resistance to bending fatigue, resistance to vibrational fatigue, resistance to abrasion, resistance to crushing, and reserve strength. Along with these must be an appropriate choice of safety factor, which in turn requires careful consideration of all loads, acceleration-deceleration, shocks, rope speed, rope attachments, sheave arrangements as well as their number and size, corrosive and/or abrasive environment, length of rope, etc. An approximate selection formula can be written as:

      DSL

      (NS) K b K sf where DSL (demanded static load) = known or dead load plus additional loads caused by sudden starts or stops, shocks, bearing friction, etc., tons; NS (nominal strength) = published test strengths, tons (see Table 6.2.65); Kb = a factor to account for the reduction in nominal strength due to bending when a rope passes over a curved surface such as a stationary sheave or pin (see Fig. 6.2.126); Ksf = safety factor. (For average operation use Ksf = 5. If there is danger to human life or other critical situations, use 8 ≤ Ksf ≤ 12. For instance, for elevators moving at 50 ft/min, Ksf = 8, while for those moving at 1,500 ft/min, Ksf = 12.)

      Table 6.2.65 Selected Values of Nominal Strengths of Wire Rope Classification

      Nominal diameter

      Fiber core

      IWRC

      Approximate mass

      Nominal strength IPS

      Approximate mass

      Nominal strength

      IPS

      EIP

      in

      mm

      lb/ft

      kg/m

      tons

      t

      lb/ft

      kg/m

      tons

      t

      tons

      t

      Source: "Wire Rope User's Manual," AISI, adapted by permission.

      6 × 7 Bright (uncoated)

      ¼

      6.4

      0.09

      0.14

      2.64

      2.4

      0.10

      0.15

      2.84

      2.58

      3 / 8

      9.5

      0.21

      0.31

      5.86

      5.32

      0.23

      0.34

      6.30

      5.72

      ½

      13

      0.38

      0.57

      10.3

      9.35

      0.42

      0.63

      11.1

      10.1

      16

      0.59

      0.88

      15.9

      14.4

      0.65

      0.97

      17.1

      15.5

      22

      1.15

      1.71

      30.7

      27.9

      1.27

      1.89

      33.0

      29.9

      1⅛

      29

      1.90

      2.83

      49.8

      45.2

      2.09

      3.11

      53.5

      48.5

      1 3 / 8

      35

      2.82

      4.23

      73.1

      66.3

      3.12

      4.64

      78.6

      71.3

      6 × 19 Bright (uncoated)

      ¼

      6.4

      0.11

      0.16

      2.74

      2.49

      0.12

      0.17

      2.94

      2.67

      3.40

      3.08

      3 / 8

      9.5

      0.24

      0.35

      6.10

      5.53

      0.26

      0.39

      6.56

      5.95

      7.55

      6.85

      ½

      13

      0.42

      0.63

      10.7

      9.71

      0.46

      0.68

      11.5

      10.4

      13.3

      12.1

      16

      0.66

      0.98

      16.7

      15.1

      0.72

      1.07

      17.7

      16.2

      20.6

      18.7

      22

      1.29

      1.92

      32.2

      29.2

      1.42

      2.11

      34.6

      31.4

      39.8

      36.1

      1⅛

      29

      2.13

      3.17

      52.6

      47.7

      2.34

      3.48

      56.5

      51.3

      65.0

      59.0

      1 3 / 8

      35

      3.18

      4.73

      77.7

      70.5

      3.5

      5.21

      83.5

      75.7

      96.0

      87.1

      1⅝

      42

      4.44

      6.61

      107

      97.1

      4.88

      7.26

      115

      104

      132

      120

      1⅞

      48

      5.91

      8.8

      141

      128

      6.5

      9.67

      152

      138

      174

      158

      2⅛

      54

      7.59

      11.3

      179

      162

      8.35

      12.4

      192

      174

      221

      200

      2 3 / 8

      60

      9.48

      14.1

      222

      201

      10.4

      15.5

      239

      217

      274

      249

      2⅝

      67

      11.6

      17.3

      268

      243

      12.8

      19.0

      288

      261

      331

      300

      6 × 37 Bright (uncoated)

      ¼

      6.4

      0.11

      0.16

      2.74

      2.49

      0.12

      0.17

      2.94

      2.67

      3.4

      3.08

      3 / 8

      9.5

      0.24

      0.35

      6.10

      5.53

      0.26

      0.39

      6.56

      5.95

      7.55

      6.85

      ½

      13

      0.42

      0.63

      10.7

      9.71

      0.46

      0.68

      11.5

      10.4

      13.3

      12.1

      16

      0.66

      0.98

      16.7

      15.1

      0.72

      1.07

      17.9

      16.2

      20.6

      18.7

      22

      1.29

      1.92

      32.2

      29.2

      1.42

      2.11

      34.6

      31.4

      39.5

      36.1

      1⅛

      29

      2.13

      3.17

      52.6

      47.7

      2.34

      3.48

      56.5

      51.3

      65.0

      59.0

      1 3 / 8

      35

      3.18

      4.73

      77.7

      70.5

      3.50

      5.21

      83.5

      75.7

      96.0

      87.1

      1⅝

      42

      4.44

      6.61

      107

      97.1

      4.88

      7.26

      115

      104

      132

      120

      1⅞

      48

      5.91

      8.8

      141

      128

      6.5

      9.67

      152

      138

      174

      158

      2⅛

      54

      7.59

      11.3

      179

      162

      8.35

      12.4

      192

      174

      221

      200

      2 3 / 8

      60

      9.48

      14.1

      222

      201

      10.4

      15.5

      239

      217

      274

      249

      2⅞

      67

      11.6

      17.3

      268

      243

      12.8

      19.0

      288

      261

      331

      300

      3⅛

      74

      13.9

      20.7

      317

      287

      15.3

      22.8

      341

      309

      392

      356

      80

      16.4

      24.4

      371

      336

      18.0

      26.8

      399

      362

      458

      415

      Open in new tab Share Figure 6.2.126 Values of Kbend vs. D/d ratios (D = sheave diameter, d = rope diameter), based on standard test data for 6 × 9 and 6 × 17 class ropes. (Compiled from "Wire Rope User's Manual," AISI, by permission.) Interactive Graph Values of Kbend vs. D/d ratios (D = sheave diameter, d = rope diameter), based on standard test data for 6 × 9 and 6 × 17 class ropes. (Compiled from "Wire Rope User's Manual," AISI, by permission.) Click on the graph to launch interactivity or enter values below. D/d ratio Kb Open in new tab Share Having made a tentative selection of a rope based on the demanded static load, one considers next the wear life of the rope. A loaded rope bent over a sheave stretches elastically and so rubs against the sheave, causing wear of both members. Drum or sheave size is of paramount importance at this point.

      6.2.15.2. Sizing of Drums or Sheaves Diameters of drums or sheaves in wire rope applications are controlled by two main considerations: (1) the radial pressure between rope and groove and (2) degree of curvature imposed on the rope by the drum or sheave size.

      Radial pressures can be calculated from p = 2T/(Dd), where p = unit radial pressure, lb/in2; T = rope load, lb; D = tread diameter of drum or sheave, in; d = nominal diameter of rope, in. Table 6.2.66 lists suggested allowable radial bearing pressures of ropes on various sheave materials.

      Table 6.2.66 Suggested Allowable Radial Bearing Pressures of Ropes on Various Sheave Materials Material

      Regular lay rope, lb/in2

      Lang lay rope, lb/in2

      Flattened strand lang lay, lb/in2

      Remarks

      6 × 7

      6 × 19

      6 × 37

      8 × 19

      6 × 7

      6 × 19

      6 × 37

      Source: "Wire Rope User's Manual," AISI, reproduced by permission.

      Wood

      150

      250

      300

      350

      165

      275

      330

      400

      On end grain of beech, hickory, gum.

      Cast iron

      300

      480

      585

      680

      350

      550

      660

      800

      Based on minimum Brinell hardness of 125.

      Carbon-steel casting

      550

      900

      1,075

      1,260

      600

      1,000

      1,180

      1,450

      30-40 carbon. Based on minimum Brinell hardness of 160.

      Chilled cast iron

      650

      1,100

      1,325

      1,550

      715

      1,210

      1,450

      1,780

      Not advised unless surface is uniform in hardness.

      Manganese steel

      1,470

      2,400

      3,000

      3,500

      1,650

      2,750

      3,300

      4,000

      Grooves must be ground and sheaves balanced for high-speed service.

      Open in new tab Share All wire ropes operating over drums or sheaves are subjected to cyclical stresses, causing shortened rope life because of fatigue. Fatigue resistance or relative service life is a function of the ratio D/d. Adverse effects also arise out of relative motion between strands during passage around the drum or sheave. Additional adverse effects can be traced to poor match between rope and groove size, and to lack of rope lubrication. Table 6.2.67 lists suggested and minimum sheave and drum ratios for various rope construction. Table 6.2.68 lists relative bending life factors; Figure 6.2.127 shows a plot of relative rope service life versus D/d. Table 6.2.69 lists minimum drum (sheave) groove dimensions. Periodic groove inspection is recommended, and worn or corrugated grooves should be re-machined or the drum replaced, depending on severity of damage.

      Table 6.2.67 Sheave and Drum Ratios Construction* †

      Suggested

      Minimum

      • WS—Warrington Seale; FWS—Filler Wire Seale; SFW—Seale Filler Wire; SWS—Seale Warrington Seale; S—Seale; FW—Filler Wire.

      † D = tread diameter of sheave; d = nominal diameter of rope. To find any tread diameter from this table, the diameter for the rope construction to be used is multiplied by its nominal diameter d. For example, the minimum sheave tread diameter for a ½-in 6 × 21 FW rope would be ½ in (nominal diameter) × 30 (minimum ratio), or 15 in.

      Note: These values are for reasonable service. Other values are permitted by various standards such as ANSI, API, PCSA, HMI, CMAA, etc. Similar values affect rope life.

      Source: "Wire Rope User's Manual," AISI, reproduced by permission.

