52 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. Yet, little research has examined whether Congressional staff actually recognize thepreferences of their Members’constituents. Using an original survey of senior US Congressionalstaffers, we show that staff systematically mis-estimate constituent opinions. We then evaluate the sources ofthese misperceptions, using observational analyses and two survey experiments. Staffers who rely moreheavily on conservative and business interest groups for policy information have more skewed perceptionsof constituent opinion. Egocentric biases also shape staff perceptions

      This entire preface to the introduction acts as an abstract to the article, giving the purpose as to why the research was conducted. The reason for research was to examine whether congressional staff recognize the preferences of their members.

  2. Jul 2021
  3. Feb 2021
    1. What do you get when you add a sudden surge of demand to an equally sudden loss of capacity? A crisis, whose roots lie in a decade’s worth of deregulation and cost-cutting, of an energy “independence” that has left the state at the mercy of the elements.

      The author is asking a rhetorical question and answering it immediately. He is doing this not only to clear one of the audience's questions regarding the consequences of Texas situations, but also to make the government officials more guilty for leaving Texas in this situation.

  4. Oct 2019
  5. Feb 2019
    1. e ma

      I can't remember who said this (maybe Stephen King?), but they described writing as a form of telepathy for exactly this reason: transferring ideas from one person to another. This idea is dramatized in Black Robe, a film about Jesuit missionaries in Canada during the 17th century. Worth a watch.

    1. L e,l�H �•.d h"'-� � 1-..... � �ku--h1,,:, _.._ t...11-r l .,..;_, .a. lt •..

      Agreed. While most of the other texts/excerpts can stand alone to have the reader make of it what they will, I feel that these plates alone don't convey enough sense of their context or significance.

      No wonder Whately preferred Sheridan.

    1. me Truth which was dry and Unaffecting in a vulgar Authors words, Charms and Subdues you when cloath'd in his

      It's often more than just the words themselves or the way they are delivered that make such a difference, though. The first example that came to mind is Thersites's and Achilles's speeches in Book 2 of The Illiad, where Thersites (a lowly, uncouth, and ugly soldier) says essentially the same speech (in mostly the same words) as Achilles--one is well received and the other is not, but the difference wasn't strictly in charm.

    2. et if you will believe it impos­sible, and upon that nr any other prejudice for­hear t'attcmpl it, l'mc like lo go without my Wishes; my Arguments what ever they may be in themselves, arc weak and impertinent lo you, be­cause you make them useless and defeat them of the End they aim at

      Here Astell seems to be saying that if her audience is prejudiced against her, has already set in their minds that her task is impossible, then she'll get nowhere. Nice insight into the nature of the audience and their receptivity. Sometimes a fight is lost before it's ever begun, though that doesn't mean to stop trying. There's always another audience, one brought on by another exigence, context, or cultural technique (although below, she seems to be insisting that there's some kernel of perwasive opportunity left to her, can she but root it out).

    1. you to Arm your Selves, supposing you to be of the Masculine Sex, and of Valiant Heroical Natures, to enter into the Field of Warr;

      Interesting call for the reader to put themselves into this perspective, to immerse themselves in this context; the following list is a map of the journey she plans on taking the reader through with her orations, the diversity of which illustrate the breadth and scope of rhetoric and persuasion.

    1. the study of language and literature, social institutions and law, ideology and class structure, and personal psychology and human nature

      What is, "another definition of rhetoric?"

  6. Jan 2019
    1. familiar toolsmight sound strange when they are hooked up to other technologie

      Instead of a tool, could rhetoric ever be seen as a lens in which to view or interpret other technologies?

    2. ra in which moneymight be dubbed the foremost rhetorical proof. In

      Ethos, Logos, Pathos, Numus($)

    1. s opposed to the dynamic,insurgent and more cyclical time of becoming orAion

      The "time" represented by Aion is unbounded, in contrast to Chronos as empirical time divided into past, present, and future: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aion_(deity)

      Unlike both Aion or Chronos, kairos is a particular moment of time, a timely or opportune moment. It is situated in a particular context or need (a rhetorical situation).