      6 × 7

      72

      42

      19 × 7 or 18 × 7 Rotation-resistant

      51

      34

      6 × 19 S

      51

      34

      6 × 25 B flattened strand

      45

      30

      6 × 27 H flattened strand

      45

      30

      6 × 30 G flattened strand

      45

      30

      6 × 21 FW

      45

      30

      6 × 26 WS

      45

      30

      6 × 25 FW

      39

      26

      6 × 31 WS

      39

      26

      6 × 37 SFW

      39

      26

      6 × 36 WS

      35

      23

      6 × 43 FWS

      35

      23

      6 × 41 WS

      32

      21

      6 × 41 SFW

      32

      21

      6 × 49 SWS

      32

      21

      6 × 46 SFW

      28

      18

      6 × 46 WS

      28

      18

      8 × 19 S

      41

      27

      8 × 25 FW

      32

      21

      6 × 42 Tiller

      21

      14

      Open in new tab Download data Share Table 6.2.68 Relative Bending Life Factors Rope construction

      Factor

      Rope construction

      Factor

      Source: "Wire Rope User's Manual," AISI, reproduced by permission.

      6 × 7

      0.61

      6 × 36 WS

      1.16

      19 × 7 or 18 × 7

      0.67

      6 × 43 FWS

      1.16

      Rotation-resistant

      0.81

      6 × 41 WS

      1.30

      6 × 19 S

      0.90

      6 × 41 SFW

      1.30

      6 × 25 B flattened strand

      0.90

      6 × 49 SWS

      1.30

      6 × 27 H flattened strand

      0.90

      6 × 43 FW (2 op)

      1.41

      6 × 30 G flattened strand

      0.89

      6 × 46 SFW

      1.41

      6 × 21 FW

      0.89

      6 × 46 WS

      1.41

      6 × 26 WS

      1.00

      8 × 19 S

      1.00

      6 × 25 FW

      1.00

      8 × 25 FW

      1.25

      6 × 31 WS

      1.00

      6 × 42 Tiller

      2.00

      6 × 37 SFW

      Open in new tab Download data Share Figure 6.2.127 Service life curves for various D/d ratios. Note that this curve takes into account only bending and tensile stresses. (Reproduced from "Wire Rope User's Manual, " AISI, by permission.) Interactive Graph Service life curves for various D/d ratios. Note that this curve takes into account only bending and tensile stresses. (Reproduced from "Wire Rope User's Manual, " AISI, by permission.) Click on the graph to launch interactivity or enter values below. D/d ratio Relative rope service life Open in new tab Share Table 6.2.69 Minimum Sheave- and Drum-Groove Dimensions* Nominal rope diameter

      Groove radius

      New

      Worn

      in

      nm

      in

      mm

      in

      mm

      • Values given are applicable to grooves in sheaves and drums; they are not generally suitable for pitch design since this may involve other factors. Further, the dimensions do not apply to traction-

      type elevators; in this circumstance, drum- and sheave-groove tolerances should conform to the elevator manufacturer's specifications. Modern drum design embraces extensive considerations beyond the scope of this publication. It should also be noted that dram grooves are now produced with a number of oversize dimensions and pitches applicable to certain service requirements.

      Source: "Wire Rope User's Manual," AISI, reproduced by permission.

      ¼

      6.4

      0.135

      3.43

      .129

      3.28

      5 / 16

      8.0

      0.167

      4.24

      .160

      4.06

      3 / 8

      9.5

      0.201

      5.11

      .190

      4.83

      7 / 16

      11

      0.234

      5.94

      .220

      5.59

      ½

      13

      0.271

      6.88

      .256

      6.50

      9 / 16

      14.5

      0.303

      7.70

      .288

      7.32

      5 / 8

      16

      0.334

      8.48

      .320

      8.13

      3 / 4

      19

      0.401

      10.19

      .380

      9.65

      7 / 8

      22

      0.468

      11.89

      .440

      11.18

      1

      26

      0.543

      13.79

      .513

      13.03

      1⅛

      29

      0.605

      15.37

      .577

      14.66

      32

      0.669

      16.99

      .639

      16.23

      1 3 / 8

      35

      0.736

      18.69

      .699

      17.75

      38

      0.803

      20.40

      .759

      19.28

      1⅝

      42

      0.876

      22.25

      .833

      21.16

      45

      0.939

      23.85

      .897

      22.78

      1⅞

      48

      1.003

      25.48

      .959

      24.36

      2

      52

      1.085

      27.56

      1.025

      26.04

      2⅛

      54

      1.137

      28.88

      1.079

      27.41

      58

      1.210

      30.73

      1.153

      29.29

      2 3 / 8

      60

      1.271

      32.28

      1.199

      30.45

      64

      1.338

      33.99

      1.279

      32.49

      2⅝

      67

      1.404

      35.66

      1.339

      34.01

      71

      1.481

      37.62

      1.409

      35.79

      2⅞

      74

      1.544

      39.22

      1.473

      37.41

      3

      77

      1.607

      40.82

      1.538

      39.07

      3⅛

      80

      1.664

      42.27

      1.598

      40.59

      83

      1.731

      43.97

      1.658

      42.11

      3 3 / 8

      87

      1.807

      45.90

      1.730

      43.94

      90

      1.869

      47.47

      1.794

      45.57

      96

      1.997

      50.72

      1.918

      48.72

      4

      103

      2.139

      54.33

      2.050

      52.07

      109

      2.264

      57.51

      2.178

      55.32

      115

      2.396

      60.86

      2.298

      58.37

      122

      2.534

      64.36

      2.434

      61.82

      5

      128

      2.663

      67.64

      2.557

      64.95

      135

      2.804

      71.22

      2.691

      68.35

      141

      2.929

      74.40

      2.817

      71.55

      148

      3.074

      78.08

      2.947

      74.85

      6

      154

      3.198

      81.23

      3.075

      78.11

      Open in new tab Share Seizing and Cutting Wire Rope Before a wire rope is cut, seizings (bindings) must be applied on either side of the cut to prevent rope distortion and flattening or loosened strands. Normally, for preformed ropes, one seizing on each side of the cut is sufficient, but for ropes that are not preformed a minimum of two seizings on each side is recommended, and these should be spaced six rope diameters apart (see Fig. 6.2.128). Seizings should be made of soft or annealed wire or strand, and the width of the seizing should never be less than the diameter of the rope being seized. Table 6.2.70 lists suggested seizing wire diameters.

      Figure 6.2.128 Seizings. (Reproduced from "Wire Rope User's Manual, " AISI, by permission.) binary://mheaeworks/b5689cae67236644/dabbb5c8ab916a67588e9e15144fa3607cde3a92171221b8c915b2690ccc4448/06x02_128.png Open in new tab Share Table 6.2.70 Seizing* Rope diameter

      Suggested seizing wire diameter†

      in

      mm

      in

      mm

      • Length of the seizing should not be less than the rope diameter.

      † The diameter of seizing wire for elevator ropes is usually somewhat smaller than that shown in this table. Consult the wire rope manufacturer for specific size recommendations. Soft annealed seizing strand may also be used.

      Source: "Wire Rope User's Manual," AISI, reproduced by permission.

      ⅛- 5 / 16

      3.5-8.0

      0.032

      0.813

      3 /

      8

      9 / 16

      9.4-14.5

      0.048

      1.21

      ⅝- 15 / 16

      16.0-24.0

      0.063

      1.60

      1-1 5 / 16

      26.0-33.0

      0.080

      2.03

      1 3 / 8 -1 11 / 16

      35.0-43.0

      0.104

      2.64

      1¾ and larger

      45.0 and larger

      0.124

      3.15

      Open in new tab Share Wire Rope Fittings or Terminations End terminations allow forces to be transferred from rope to machine, or load to rope, etc. Figure 6.2.129 illustrates the most commonly used end fittings or terminations. Not all terminations will develop full strength. In fact, if all of the rope elements are not held securely, the individual strands will sustain unequal loads causing unequal wear among them, thus shortening the effective rope service life. Socketing allows an end fitting which reduces the chances of unequal strand loading.

      Figure 6.2.129 End fittings, or terminations, showing the six most commonly used. (Reproduced from "Wire Rope User's Manual, " AISI, by permission.) binary://mheaeworks/93cbb5f808260c54/0b81d52ad105f0752c71c8e820d154a2b2caedd00b267e91c7d74013bc0b3bbc/06x02_129.png Open in new tab Share Wire rope manufacturers have developed a recommended procedure for socketing. A tight wire serving band is placed where the socket base will be, and the wires are unlaid, straightened, and "broomed" out. Fiber core is cut close to the serving band and removed, wires are cleaned with a solvent such as SC-methyl chloroform, and brushed to remove dirt and grease. If additional cleaning is done with muriatic acid this must be followed by a neutralizing rinse (if possible, ultrasonic cleaning is preferred). The wires are dipped in flux, the socket is positioned, zinc (spelter) is poured and allowed to set, the serving band is removed, and the rope lubricated.

      A somewhat similar procedure is used in thermoset resin socketing.

      Socketed terminations generally are able to develop 100 percent of nominal strength.

  5. Jul 2020
    1. dates Education City, an area devoted to research and education. The city was host to the first ministerial-level meeting of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization negotiations. It was also selected as host city of a number of sporting events, including the 2006 Asian Games, the 2011 Pan Arab Games and most of the games at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup. In December 2011, the World Petroleum Council held the 20th World Petroleum Conference in Doha.[4] Additionally, the city hosted the 2012 UNFCCC Climate Negotiations and is set to host many of the venues for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[5] The city has also hosted the 140th Inter-Parliamentary Union Assembly in April 2019. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Establishment of Al Bidda 2.2 Formation of Doha 2.3 Arrival of Al Thani 2.4 20th century 2.4.1 Lorimer report (1908) 2.4.2 British protectorate (1916–1971) 2.5 Post-independence 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 4 Demographics 4.1 Ethnicity and languages 4.2 Religion 5 Administration 5.1 Districts 6 Economy 7 Infrastructure 7.1 Architecture 7.2 Atmosphere 7.3 Planned communities 8 Transportation 8.1 Roads 8.2 Rail 8.3 Air 9 Education 10 Sports 10.1 Football 10.2 Basketball 10.3 Volleyball 10.4 Other sports 10.5 Stadiums and sport complexes 11 Culture 11.1 Arts 11.2 Cinema 11.3 Media 11.4 Theatre 12 International relations 13 Gallery 14 See also 15 References 16 External links Etymology[edit] According to the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, the name "Doha" originated from the Arabic term dohat, meaning "roundness"—a reference to the rounded bays surrounding the area's coastline.[6] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Doha and Al Bidda A satellite view of Doha on the East coast of Qatar. As with most world cities, Doha developed on the water front around the Souq Waqif area today. It gradually spread out in a radial pattern with the use of ring roads. Establishment of Al Bidda[edit] The city of Doha was formed seceding from another local settlement known as Al Bidda. The earliest documented mention of Al Bidda was made in 1681, by the Carmelite Convent, in an account which chronicles several settlements in Qatar. In the record, the ruler and a fort in the confines of Al Bidda are alluded to.[7][8] Carsten Niebuhr, a German explorer who visited the Arabian Peninsula, created one of the first maps to depict the settlement in 1765 in which he labelled it as 'Guttur'.[7][9] David Seaton, a British political resident in Muscat, wrote the first English record of Al Bidda in 1801. He refers to the town as 'Bedih' and describes the geography and defensive structures in the area.[10] He stated that the town had recently been settled by the Sudan tribe (singular Al-Suwaidi), whom he considered to be pirates. Seaton attempted to bombard the town with his warship, but returned to Muscat upon finding that the waters were too shallow to position his warship within striking distance.[11][12] In 1820, British surveyor R. H. Colebrook, who visited Al Bidda, remarked on the recent depopulation of the town. He wrote:[11][13] .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}Guttur – Or Ul Budee [Al‐Bidda], once a considerable town, is protected by two square Ghurries [forts] near the sea shore; but containing no fresh water they are incapable of defence except against sudden incursions of Bedouins, another Ghurry is situated two miles inland and has fresh water with it. This could contain two hundred men. There are remaining at Ul Budee about 250 men, but the original inhabitants, who may be expected to return from Bahrein, will augment them to 900 or 1,000 men, and if the Doasir tribe, who frequent the place as divers, again settle in it, from 600 to 800 men. The same year, an agreement known as the General Maritime Treaty was signed between the East India Company and the sheikhs of several Persian Gulf settlements (some of which were later known as the Trucial Coast). It acknowledged British authority in the Persian Gulf and sought to end piracy and the slave trade. Bahrain became a party to the treaty, and it was assumed that Qatar, perceived as a dependency of Bahrain by the British, was also a party to it.[14] Qatar, however, was not asked to fly the prescribed Trucial flag.[15] As punishment for alleged piracy committed by the inhabitants of Al Bidda and breach of treaty, an East India Company vessel bombarded the town in 1821. They razed the town, forcing between 300 and 400 natives to flee and temporarily take shelter on the islands between the Qatar and the Trucial Coast.[16] Formation of Doha[edit] Doha was founded in the vicinity of Al Bidda sometime during the 1820s.[17] In January 1823, political resident John MacLeod visited Al Bidda to meet with the ruler and initial founder of Doha, Buhur bin Jubrun, who was also the chief of the Al-Buainain tribe.[17][18] MacLeod noted that Al Bidda was the only substantial trading port in the peninsula during this time. Following the founding of Doha, written records often conflated Al Bidda and Doha due to the extremely close proximity of the two settlements.[17] Later that year, Lt. Guy and Lt. Brucks mapped and wrote a description of the two settlements. Despite being mapped as two separate entities, they were referred to under the collective name of Al Bidda in the written description.[19][20] Al Bidda: View from the bay, 1823 In 1828, Mohammed bin Khamis, a prominent member of the Al-Buainain tribe and successor of Buhur bin Jubrun as chief of Al Bidda, was embroiled in controversy. He had murdered a native of Bahrain, prompting the Al Khalifa sheikh to imprison him. In response, the Al-Buainain tribe revolted, provoking the Al Khalifa to destroy the tribe's fort and evict them to Fuwayrit and Ar Ru'ays. This incident allowed the Al Khalifa additional jurisdiction over the town.[21][22] With essentially no effective ruler, Al Bidda and Doha became a sanctuary for pirates and outlaws.[23] ‘Trigonometrical plan of the harbour of El Biddah on the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf’, 1823 In November 1839, an outlaw from Abu Dhabi named Ghuleta took refuge in Al Bidda, evoking a harsh response from the British. A. H. Nott, a British naval commander, demanded that Salemin bin Nasir Al-Suwaidi, chief of the Sudan tribe (Suwaidi) in Al Bidda, take Ghuleta into custody and warned him of consequences in the case of non-compliance. Al-Suwaidi obliged the British request in February 1840 and also arrested the pirate Jasim bin Jabir and his associates. Despite the compliance, the British demanded a fine of 300 German krones in compensation for the damages incurred by pirates off the coast of Al Bidda; namely for the piracies committed by bin Jabir. In February 1841, British naval squadrons arrived in Al Bidda and ordered Al-Suwaidi to meet the British demand, threatening consequences if he declined. Al-Suwaidi ultimately declined on the basis that he was uninvolved in bin Jabir's actions. On 26 February, the British fired on Al Bidda, striking a fort and several houses. Al-Suwaidi then paid the fine in full following threats of further action by the British.[23][24] Isa bin Tarif, a powerful tribal chief from the Al Bin Ali tribe, moved to Doha in May 1843. He subsequently evicted the ruling Sudan tribe and installed the Al-Maadeed and Al-Kuwari tribes in positions of power.[25] Bin Tarif had been loyal to the Al Khalifa, however, shortly after the swearing in of a new ruler in Bahrain, bin Tarif grew increasingly suspicious of the ruling Al Khalifa and switched his allegiance to the deposed ruler of Bahrain, Abdullah bin Khalifa, whom he had previously assisted in deposing of. Bin Tarif died in the Battle of Fuwayrit against the ruling family of Bahrain in 1847.[25] Arrival of Al Thani[edit] The Al Thani migrated to Doha from Fuwayrit shortly after Bin Tarif's death in 1847 under the leadership of Mohammed bin Thani.[26][27] In the proceeding years, the Al Thani assumed control of the town. At various times, they swapped allegiances between the two prevailing powers in the area: the Al Khalifa and the Saudis.[26] Plan of Al Bidda Harbour drawn in 1860 indicating the principal settlements and landmarks In 1867, many ships and troops were sent from Bahrain to assault the towns Al Wakrah and Doha over a series of disputes. Abu Dhabi joined on Bahrain's behalf due to the conception that Al Wakrah served as a refuge for fugitives from Oman. Later that year, the combined forces sacked the two Qatari towns with around 2,700 men in what would come to be known as the Qatari–Bahraini War.[28][29] A British record later stated "that the towns of Doha and Wakrah were, at the end of 1867 temporarily blotted out of existence, the houses being dismantled and the inhabitants deported".[30] The joint Bahraini-Abu Dhabi incursion and subsequent Qatari counterattack prompted the British political agent, Colonel Lewis Pelly, to impose a settlement in 1868. Pelly's mission to Bahrain and Qatar and the peace treaty that resulted were milestones in Qatar's history. It implicitly recognized Qatar as a distinct entity independent from Bahrain and explicitly acknowledged the position of Mohammed bin Thani as an important representative of the peninsula's tribes.[31] A part of Doha as seen in January 1904. Most development was low-rise and use of locally available natural materials like rammed earth and palm fronds was common practice. In December 1871, the Ottomans established a presence in the country with 100 of their troops occupying the Musallam fort in Doha. This was accepted by Mohammad bin Thani's son, Jassim Al Thani, who wished to protect Doha from Saudi incursions.[32] The Ottoman commander, Major Ömer Bey, compiled a report on Al Bidda in January 1872, stating that it was an "administrative centre" with around 1,000 houses and 4,000 inhabitants.[33] Disagreement over tribute and interference in internal affairs arose, eventually leading to the Battle of Al Wajbah in March 1893. Al Bidda fort served as the final point of retreat for Ottoman troops. While they were garrisoned in the fort, their corvette fired indiscriminately at the townspeople, killing a number of civilians.[34] The Ottomans eventually surrendered after Jassim Al Thani's troops cut off the town's water supply.[35] An Ottoman report compiled the same year reported that Al Bidda and Doha had a combined population of 6,000 inhabitants, jointly referring to both towns by the name of 'Katar'. Doha was classified as the eastern section of Katar.[33][36] The Ottomans held a passive role in Qatar's politics from the 1890s onward until fully relinquishing control during the beginning of the first World War.[14] 20th century[edit] The city's coastline in 1904 largely highlights the local community which was based on fishing and pearl diving. Pearling had come to play a pivotal commercial role in Doha by the 20th century. The population increased to around 12,000 inhabitants in the first half of the 20th century due to the flourishing pearl trade.[37] A British political resident noted that should the supply of pearls drop, Qatar would 'practically cease to exist'.[38] In 1907, the city accommodated 350 pearling boats with a combined crew size of 6,300 men. By this time, the average prices of pearls had more than doubled since 1877.[39] The pearl market collapsed that year, forcing Jassim Al Thani to sell the country's pearl harvest at half its value. The aftermath of the collapse resulted in the establishment of the country's first custom house in Doha.[38] Lorimer report (1908)[edit] British administrator and historian J. G. Lorimer authored an extensive handbook for British agents in the Persian Gulf entitled Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf in 1908. In it, he gives a comprehensive account of Doha at the time: "Dohah looking northwest", photographed by the Royal Air Force during a reconnaissance of the Qatar Peninsula on 9 May 1934 Generally so styled at the present day, but Bedouins sometimes call it Dohat-al-Qatar; and it seems to have been formerly better known as Bida' (Anglice "Bidder"): it is the chief town of Qatar and is situated on the eastern side of that peninsula, about 63 miles south of its extremity at Ras Rakan and 45 miles north of Khor-al Odaid Harbour. Dohah stands on the south side of a deep bay at the south-western corner of a natural harbour which is about 3 miles in extent and is protected on the north-east and south-east sides by natural reefs. The entrance, less than a mile wide, is from the east between the points of the reefs; it is shallow and somewhat difficult, and vessels of more than 15 feet draught cannot pass. The soundings within the basin vary from 3 to 5 fathoms and are regular: the bottom is white mud or clay. Town site and quarters, — The south-eastern point of the bay is quite low but the land on the western side is stony desert 40 or 50 feet above the level of the sea. The town is built up the slope of some rising ground between these two extremes and consists of 9 Fanqs or quarters, which are given below in their order from the east to the west and north: the total frontage of the place upon the sea is nearly 2 miles.[40] An old district in Doha planned with narrow streets and rough plastered walls gives a glimpe of the city's past. Lorimer goes on to list and describe the districts of Doha, which at the time included the still-existing districts of Al Mirqab, As Salatah, Al Bidda and Rumeilah.[41] Remarking on Doha's appearance, he states: The general appearance of Dohah is unattractive; the lanes are narrow and irregular the houses dingy and small. There are no date palms or other trees, and the only garden is a small one near the fort, kept up by the Turkish garrison.[42] As for Doha's population, Lorimer asserts that "the inhabitants of Dohah are estimated to amount, inclusive of the Turkish military garrison of 350 men, to about 12,000 souls". He qualified this statement with a tabulated overview of the various tribes and ethnic groups living in the town.[42] British protectorate (1916–1971)[edit] In April 1913, the Ottomans agreed to a British request that they withdraw all their troops from Qatar. Ottoman presence in the peninsula ceased, when in August 1915, the Ottoman fort in Al Bidda was evacuated shortly after the start of World War I.[43] One year later, Qatar agreed to be a British protectorate with Doha as its official capital.[44][45] Camels next to Al Koot Fort, built in 1927 by Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani. Buildings at the time were simple dwellings of one or two rooms, built from mud, stone and coral. Oil concessions in the 1920s and 1930s, and subsequent oil drilling in 1939, heralded the beginning of slow economic and social progress in the country. However, revenues were somewhat diminished due to the devaluation of pearl trade in the Persian Gulf brought on by introduction of the cultured pearl and the Great Depression.[46] The collapse of the pearl trade caused a significant population drop throughout the entire country.[37] It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that the country saw significant monetary returns from oil drilling.[14] A view of Doha in the 1980s showing the Sheraton Hotel (pyramid-like building in the background) in West Bay without any of the high-rises around it Qatar was not long in exploiting the new-found wealth from oil concessions, and slum areas were quickly razed to be replaced by more modern buildings. The first formal boys' school was established in Doha in 1952, followed three years later by the establishment of a girls' school.[47] Historically, Doha had been a commercial port of local significance. However, the shallow water of the bay prevented bigger ships from entering the port until the 1970s, when its deep-water port was completed. Further changes followed with extensive land reclamation, which led to the development of the crescent-shaped bay.[48] From the 1950s to 1970s, the population of Doha grew from around 14,000 inhabitants to over 83,000, with foreign immigrants constituting about two-thirds of the overall population.[49] Post-independence[edit] The Pearl-Qatar at night The Pearl-Qatar is an artificial island spanning nearly four square kilometers. Qatar Petroleum tower, Palm tower B, Tornado tower, Doha tower and Al Jassimya tower seen (Left to Right) in the West Bay area in 2015 Qatar officially declared its independence in 1971, with Doha as its capital city.[3] In 1973, the University of Qatar was opened by emiri decree,[50] and in 1975 the Qatar National Museum opened in what was originally the ruler's palace.[51] During the 1970s, all old neighborhoods in Doha were razed and the inhabitants moved to new suburban developments, such as Al Rayyan, Madinat Khalifa and Al Gharafa. The metropolitan area's population grew from 89,000 in the 1970s to over 434,000 in 1997. Additionally, land policies resulted in the total land area increasing to over 7,100 hectares (about 17,000 acres) by 1995, an increase from 130 hectares in the middle of the 20th century.[52] In 1983, a hotel and conference center was developed at the north end of the Corniche. The 15-storey Sheraton hotel structure in this center would serve as the tallest structure in Doha until the 1990s.[52] In 1993, the Qatar Open became the first major sports event to be hosted in the city.[53] Two years later, Qatar stepped in to host the FIFA World Youth Championship, with all the matches being played in Doha-based stadiums.[54] Developments in Doha's West Bay district have seen an increase in the population density of the area with the construction of several high-rises. A view of a water feature in Sheraton Park with the West Bay skyline in the background. The Al Jazeera Arabic news channel began broadcasting from Doha in 1996.[55] In the late 1990s, the government planned the construction of Education City, a 2,500 hectare Doha-based complex mainly for educational institutes.[56] Since the start of the 21st century, Doha attained significant media attention due to the hosting of several global events and the inauguration of a number of architectural mega-projects.[57] One of the largest projects launched by the government was The Pearl-Qatar, an artificial island off the coast of West Bay, which launched its first district in 2004.[58] In 2006, Doha was selected to host the Asian Games, leading to the development of a 250-hectare sporting complex known as Aspire Zone.[53] During this time, new cultural attractions were constructed in the city, with older ones being restored. In 2006, the government launched a restoration program to preserve Souq Waqif's architectural and historical identity. Parts constructed after the 1950s were demolished whereas older structures were refurbished. The restoration was completed in 2008.[59] Katara Cultural Village was opened in the city in 2010 and has hosted the Doha Tribeca Film Festival since then.[60] The main outcome of the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2013 was the Trade Facilitation Agreement. The agreement aims to make it easier and cheaper to import and export by improving customs procedures and making rules more transparent. Reducing global trade costs by 1% would increase world-wide income more than USD 40 billion, 65% of which would go to developing countries. The gains from the Trade Facilitation Agreement are expected to be distributed among all countries and regions, with developing landlocked countries benefitting the most.[61] The Trade Facilitation Agreement will enter into force upon its ratification by 2/3 of WTO Members. The EU ratified the agreement in October 2015.[61] In Bali, WTO members also agreed on a series of Doha agriculture and development issues.[61] Geography[edit] See also: Geography of Qatar A view of Doha from the International Space Station in 2010 highlights the rapid development the city underwent since the discovery of oil in the 1960s. Doha is located on the central-east portion of Qatar, bordered by the Persian Gulf on its coast. Its elevation is 10 m (33 ft).