    1. the rhetorical tradition
    2. divergent connections

      Muckelbauer again uses the term "divergent." although here, I believe the author is suggesting that rhetoric can be used as a tool to find similarities between differing subjects or areas.

    3. "appearances" and to "seeming"

      Muckelbauer's language use and word choice here is similar to Lanham describing rhetoric as a cosmetic.

    4. intervening in so many disparate "content" areas, this historyalso offers a wealth of divergent structural possibilities for rhetoric.

      Here, is the author suggesting that the different forms or structures of rhetoric compete or can be at odds with each another?

  7. Oct 2018
    1. Transition, then, from what to what? Transcendence of what kind? What sort of transformations?

      The author utilized rhetorical questions to arouse interest of his readers, to make them think deeply with his idea and stand by his argument at the same time. With these three questions, audience will pay more attention in this article and have more interest to continue reading. Thus, the tool that the author employed is a good example which is worth to be used in our own essay.

  8. Aug 2018
    1. Rhetorical discourse, I argue, directlyreflects and mediates the historical negotiation of power in the Romanrepublic among members of the elite senatorial order and between thatorder and the citizenry, a relation expressed in the well-known formulaSenatus Populusque Romanus.



  9. Jul 2018
  10. Apr 2018
  11. Feb 2018
    1. Most people are rather confident oftheir ability to recognize bullshit and to avoid being taken in by it. So thephenomenon has not aroused much deliberate concern, or attracted muchsustained inquir

      Is this still present today. Witness this essay

    1. “These are unprecedented, brazen acts of censorship by a corporate monopoly that controls a primary channel of public communication,” said Nehlen, who’s running against Ryan in the GOP congressional primaries in Wisconsin. “It has severely compromised the integrity of our election processes, and Congress needs to hold public hearings and conduct a full investigation into these matters without delay.”

      This language is ripe for studying.

  12. Jan 2018
  13. Apr 2017
    1. Rhetoricaldiscourseiscalledintoinstancesofrhetoricalspeakingand'writingarestronglyinvited

      Hypothesis was not cooperating with me, but I was trying to highlight "perceives" because I think this word complicates his idea of rhetorical situations. The criticism from Vatz is that he denies the rhetor's agency and gives the situation too much power over rhetoric, but this instance does seem to suggest some sort of agency on the part of the rhetor.

    2. Meal1ing;-contextisageu"eral.couditiQI1ofhumancommunicationandisnot~~onymouswithrhetoricalsituation

      This is obviously key, but I feel like some examples would help.

      Can we think up some good examples of this difference?

      I suspect it's the difference between situational factors which are not directly relevant/impactful to the rhetoric (such as whether the speech was delivered on a Wednesday, whether there was a light rain the night before, the size of the room in which the rhetor is speaking) and the factors which contribute to some urgency that demands a rhetorical response (recent political actions, a sudden death, impending threats from an outside force, etc.)

    3. eporterscreatedhundredsofmessages

      I like this example; the moment was so urgent that it demanded a rhetorical response, but a particular kind of rhetorical response that could be predicted before it was ever written out. It could be predicted so easily that hundreds of reporters performed it almost at once. There are certain types of rhetorical performances that we expect, and certain people from whom we expect those responses, to the point that they become comforting and predictable, regardless of the drama of the context:


    4. magineforamomenttheGettysburgAddressentirelyseparatedfromitssituationandexistingforusindependentofanyrhetoricalcontext

      This is of course easier said than done. I think this video is an interesting experiment of this idea in action, though. It includes 40 "inspirational moments" from different films. In context, each is the climax of the film, and is meant to be a persuasive rhetorical moment, but pulled from their contexts and strung together, many of the moments lose their emotional impact unless perhaps you are already so familiar with that particular film that the context floods back to you all at once:


    1. implyput,thedeconstructionofthesubjectopensuppossi-bilitiesforthefieldofRhetoricbyenablingustoreadtherhetori-calsituationasaneventstructurednotbyalogicofinfluencebutbyalogicofarticulation.

      What implications does this have for all the weeks we were worrying about a hostile audience? If you can't address that problem, then why go through such lengths? What has this all been about?