[62] Doha is highly urbanized. Land reclamation off the coast has added 400 hectares of land and 30 km of coastline.[63] Half of the 22 km² of surface area which Hamad International Airport was constructed on was reclaimed land.[64] The geology of Doha is primarily composed of weathered unconformity on the top of the Eocene period Dammam Formation, forming dolomitic limestone.[65] The Pearl is a purpose-built artificial island off the coast of Doha, connected to the mainland by a bridge. The Pearl is an artificial island in Doha with a surface area of nearly 400 ha (1,000 acres)[66] The total project has been estimated to cost $15 billion upon completion.[67] Other islands off Doha's coast include Palm Tree Island, Shrao's Island, Al Safliya Island, and Alia Island.[68] In a 2010 survey of Doha's coastal waters conducted by the Qatar Statistics Authority, it was found that its maximum depth was 7.5 meters (25 ft) and minimum depth was 2 meters (6 ft 7 in). Furthermore, the waters had an average pH of 7.83, a salinity of 49.0 psu, an average temperature of 22.7 °C and 5.5 mg/L of dissolved oxygen.[69] Climate[edit] Doha has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with long, extremely hot summers and short, warm winters. The average high temperatures between May and September surpass 38 °C (100 °F) and often approach 45 °C (113 °F). Humidity is usually the lowest in May and June. Dewpoints can surpass 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer. Throughout the summer, the city averages almost no precipitation, and less than 20 mm (0.79 in) during other months.[70] Rainfall is scarce, at a total of 75 mm (2.95 in) per year, falling on isolated days mostly between October to March. The winter's days are relativity warm while the sun is up and cool during the night. The temperature rarely drops below 7 °C (45 °F).[71] hideClimate data for Doha (1962–2013, extremes 1962–2013) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 32.4(90.3) 36.5(97.7) 39.0(102.2) 46.0(114.8) 47.7(117.9) 49.1(120.4) 50.4(122.7) 48.6(119.5) 46.2(115.2) 43.4(110.1) 38.0(100.4) 32.7(90.9) 50.4(122.7) Average high °C (°F) 22.0(71.6) 23.4(74.1) 27.3(81.1) 32.5(90.5) 38.8(101.8) 41.6(106.9) 41.9(107.4) 40.9(105.6) 38.9(102.0) 35.4(95.7) 29.6(85.3) 24.4(75.9) 33.1(91.5) Daily mean °C (°F) 17.8(64.0) 18.9(66.0) 22.3(72.1) 27.1(80.8) 32.5(90.5) 35.1(95.2) 36.1(97.0) 35.5(95.9) 33.3(91.9) 30.0(86.0) 25.0(77.0) 20.0(68.0) 27.8(82.0) Average low °C (°F) 13.5(56.3) 14.4(57.9) 17.3(63.1) 21.4(70.5) 26.1(79.0) 28.5(83.3) 30.2(86.4) 30.0(86.0) 27.7(81.9) 24.6(76.3) 20.4(68.7) 15.6(60.1) 22.5(72.5) Record low °C (°F) 3.8(38.8) 5.0(41.0) 8.2(46.8) 10.5(50.9) 15.2(59.4) 21.0(69.8) 23.5(74.3) 22.4(72.3) 20.3(68.5) 16.6(61.9) 11.8(53.2) 6.4(43.5) 3.8(38.8) Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.2(0.52) 17.1(0.67) 16.1(0.63) 8.7(0.34) 3.6(0.14) 0.0(0.0) 0.0(0.0) 0.0(0.0) 0.0(0.0) 1.1(0.04) 3.3(0.13) 12.1(0.48) 75.2(2.95) Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.7 2.1 1.8 1.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 1.3 8.8 Average relative humidity (%) 74 70 63 53 44 41 50 58 62 63 66 74 60 Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.9 224.0 241.8 273.0 325.5 342.0 325.5 328.6 306.0 303.8 276.0 241.8 3,432.9 Mean daily sunshine hours 7.9 8.0 7.8 9.1 10.5 11.4 10.5 10.6 10.2 9.8 9.2 7.8 9.4 Source 1: NOAA[71] Source 2: Qatar Meteorological Department (Climate Normals 1962–2013)[72] Doha mean sea temperature[73] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 20.5 °C (68.9 °F) 19.1 °C (66.4 °F) 20.9 °C (69.6 °F) 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) 28.2 °C (82.8 °F) 30.9 °C (87.6 °F) 32.8 °C (91.0 °F) 33.9 °C (93.0 °F) 33.1 °C (91.6 °F) 31.0 °C (87.8 °F) 27.4 °C (81.3 °F) 23.1 °C (73.6 °F) Demographics[edit] See also: Demographics of Qatar Historical populationYearPop.±%1820[11]250—    1893[33]6,000+2300.0%1970[74]80,000+1233.3%1986[3] 217,294+171.6%1998[75] 264,009+21.5%2001[76] 299,300+13.4%2004[3] 339,847+13.5%2005[77][78] 400,051+17.7%2010[79] 796,947+99.2%2015[2] 956,457+20.0% Total population of the Doha metropolitan area[80] Year Metro population 1997 434,000[52] 2004 644,000[81] 2008 998,651[82] A significant portion of Qatar's population resides within the confines of Doha and its metropolitan area.[83] The district with the highest population density is the central area of Al Najada, which also accommodates the highest total population in the country. The population density across the greater Doha region ranges from 20,000 people per km² to 25 people per km².[84] Doha witnessed explosive growth rates in population in the first decade of the 21st century, absorbing the majority of the thousands of people then immigrating to Qatar every month.[85]:6 Doha's population currently stands at around one million, with the population of the city more than doubling from 2000 to 2010.[2] Ethnicity and languages[edit] The population of Doha is overwhelmingly composed of expatriates, with Qatari nationals forming a minority. The largest portion of expatriates in Qatar are from South-East and South Asian countries, mainly India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Philippines, and Bangladesh with large numbers of expatriates also coming from the Levant Arab countries, North Africa, and East Asia. Doha is also home to many expatriates from Europe, North America, South Africa and Australia.[86] A typical bilingual traffic sign in Doha denotes the zone numbers, street names and street numbers of two perpendicular streets. Arabic is the official language of Qatar. English is commonly used as a second language,[87] and a rising lingua franca, especially in commerce.[88] As there is a large expatriate population in Doha, languages such as Malayalam, Tamil, Bengali, Tagalog, Spanish, Sinhala, French, Urdu and Hindi are widely spoken.[86] Registered live births in Doha by nationality[80][89] Year Qatari Non-Qatari Total 2001 2,080 3,619 5,699 2002 1,875 3,657 5,532 2003 2,172 4,027 6,199 2004 2,054 3,760 5,814 2005 1,767 3,899 5,666 2006 1,908 4,116 6,024 2007 1,913 4,708 6,621 2008 1,850 5,283 7,133 2009 2,141 5,979 8,120 2010[90] 1,671 5,919 7,590 2011[91] 1,859 6,580 8,439 In 2004, the Foreign Ownership of Real Estate Law was passed, permitting non-Qatari citizens to buy land in designated areas of Doha, including the West Bay Lagoon, the Qatar Pearl, and the new Lusail City.[57] Prior to this, expatriates were prohibited from owning land in Qatar. Ownership by foreigners in Qatar entitles them to a renewable residency permit, which allows them to live and work in Qatar.[83] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Qatar The majority of residents in Doha are Muslim.[92] Catholics account for over 90% of the 150,000 Christian population in Doha.[93] Following decrees by the Emir for the allocation of land to churches, the first Catholic church, Our Lady of the Rosary, was opened in Doha in March 2008. The church structure is discreet and Christian symbols are not displayed on the outside of the building.[94] Several other churches exist in Doha, including the [1] St.Isaac and St. George Greek Orthodox Church of Qatar the Syro-Malabar Church, Malankara Orthodox Church, Mar Thoma Church (affiliated with the Anglicans, but not part of the Communion), CSI Church, Syro-Malankara Church and a Pentecostal church. A majority of mosques are either Muwahhid or Sunni-oriented.[95] Administration[edit] Districts[edit] Main article: List of communities in Doha At the turn of the 20th century, Doha was divided into 9 main districts.[96] In the 2010 census, there were more than 60 districts recorded in Doha Municipality.[97] Some of the districts of Doha include: Qatar's Central Bank is situated in the Al Souq district, close to the waterfront. Al Bidda (البدع) Al Dafna (الدفنة) Al Ghanim (الغانم) Al Markhiya (المرخية) Al Sadd (السد) Al Waab (الوعب) Bin Mahmoud (فريج بن محمود) Madinat Khalifa (مدينة خليفة) Musheireb (مشيرب) Najma (نجمه) Old Airport (المطار القديم) Qutaifiya (القطيفية) Ras Abu Aboud (راس أبو عبود) Rumeilah (الرميلة) Umm Ghuwailina (ام غو يلينه) West Bay (الخليج الغربي) Shortly after Qatar gained independence, many of the districts of old Doha including Al Najada, Al Asmakh and Old Al Hitmi faced gradual decline and as a result much of their historical architecture has been demolished.[98] Instead, the government shifted their focus toward the Doha Bay area, which housed districts such as Al Dafna and West Bay.[98] Economy[edit] See also: Economy of Qatar West Bay serves as the commercial district of Doha and houses offices of many local and global companies. Doha is the economic centre of Qatar. The city is the headquarters of numerous domestic and international organizations, including the country's largest oil and gas companies, Qatar Petroleum, Qatargas and RasGas. Doha's economy is built primarily on the revenue the country has made from its oil and natural gas industries.[99] Doha was included in Fortune's 15 best new cities for business in 2011.[100] Beginning in the late 20th century, the government launched numerous initiatives to diversify the country's economy in order to decrease its dependence on oil and gas resources. Doha International Airport was constructed in a bid to solidify the city's diversification into the tourism industry.[99] This was replaced by Hamad International Airport in 2014. The new airport is almost twice the size of the former and features two of the longest runways in the world.[101] Thirty-nine new hotels were under construction in the city in 2011.[102] Qatar Airways aircraft on the apron of Hamad International Airport As a result of Doha's rapid population boom and increased housing demands, real estate prices rose significantly through 2014.[103] Real estate prices experienced a further spike after Qatar won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[104] Al Asmakh, a Qatari real estate firm, released a report in 2014 which revealed substantial increases in real estate prices following a peak in 2008. Prices increased 5 to 10% in the first quarter of 2014 from the end of 2013.[103][105] A 2015 study conducted by Numbeo, a crowd-sourced database, named Doha as the 10th most expensive city to live in globally.[106] This rate of growth led to the development of planned communities in and around the city.[107] Although the fall in oil prices since 2014 and a diplomatic crisis with Qatar's neighbors slowed growth in the city's population, government spending was increased to maintain the growth in real estate in metropolitan Doha.[108] Expatriate workers remitted $60bn between 2006 and 2012, with 54 percent of the workers' remittances of $60bn routed to Asian countries, followed by Arab nations that accounted for nearly half that volume (28 percent). India was the top destination of the remittances, followed by the Philippines, while the US, Egypt and the neighbouring UAE followed.[109] Remittances in 2014 totaled $11.2 billion, amounting to 5.3% of Qatar's GDP.[110]:45 Infrastructure[edit] See also: List of tallest buildings in Qatar Architecture[edit] Museum of Islamic Art park in the Doha Port area with the West Bay district in the background (across the bay) Most traditional architecture in the Old Doha districts have been demolished to make space for new buildings.[98] As a result, a number of schemes have been taken to preserve the city's cultural and architectural heritage, such as the Qatar Museums Authority's 'Al Turath al Hai' ('living heritage') initiative.[111] Katara Cultural Village is a small village in Doha launched by sheikh Tamim Al Thani to preserve the cultural identity of the country.[112] Doha's Al Dafna area with the high-rises seen on the water front and the villa compounds and other residential areas seen in the background In 2011, more than 50 towers were under construction in Doha,[102] the largest of which was the Doha Convention Center Tower.[113] Constructions were suspended in 2012 following concerns that the tower would impede flight traffic.[114] In 2014, Abdullah Al Attiyah, a senior government official, announced that Qatar would be spending $65bn on new infrastructure projects in upcoming years in preparation for the 2022 World Cup as well as progressing towards its objectives set out in the Qatar National Vision 2030.[115] Atmosphere[edit] Due to excessive heat from the sun during the summer, some Doha-based building companies have implemented various forms of cooling technology to alleviate the extremely torrid climatic conditions. This can include creating optical phenomena such as shadows, as well as more expensive techniques like ventilation, coolants, refrigerants, cryogenics, and dehumidifiers.[116] Discussions regarding temperature control have also been features of various scheduled events involving large crowds.[117] There are other initiatives that attempt to counter the heat by altering working hours, weather alteration methods such as cloud seeding,[118][119] and using whiter and brighter construction materials to increase the albedo effects.[120] Nonetheless, despite these measures, Doha and other areas of Qatar could become uninhabitable for humans due to climate change by the 2070s.[121] Planned communities[edit] One of the largest projects underway in Qatar is Lusail City, a planned community north of Doha which is estimated to be completed by 2020 at a cost of approximately $45bn. It is designed to accommodate 450,000 people.[122] Al Waab City, another planned community under development, is estimated to cost QR15 bn.[123] In addition to housing 8,000 individuals, it will also have shopping malls, educational, and medical facilities.[123] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Doha Since 2004, Doha has been undergoing a huge expansion to its transportation network, including the addition of new highways, the opening of a new airport in 2014, and the currently ongoing construction of an 85 km metro system. This has all been as a result of Doha's massive growth in a short period of time, which has resulted in congestion on its roads. The first phase of the metro system is expected to be operational by 2019.[124] Roads[edit] Dukhan Highway connects the city of Dukhan on the West coast of the country with the country's capital, Doha. In 2015, the Public Works Authority declared their plan to construct a free-flowing road directly linking Al-Wakrah and Mesaieed to Doha in order to decrease traffic congestion in the city. It is set for completion by 2018.[125] Commutes between Doha and the municipality of Al Khor are currently facilitated by Al Shamal Road and Al Khor Coastal Road, with the latter road running through Al Daayen and the former running through Umm Salal.[126] Doha is linked to the country's western settlements, namely Dukhan, through Dukhan Highway. The Public Works Authority carried out the Dukhan Highway Central Project in 2017 to enhance the road network.[127] Rail[edit] Doha Metro will consist of four lines: the Red Line, the Gold Line, the Blue Line and the Green Line. The Blue Line is expected to be completed in the second phase.[128] Msheireb Station will be the point of intersection for all of the metro lines.[124] Doha International Airport The Red Line (also known as Coast Line) will extend through Doha, running from Al Wakrah to Al Khor. It is separated into two divisions: Red Line North and Red Line South. The former will run from Mushayrib Station to Al Khor City, over a length of 55.7 km. Doha Metro's Green Line will connect Doha to Education City and is also known as the Education Line. Starting in Old Airport, the Gold Line (also known as Historic Line) will end in Al Rayyan and cover a distance of 30.6 km. Lastly, the Blue Line, or City Line, will only cover the city of Doha, and is planned to be circular with a length of 17.5 km.[129] Air[edit] Doha is served by Hamad International Airport which is Qatar's principal international gateway. The airport opened in 2014, replacing Doha International Airport. Education[edit] See also: Education in Qatar, Education City, and List of schools in Qatar Stone steps at Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar, located in Education City Doha is the educational center of the country and contains the highest preponderance of schools and colleges.[74] In 1952, the first formal boys' school was opened in Doha. This was proceeded by the opening of the first formal girls' school three years later.[130] The first university in the state, Qatar University, was opened in 1973.[131] It provided separate faculties for men and women.[132] Education City, a 14 km2 education complex launched by non-profit organization Qatar Foundation, began construction in 2000.[133] It houses eight universities, the country's top high school, and offices for Al Jazeera's children television channel.[133] It is geographically located in Al Rayyan municipality's Al Luqta, Al Gharrafa, Gharrafat Al Rayyan and Al Shagub districts, but falls under the umbrella of Metropolitan Doha.[6] In 2009, the government launched the World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE), a global forum that brings together education stakeholders, opinion leaders and decision makers from all over the world to discuss educational issues.[134] The first edition was held in Doha in November 2009.[135] Some of the universities in Doha include: Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar Hamad Bin Khalifa University Cornell University[136] HEC Paris Northwestern University in Qatar Texas A&M University at Qatar UCL Qatar[137] Virginia Commonwealth University Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar Stenden University Qatar College of the North Atlantic Qatar University Qatar Faculty of Islamic Studies University of Calgary Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Qatar Football[edit] Al Sadd is the most successful team in the Qatar Stars League See also: List of football stadiums in Qatar Football is the most popular sport in Doha. There are six Doha-based sports clubs with football teams currently competing in the Qatar Stars League, the country's top football league. They are Al Ahli, Al Arabi, Al Sadd, Al-Duhail and Qatar SC.[138] Al Sadd, Al Arabi and Qatar SC are the three most successful teams in the league's history.[139] Numerous football tournaments have been hosted in Doha. The most prestigious tournaments include the 1988 and 2011 editions of the AFC Asian Cup[140] and the 1995 FIFA World Youth Championship.[54] In December 2010, Qatar won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[141] Three of the nine newly announced stadiums will be constructed in Doha, including Sports City Stadium, Doha Port Stadium, and Qatar University Stadium. Additionally, the Khalifa International Stadium is set to undergo an expansion.[142] Considering the country's rapid development for 2022 World Cup, FIFA awarded the hosting rights of 2019 FIFA Club World Cup and 2020 FIFA Club World Cup also to Qatar.[143] Basketball[edit] Doha was the host of the official 2005 FIBA Asia Championship, where Qatar's national basketball team finished 3rd, its best performance to date, and subsequently qualified for the Basketball World Cup.[144] The majority of the teams that make up the official Qatari Basketball League are based in Doha. Volleyball[edit] Doha four times was the host of the official FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship and three times host FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship. Doha one time Host Asian Volleyball Championship.[145] Other sports[edit] Orry the Oryx, mascot of the 15th Asian Games, on the Doha Corniche in 2014 In 2001, Qatar became the first country in the Middle East to hold a women's tennis tournament with the inauguration of its Qatar Ladies Open tournament.