    1. Who is to say that robbing a people of its language is Jess violent than war? -RAY GWYN SMITH'

      This is particularly evident when examining American policies aimed at "civilizing" native peoples and remaking tribal worlds in the image of America (and by extension, England and Western civilization). A central piece of the violence the American government perpetrated against Native peoples of North America was forcing them to abandon their own languages in favor of English. In other words, "taming" the native populations of North America inherently involved the "taming" of a "wild tongue."

  14. Mar 2017
    1. The themes or language and meaning, ethics and ideology. and argument and knowledge recur and overlap al each stage in the formulation of rhetorical theories during the twentieth century.

      Not to belittle anything that people did for rhetoric during the 20th century, but weren't these the same ideas present in rhetorical form during the height of the Greek philosophers? Is the difference in the theory rather than the practice?

      It reminds me of earlier point Raj made about the difference between rediscovery and reinventing; was this the rediscovery aspect?

  15. Feb 2017
    1. Part V. Connexion of Place

      This section is jumping out at me this time around. Keep it mind later on when we turn to discuss the elements of the rhetorical situation. Campbell opens up for discussing the material dimensions of rhetoric: not simply rhetoric as the discursive activity of humans, but as an emergent aspect of human and nonhuman relations. Also, recall here Rickert on the role of the caves themselves in the making of cave art.

  16. Oct 2016
    1. “Why prolong the inevi-table? We are all one stitch from here [the shelf] to there [the yard sale].”

      Note how the brackets are used for editorial clarification; to make the quote make sense.

    2. (sitting on a bench to watch the sunset, riding a gondola, capturing her beauty through art)

      Again, note the use of parentheticals here.

    3. Alongside this sheer pleasure in ma-teriality and movement, Pixar operates with a nostalgia that is both regressive (in its reliance on traditional notions of gender, class, and morality) and liberat-ing (in its embrace of an ironic, detached view of the present).

      Note the use of the parentheticals here to further clarify the author's point.

    4. “making strange,” as Brecht would have it

      Note how Scott uses/introduces another thinker's (in this case Brecht's) terminology.

    5. That is, Pixar’s films encourage adult audiences to both encounter and deny each film’s veiled dark content and its implications for them.

      Note how Scott restates her point here; clarification is always important.

  17. Sep 2016
    1. Who would have believed that back in 1959?

      Obama uses a rhetorical question here to show the stark difference between the present and the 1950s in America. He calls people to reflect on the past and therefore to draw conclusions about the progress and change that has occurred since then. By reflecting on the past, he calls his audience to consider the future. He uses this strategy to engage his audience and invite them to participate.

  18. Jul 2016
    1. Whereas Bitzer suggests that the rhetor discovers exigencies that already exist, Vatz argues that exigencies are created for audiences through the rhetor's work.

      Bitzer="discovers" exigence. Vatz="created" exigence.

  19. Jun 2016
    1. Whereas topical forms of invention rely on fixed, generic heuristics, and predetermined analytical methods, choric forms prioritize the unpredictable, affective elements of personal experience across particular places and times as central to the inventive process.1 Our synthesis of the scholarship concerning choric invention identifies four primary principles: first, the consideration of space and place as agentive entities rather than as mere backdrop for human action; second, the juxtaposition of subjective experience against objective history; third, and quite similar to the second, a resistance to synthesis in favor of multiplicity; and fourth, and for our purposes here most important, its inability to be codified into a predetermined, stable, or teachable system.

      a nice summation of work on chora and choric invention. I wonder, though, how mobility might be added to this list. Thomas Rickert makes an interesting case for the ongoing attunement to ambient environments via a choric mode of thinking.

  20. Jan 2016
    1. Will we accept an economy where only a few of us do spectacularly well? 

      A rhetorical question to which the answer is clearly "No!" But phrasing it as a question forces the audience to momentarily consider the truth of the statement and thus more emphatically agree with Obama's alternative statement that follows.

    1. Will we accept an economy where only a few of us do spectacularly well?

      A rhetorical question to which the answer is clearly "No!" But phrasing it as a question forces the audience to momentarily consider the truth of the statement and thus more emphatically agree with Obama's alternative statement that follows.