[146] Doha also hosts International Tennis Federation (ITF) ladies tournaments. Since 2008, the Sony Ericsson Championships (equivalent to the ATP's season-ending Championships) has taken place in Doha, in the Khalifa International Tennis Complex, and features record prize money of $4.45 million, including a check of $1,485,000 for the winner, which represents the largest single guaranteed payout in women's tennis.[147] Doha hosted the 15th Asian Games, held in December 2006, spending a total of $2.8 billion for its preparation.[148] The city also hosted the 3rd West Asian Games in December 2005.[149] Doha was expected to host the 2011 Asian Indoor Games; but the Qatar Olympic Committee cancelled the event.[150] Powerboat races in Doha Bay The city submitted a bid for the 2016 Olympics.[151] On June 4, 2008, the city was eliminated from the shortlist for the 2016 Olympic Games. On August 26, 2011 it was confirmed that Doha would bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[152] Doha however failed to become a Candidate City for the 2020 Games.[153] The MotoGP motorcycling grand prix of Doha is held annually at Losail International Circuit, located just outside the city boundaries.[154] The city is also the location of the Grand Prix of Qatar for the F1 Powerboat World Championship, annually hosting a round in Doha Bay.[155] Beginning in November 2009, Doha has been host of The Oryx Cup World Championship, a hydroplane boat race in the H1 Unlimited season. The races take place in Doha Bay.[156] In April 2012 Doha was awarded both the 2014 FINA World Swimming Championships[157] and the 2012 World Squash Championships.[158] The fourth World Mindsports Championships took place in Doha from August 19 to August 27, 2017 with the participation of more than 1,000 competitors.[159] In 2014, Qatar was selected as the host of the 2019 World Athletics Championships, which is the seventeenth edition of the IAAF World Athletics Championships.[160] Doha won the bid to host the event over Barcelona and Eugene.[161] In 2020, Doha hosted the Qatar ExxonMobil Open, which received the Tournament of the Year award in the 250 category from the 2019 ATP Awards. The tournament won the award for the third time in five years.[162] Stadiums and sport complexes[edit] An indoor stadium in the Aspire Zone sporting complex Aspire Academy was launched in 2004 with the aim of creating world-class athletes. It is situated in the Doha Sports City Complex, which also accommodates the Khalifa International Stadium, the Hamad Aquatic Centre, the Aspire Tower and the Aspire Dome. The latter has hosted more than 50 sporting events since its inception, including some events during the 2006 Asian Games.[163] Sporting venues in Doha and its suburbs include: Hamad bin Khalifa Stadium – Al-Ahli Stadium Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium (Al Sadd Stadium) Al-Arabi Stadium – Grand Hamad Stadium Hamad Aquatic Centre Khalifa International Stadium – Main venue for the 2006 Asian Games. Khalifa International Tennis and Squash Complex Qatar Sports Club Stadium Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Qatar Doha was chosen as the Arab Capital of Culture in 2010.[164] Cultural weeks organized by the Ministry of Culture, which featured both Arab and non-Arab cultures, were held in Doha from April to June to celebrate the city's selection.[165] Arts[edit] Main article: Qatari art Further information: Public art in Qatar and Collecting practices of the Al-Thani Family The five-storeyed Museum of Islamic Art designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect I. M. Pei[166] The Museum of Islamic Art in Doha, opened in 2008, is regarded as one of the best museums in the region.[167] This, and several other Qatari museums located in the city, like the Arab Museum of Modern Art, falls under the Qatar Museums Authority (QMA) which is led by Sheikha Al-Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, the sister of the emir of Qatar.[168] The National Museum of Qatar, which was constructed in place of the original Qatar National Museum, opened to the public on 28 March 2019. Cinema[edit] Main article: Cinema of Qatar The Doha Film Institute (DFI) is an organisation established in 2010 to oversee film initiatives and create a sustainable film industry in Qatar. DFI was founded by H.E. Sheikha Al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani.[169] The Doha Tribeca Film Festival (DTFF), partnered with the American-based Tribeca Film Festival, was held annually in Doha from 2009 to 2012.[170] Media[edit] Main article: Media of Qatar See also: Television in Qatar Al Jazeera Arabic Building Qatar's first radio station, Mosque Radio, began broadcasting in the 1960s from Doha.[171] The multinational media conglomerate Al Jazeera Media Network is based in Doha with its wide variety of channels of which Al Jazeera Arabic, Al Jazeera English, Al Jazeera Documentary Channel, Al Jazeera Mubasher, beIN Sports Arabia and other operations are based in the TV Roundabout in the city.[172] Al-Kass Sports Channel's headquarters is also located in Doha.[173] Theatre[edit] Main article: Theatre in Qatar Theatre was introduced to Qatar in the mid-20th century. Theatrical performances are held at Qatar National Theater and at the Qatar National Convention Centre in Doha. International relations[edit] Algeirs, Algeria (since 2013)[174] Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 2018)[175] Brasília, Brazil (since 2014)[176] Sofia, Bulgaria (since 2012)[177] Beijing, China (since 2008)[178] Alameda, California (since 2004)[179] San Salvador, El Salvador (since 2018)[180] Banjul, Gambia (since 2011)[181] Tbilisi, Georgia (since 2012)[182] Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan (since 2011)[183] Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (since 2018)[184] Port Louis, Mauritius (since 2007)[185] Mogadishu, Somalia (since 2014)[186] Tunis, Tunisia (since 1994)[187] Ankara, Turkey (since 2016)[188] Los Angeles, California, United States (since 2016)[189] Miami, Florida, United States (since 2016)[190] Libertador, Venezuela (since 2015)[191] Beit Sahour, Palestine (since 2009)[192] Gallery[edit] Click on the thumbnail to enlarge. Skyline of Doha West Bay from Sheraton Park. The spring festival at Souq Waqif, Doha An old mosque minaret stands out in front of the under-construction National Archive building in the Diwan Amiri Quarter of the Musheireb downtown Doha development. Qatar's Amir (ruler) is housed in the Amiri Diwan located in the historic Al Bidda district. These twin towers are among the earliest towers in Doha and serve as a great example of post-modern architecture. Msheireb Enrichment Centre moored off Doha Corniche is a learning center focused on the history and developments of Doha, particularly the Musheirib district. Aspire Park, Al Waab is one of the city's green spaces that forms a part of the Aspire zone. Doha skyline from the Museum of Islamic Art. Doha skyline at night. Doha Corniche is the 7 km long water front that connects the new district of West Bay with the old district of Al-Bidda and Al-Souq on the other end. Aerial view of a part of the city. The Katara cultural village is designed to be a hub of human interaction connecting theatre, literature, music, visual art, conventions and exhibitions in a planned development on the waterfront.[193] The post office building in Qatar sits located on the main Corniche street. See also[edit] Doha Declaration Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization (WTO) talks Qatar National Day which is held in Doha every year on December 18 References[edit] ^ "Doha municipality accounts for 40% of Qatar population". Gulf Times. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit} ^ Jump up to: a b c The Report: Qatar 2016. 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Retrieved 3 June 2019. ^ 2005 FIBA Asia Championship, ARCHIVE.FIBA.com, Retrieved 5 June 2016. ^ "QVA - Qatar Volleyball Association". QVA. Retrieved 12 August 2018. ^ "History & Overview". Qatar Tennis Federation. Retrieved 22 August 2018. ^ ""Season to End in Doha 2008–2010" on the Sony Ericsson WTA Tour website". Sonyericssonwtatour.com. Retrieved 2013-07-29. ^ Patrick Dixon. "The Future Of Qatar – Rapid Growth". globalchange.com. Retrieved 19 July 2015. ^ "Doha 2005: 3rd West Asian Games". Olympic Council of Asia. Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2015. ^ "Qatar Participates in 4th Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games This Week". Marhaba. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2015. ^ "Information on 2016 Olympic Games Bids". Gamesbids.com. Retrieved 2010-06-27. ^ "Doha to bid for 2020 Olympics". Espn.go.com. 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2013-07-29. ^ "IOC selects three cities as Candidates for the 2020 Olympic Games". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2013-07-29. ^ "About the circuit". MotoGP. Retrieved 19 July 2015. ^ "Power boats". Oryx in-flight magazine. Retrieved 19 July 2015. ^ "2014 Oryx Cup Dates Announced". H1 Unlimited. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2015. ^ "Doha awarded 2014 World Short Course Swimming Championships". Insidethegames.biz. 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2013-07-29. ^ "Doha picked to host 2012 World Squash Championships". Insidethegames.biz. 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2013-07-29. ^ "World Mindsports Championships ends on high note". The Peninsula. 29 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2018. ^ "Iaaf WC 2019 will be held in Doha, Qatar!". Retrieved 18 November 2014. ^ "Barcelona, Doha and Eugene – candidate cities for 2019 IAAF World Championships". Retrieved 15 April 2014. ^ "Doha Honored With ATP 250 Tournament Of The Year Award". ATP Tour. Retrieved 11 January 2020. ^ "The Aspire Dome, centre stage for Doha 2010". IAAF Athletics. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2015. ^ "Irina Bokova receives the Prize 'Doha 2010 Arab Capital of Culture'". UNESCO. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2015. ^ "Doha, 2010 Arab culture capital, to host Arab and non-Arab cultural weeks". Habib Toumi. 4 April 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2015. ^ User, Super. "Museum architecture". Mia.org.qa. Retrieved 2018-05-14. ^ "Art in Qatar: A Smithsonian in the sand". The Economist. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013. ^ "QMA Board of Trustees". Qatar Museums Authority. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015. ^ "Article in Variety Arabia". Tradearabia.com. 2010-05-16. Retrieved 2013-07-29. ^ "Whatever happened to the Qatari film industry?". theguardian.com. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2015. ^ Gunter, Barrie; Dickinson, Roger (2013). News Media in the Arab World: A Study of 10 Arab and Muslim Countries. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 31. ISBN 978-1441174666. ^ "Company Overview of Al Jazeera Media Network". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 October 2015. ^ "Al Kass Selects BFE as Integrator". Finance.yahoo.com. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2015. ^ "Amir's visit to Algeria significant: envoy". Gulf Times. 26 February 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020. ^ "Qatar and Bosnia vow to boost ties". The Peninsula. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "اتفاقية توأمة بين مدينتي الدوحة وبرازيليا" (in Arabic). Al Sharq. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "HE Prime Minister Presides Over Cabinet Regular Meeting". Press Arabia. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "Sister cities". eBeijing. Retrieved 18 July 2015. ^ "Alameda California cuts ties with the emir". Gulf Times. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019. ^ "توقيع اتفاقية توأمة بين بلديتي الدوحة وسان سلفادور" (in Arabic). Ministry of Municipality and Environment. 29 March 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ Momodou Faal (28 October 2011). "Gambia: Banjul Signs Twinnng Pact With Doha". The Daily Observer (Banjul). Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "Legal Framework". Embassy of Georgia to the State of Qatar. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "زيارة الأمير الأخيرة لكازاخستان أعطت زخماً للعلاقات الثنائية" (in Arabic). Al Raya. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "HH The Amir Issues Two Decrees". Government of the State of Qatar. 19 February 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "International Links". City Council of Port Louis. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "Mungaab seeks Doha's help in reviving Mogadishu". Somali Agenda. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "International Cooperation". Municipality of Tunis. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "Doha, Ankara sign twinning agreement". Gulf Times. 24 August 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "Joint Statement by the United States and Qatar on the Conclusion of the Second Annual Economic and Investment Dialogue". U.S. Department of State. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "Twinning Agreement between Miami and Doha". Istithmar USA. 5 June 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "HH the Emir, Venezuelan President Witness Signing of Agreements". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Qatar). 25 November 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2018. ^ "Twinning". Beit Sahour Municipality Palestine. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018. ^ "About Katara". Katara.net. Retrieved 2018-05-14. External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Doha. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Doha. Doha travel guide from Wikivoyage Projects in Doha and Major Construction and Architectural Developments Information and History of Doha showArticles related to Doha showvteMunicipality of Ad-Dawhah topicsHistory Al Bidda Battle of Al Wajbah Isa bin Tarif Mohammed bin Thani Qatari–Bahraini War Timeline of Doha Administration Ad-Dawhah Municipality Amiri Diwan of the State of Qatar Old Amiri Palace Zones Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 13 Zone 14 Zone 15 Zone 16 Zone 17 Zone 18 Zone 20 Zone 21 Zone 22 Zone 23 Zone 24 Zone 25 Zone 26 Zone 27 Zone 28 Zone 30 Zone 31 Zone 32 Zone 33 Zone 34 Zone 35 Zone 36 Zone 37 Zone 38 Zone 39 Zone 40 Zone 41 Zone 42 Zone 43 Zone 44 Zone 45 Zone 46 Zone 47 Zone 48 Zone 49 Zone 50 Zone 57 Zone 58 Zone 61 Zone 63 Zone 64 Zone 65 Zone 66 Zone 67 Zone 68 DistrictsCensus-designated districts See List of communities in Doha District centers Al Sadd Town Center Airport Capital City Center Downtown Doha Capital City Center Fereej Kulaib District Center Najma District Center Nuaija District Center Old Al Matar Town Center Qatar University District Center Rawdat Al Khail District Center The Pearl-Qatar District Center Umm Ghuwailina District Center West Bay Capital City Center Geography Al Safliya Island Banana Island Doha Bay Doha Corniche Halul Island The Pearl-Qatar Economy andtransport Al Dafna Financial District Barwa Financial District Doha International Airport Doha Metro Gold Line Hamad International Airport Orbital Highway Demographicsand culture Abdulla Bin Zaid Al Mahmoud Islamic Cultural Center Doha Tribeca Film Festival Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque Katara Cultural Village Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art Museum of Islamic Art Qatar National Museum Qatar National Theater National Museum of Qatar Souq Waqif Education Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar Hamad Bin Khalifa University Cornell University in Qatar HEC Paris in Qatar Northwestern University in Qatar Texas A&M University at Qatar UCL Qatar Virginia Commonwealth University in Qatar Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar Stenden University Qatar College of the North Atlantic in Qatar Qatar University in Qatar University of Calgary in Qatar See also Education City SportsVenues Abdullah bin Khalifa Stadium Aspire Zone Aspire Academy Doha Golf Club Doha Sports Stadium Grand Hamad Stadium Hamad Aquatic Centre Hamad bin Khalifa Stadium Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium Khalifa International Stadium Khalifa International Tennis and Squash Complex Suheim bin Hamad Stadium Clubs Al Ahli SC Al Arabi SC Al Bidda SC Al Sadd SC Al-Duhail SC Qatar SC showvteCapitals of AsiaDependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italicsNorth AsiaSouth AsiaSoutheast AsiaWestern Asia Moscow, Russia Central Asia Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan Tashkent, Uzbekistan East Asia Beijing, China Hong Kong (China) Macau (China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan * Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Camp Justice, BIOT (UK) * Dhaka, Bangladesh Islamabad, Pakistan Kabul, Afghanistan Kathmandu, Nepal Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, Sri Lanka Thimphu, Bhutan Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island (Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar Episkopi Cantonment, Akrotiri and Dhekelia (UK) * Jerusalem, Israel * Kuwait City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus * Ramallah, Palestine (de facto) * Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh * Sukhumi, Abkhazia * Tbilisi, Georgia Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia * Yerevan, Armenia * Disputed. See: Political status of Taiwan, Chagos Archipelago sovereignty dispute, Cyprus dispute, Status of Jerusalem, Artsakh-Azerbaijani conflict, Abkhaz-Georgian conflict and Georgian-Ossetian conflict showvteCapitals of Arab countriesAfricaAsia Algiers, Algeria Cairo, Egypt Djibouti, Djibouti El Aaiun (proclaimed) Tifariti (de facto), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Khartoum, Sudan Mogadishu, Somalia Moroni, Comoros Nouakchott, Mauritania Rabat, Morocco Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Baghdad, Iraq Beirut, Lebanon Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar Jerusalem (proclaimed) Ramallah (de facto), Palestine1 Kuwait City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen 1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation showvteArab Capital of Culture Cairo 1996 (Egypt) Tunis 1997 (Tunisia) Sharjah 1998 (United Arab Emirates) Beirut 1999 (Lebanon) Riyadh 2000 (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait City 2001 (Kuwait) Amman 2002 (Jordan) Rabat 2003 (Morocco) Sanaʽa 2004 (Yemen) Khartoum 2005 (Sudan) Muscat 2006 (Oman) Algiers 2007 (Algeria) Damascus 2008 (Syria) Jerusalem 2009 (State of Palestine) Doha 2010 (Qatar) Sirte 2011 (Libya) Manama 2012 (Bahrain) Baghdad 2013 (Iraq) Tripoli 2014 (Libya) Constantine 2015 (Algeria) Sfax 2016 (Tunisia) showvteHost cities of Asian GamesSummer 1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta-Palembang 2022: Hangzhou Winter 1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo Authority control BNF: cb15084063c (data) GND: 4219005-8 LCCN: n81076793 MusicBrainz: 29aae758-4c4f-4d77-899c-1dcb67196b24 NKC: ge463353 SELIBR: 143052 VIAF: 136649381 WorldCat Identities: lccn-n81076793 <img src="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:CentralAutoLogin/start?type=1x1" alt="" title="" width="1" height="1" style="border: none; position: absolute;" /> Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Doha&oldid=963332295" Categories: DohaCapitals in AsiaMunicipalities of QatarPopulated coastal places in QatarPopulated places established in 1825Populated places in QatarBurial sites of the House of Thani1825 establishments in AsiaHidden categories: CS1 maint: uses authors parameterCS1 Arabic-language sources (ar)Articles with short descriptionArticles containing Arabic-language textCoordinates on WikidataCommons category link is on WikidataWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiersWikipedia articles with NKC identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsCurrent eventsRandom articleAbout WikipediaContact usDonateWikipedia store Contribute HelpCommunity portalRecent changesUpload file Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage information
  6. Jul 2018
    1. On 2014 Dec 15, Ivan Shatsky commented:

      General comment: The phenomenon studied in this paper is very exciting. I read the article with a great interest. Unfortunately, I regret to say that the underlying mechanism remained uncovered. Although I agree that the authors identified some curious structures within the 5’UTRs of HOXA mRNAs which might be implicated in the regulation of these mRNAs by RPL38, I did not find sufficient evidence for existence of IRES-elements in these mRNAs. As in numerous other similar investigations, to identify IRES-elements the authors employed the method of DNA bicistronic constructs, the approach that had been repeatedly shown to be associated with almost unavoidable artifacts (see Jackson Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013 Feb 1;5(2); Lemp et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Aug;40(15):7280-90.). And I suspect this paper is not free of those artifacts either (see below). Several crucial control experiments necessary to support or to exclude the IRES-mediated mechanism have been recently described (for references see Shatsky et al. Mol Cells. 2010 Oct; 30(4):285-93). One of them, for instance, is the ratio of translational activities for m7G capped versus uncapped (A-capped) monocistronic constructs. This value estimates contribution of the cap to the translational potential of a 5’UTR under selected conditions. If this contribution is very high (as is the case of cap-dependent mRNAs) one may exclude the presence of a true IRES. I think that this and other obligatory controls are feasible to perform with cells C3H10T1/2 used in this paper but they were not done.

      Some specific points:

      1. The authors regard the cap-independent and IRES-dependent modes of translation initiation as synonymous mechanisms and support this notion with reference 21. I should stress that not all specialists in eukaryotic translation would share this opinion since nobody has ever shown that a 5’end dependent translation initiation cannot be regulated by specific structures within the respective 5' UTR. The opposite has recently been demonstrated (Terenin et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Feb 1;41(3):1807-16.)
      2. When listing examples of cellular IRESs identified to date (second paragraph), the authors mention c-myc, Apaf-1, XIAP. To the best of my knowledge, these cellular IRESs have been disproved (Andreev et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Oct;37(18):6135-47; Bert et al. RNA. 2006 Jun;12(6):1074-83; Baranick et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 25;105(12):4733-8; van Eden et al. RNA. 2004 Apr;10(4):720-30); Lemp et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Aug;40(15):7280-90. )
      3. “Extended data Figure 1a” raises a great concern: the HCV IRES should not be used as a normalizing construct for testing bicistronic DNAs since the HCV IRES has been reported to harbor a cryptic promoter (Dumas, E. et al. 2003 Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (4): 1275-1281) and hence may produce capped monocistronic mRNAs . By the way, among viral IRESs characterized to date the HCV IRES is regarded as one of the weakest.
      4. The control test with Rluc shRNA (Extended data Figure 1 b,c) strongly suggests that some significant amount of monocistronic (and therefore capped) Fluc mRNAs is present in transfected cells since the residual Fluc activity after RNA interference is too high. This may also be the case for the control bicistronic mRNA containing the HCV IRES (see point 3). Otherwise, the pictures 1b and 1c must be similar. At least, in the analogous test performed in our lab, the Rluc and Fluc activities fall down to the similar background levels (Fig. 2D in Dmitriev et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jul;27(13):4685-97).
      5. The authors suggest that the IRES elements are mostly confined within ~300 nts proximal to the start codon. As a support to this conclusion, they note that some of HOXA mRNAs possess a 5’ UTR of that size. If so, why the activity of HOXA9 construct 944-1266 is much lower than that for the full length 5’UTR (Fig. 1d)?<br>
      6. “Extended Figure 1d”. This control is useless. It only shows that the bicistronic mRNA of the expected size is present in transfected cells but unable to show the presence of monocistronic mRNAs starting within the intercistronic region. The corresponding bands won’t be seen.
      7. On the base of pull-down experiments the authors claim that 80S ribosomes are specifically formed on their IRES-elements. The problem is that they use 10mM of magnesium in these expts, i.e. the concentration at which the assembly of translation initiation complexes in mammalian systems should not occur.
      8. The mode of action of TIE element looks absolutely puzzling. It is even difficult to imagine any mechanism for its operation. My question: is it specific to these particular cells?


      This comment, imported by Hypothesis from PubMed Commons, is licensed under CC BY.

  7. Feb 2018
    1. On 2014 Dec 15, Ivan Shatsky commented:

      General comment: The phenomenon studied in this paper is very exciting. I read the article with a great interest. Unfortunately, I regret to say that the underlying mechanism remained uncovered. Although I agree that the authors identified some curious structures within the 5’UTRs of HOXA mRNAs which might be implicated in the regulation of these mRNAs by RPL38, I did not find sufficient evidence for existence of IRES-elements in these mRNAs. As in numerous other similar investigations, to identify IRES-elements the authors employed the method of DNA bicistronic constructs, the approach that had been repeatedly shown to be associated with almost unavoidable artifacts (see Jackson Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013 Feb 1;5(2); Lemp et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Aug;40(15):7280-90.). And I suspect this paper is not free of those artifacts either (see below). Several crucial control experiments necessary to support or to exclude the IRES-mediated mechanism have been recently described (for references see Shatsky et al. Mol Cells. 2010 Oct; 30(4):285-93). One of them, for instance, is the ratio of translational activities for m7G capped versus uncapped (A-capped) monocistronic constructs. This value estimates contribution of the cap to the translational potential of a 5’UTR under selected conditions. If this contribution is very high (as is the case of cap-dependent mRNAs) one may exclude the presence of a true IRES. I think that this and other obligatory controls are feasible to perform with cells C3H10T1/2 used in this paper but they were not done.

      Some specific points:

      1. The authors regard the cap-independent and IRES-dependent modes of translation initiation as synonymous mechanisms and support this notion with reference 21. I should stress that not all specialists in eukaryotic translation would share this opinion since nobody has ever shown that a 5’end dependent translation initiation cannot be regulated by specific structures within the respective 5' UTR. The opposite has recently been demonstrated (Terenin et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Feb 1;41(3):1807-16.)
      2. When listing examples of cellular IRESs identified to date (second paragraph), the authors mention c-myc, Apaf-1, XIAP. To the best of my knowledge, these cellular IRESs have been disproved (Andreev et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Oct;37(18):6135-47; Bert et al. RNA. 2006 Jun;12(6):1074-83; Baranick et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 25;105(12):4733-8; van Eden et al. RNA. 2004 Apr;10(4):720-30); Lemp et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Aug;40(15):7280-90. )
      3. “Extended data Figure 1a” raises a great concern: the HCV IRES should not be used as a normalizing construct for testing bicistronic DNAs since the HCV IRES has been reported to harbor a cryptic promoter (Dumas, E. et al. 2003 Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (4): 1275-1281) and hence may produce capped monocistronic mRNAs . By the way, among viral IRESs characterized to date the HCV IRES is regarded as one of the weakest.
      4. The control test with Rluc shRNA (Extended data Figure 1 b,c) strongly suggests that some significant amount of monocistronic (and therefore capped) Fluc mRNAs is present in transfected cells since the residual Fluc activity after RNA interference is too high. This may also be the case for the control bicistronic mRNA containing the HCV IRES (see point 3). Otherwise, the pictures 1b and 1c must be similar. At least, in the analogous test performed in our lab, the Rluc and Fluc activities fall down to the similar background levels (Fig. 2D in Dmitriev et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jul;27(13):4685-97).
      5. The authors suggest that the IRES elements are mostly confined within ~300 nts proximal to the start codon. As a support to this conclusion, they note that some of HOXA mRNAs possess a 5’ UTR of that size. If so, why the activity of HOXA9 construct 944-1266 is much lower than that for the full length 5’UTR (Fig. 1d)?<br>
      6. “Extended Figure 1d”. This control is useless. It only shows that the bicistronic mRNA of the expected size is present in transfected cells but unable to show the presence of monocistronic mRNAs starting within the intercistronic region. The corresponding bands won’t be seen.
      7. On the base of pull-down experiments the authors claim that 80S ribosomes are specifically formed on their IRES-elements. The problem is that they use 10mM of magnesium in these expts, i.e. the concentration at which the assembly of translation initiation complexes in mammalian systems should not occur.
      8. The mode of action of TIE element looks absolutely puzzling. It is even difficult to imagine any mechanism for its operation. My question: is it specific to these particular cells?


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