17 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2021
  2. Feb 2021
    1. Smalltalk was a revolutionary system developed by the Learning Research Group (LRG) at Xerox PARC in the 1970s, led by Alan Kay. Smalltalk was comprised of a programming language, a development environment, and a graphical user interface (GUI), running on PARC’s groundbreaking Alto computer. In fact, it is most famous for being the GUI that inspired Steve Jobs when he and a group of Apple engineers visited PARC in 1979. Smalltalk pioneered overlapping windows, popup menus, and paned browsers, all controlled by a mouse. All of these UI elements have come down to us today through systems like the Macintosh and Microsoft Windows. Smalltalk was also one of the earliest, and most influential, object-oriented programming languages, which make up the most dominant type of programming languages today. Object-oriented languages are designed to make it easy to reuse existing pieces of code, but in a flexible way. Python, Java, Ruby, and Objective-C, among others, all owe debts to ideas originally developed in Smalltalk.

      Smalltalk是70年代由Alan Kay领导的施乐公司PARC学习研究小组(LRG)开发的一个革命性系统。Smalltalk由一门编程语言、一个开发环境和一个图形用户界面(GUI)组成,运行在PARC开创性的Alto计算机上。事实上,它最出名的地方是它的图形用户界面,当史蒂夫 · 乔布斯和一群苹果工程师在1979年访问帕洛阿尔托研究中心时,这个图形界面给了他灵感。Smalltalk开创了重叠窗口、弹出式菜单和窗格浏览器,所有这些都由鼠标控制。今天,所有这些UI元素都通过Macintosh和微软Windows等系统传递给我们。Smalltalk也是最早、最有影响力的面向对象编程语言之一,它构成了今天最主要的编程语言类型。面向对象语言的设计是为了使现有的代码易于重用,但方式灵活。Python、Java、Ruby和Objective-C等,都要归功于 Smalltalk 中最初开发的思想。

    2. The Smalltalk Zoo is a collection of historical versions of the revolutionary graphical programming and user environment Smalltalk, originally developed at Xerox PARC, ranging from the 1972 version all the way to the modern “Squeak” version whose development began in 1995. These emulated Smalltalk environments run in your web browser and are hosted by CHM at smalltalkzoo.thechm.org.

      Smalltalk Zoo 是一个历史版本的集合,这个革命性的图形化编程和用户环境 Smalltalk 最初是在施乐帕洛阿尔托研究中心开发的,从1972年版本一直到1995年开发的现代版本“ Squeak”。这些模拟的 Smalltalk 环境运行在你的网页浏览器上,由 CHM 托管在 smalltalkzoo.thechm.org

  3. Oct 2020
    1. Otherwise, you should have at least 256 K bytes of memory. This much memory is re­quired because the whole integrated environment lives in one address space.

      :) now that's compact.

  4. Jul 2019
    1. The Lisp Machine (which could just as easily have been, say, a Smalltalk machine) was a computing environment with a coherent, logical design, where the “turtles go all the way down.” An environment which enabled stopping, examining the state of, editing, and resuming a running program, including the kernel. An environment which could actually be fully understood by an experienced developer.  One where nearly all source code was not only available but usefully so, at all times, in real time.  An environment to which we owe so many of the innovations we take for granted. It is easy for us now to say that such power could not have existed, or is unnecessary. Yet our favorite digital toys (and who knows what other artifacts of civilization) only exist because it was once possible to buy a computer designed specifically for exploring complex ideas.  Certainly no such beast exists today – but that is not what saddens me most.  Rather, it is the fact that so few are aware that anything has been lost.
  5. May 2018
    1. One could argue that perhaps what we see in this history is not the creation ofobjects as an ontological element but rather the development of a language to such alevel of complexity that it is finally able to describe objects that already exist in theworld outside of language. Against this objection, it must be noted that what we witnessin this history, what drives it forward, is the difficulty of relating language to world,whether it is a simulated world or a new world of computer graphics. Moreover, theexamples presented here and in the textbooks and manuals for object-oriented pro-gramming demonstrate the often-difficult art of defining the objects that will constitutea given system
    2. None of these objects, e.g., bits, functions, classes, and even the object thatSmalltalk invented, exist as objects outside of language. This is not to say that they areonly linguistic or that they do not really exist. The digital real exists and exerts itselfwithin its ossification into object form, but in the real, there are no objects, merely avast field of electric difference. Likewise, it is not to say that everything is language orthat everything is material. A discourse that does not affect the electronic system withinthe machine can never flip a bit. Conversely, for electric difference to mean anything, itmust be delimited as an object, process, or other data type within language. Program-ming is a process and system of representing and simultaneously hiding the real inlanguage.

      Esta muy potente idea tendría que ver con el interpretacionimo en la relación entre lenguaje y realidad.

    3. er. Kay ultimately attempted toclose his own ontological circle and find object-computers recursively defining eachother and infinitively deferring any concrete representation. It is striking how much thisvision anticipated the current world of networked computers with large cloud-basedtasks spread across multiple individual machin

      Ideas de Maturana y Varela respecto a la clausura operacional dialogarían fuertemente con este enfoque de la computación.

    4. Smalltalk also advanced this metaphor of computation as objects along anotherrelated track that turned computation into a self-referential system of interactingcomputers. Kay (1996) describes this understanding of objects in relation to computers.Smalltalk is a recursion on the notion of computer itself. Instead of dividingBcomputer stuff^into things each less strong than the whole—like data structures,procedures, and functions which are the usual paraphernalia of programminglanguages—each Smalltalk object is a recursion on the entire possibilities of thecomputer. Thus its semantics are a bit like having thousands and thousands ofcomputer all hooked together by a very fast network. Questions of concreterepresentation can thus be postponed almost indefinit
    5. Thus, the digital object ossifies out of two histories, one virtual and another visual.Within computation, the object arises out of a desire to create a model of the worldwithin the computer but at the same time out of an attempt to create a whole new visualworld native to the compute
  6. Feb 2018
    1. todo esto se lleva a cabo a través del lenguaje: “para decirlo de una forma más radical, nos diseñamos a nosotros mismos (y a las redes sociales y tecnológicas en las que tienen significado nuestras vidas) en el lenguaje” (Winograd y Flores 1986: 78); o, para volver a Maturana, el ‘lenguajear’ es la forma fundamental de la existencia de los seres humanos. No sólo eso; el lenguaje está íntimamente conectado con el flujo de emociones ya que el ‘lenguajear’ y el ‘emocionar’ proporcionan la base para la coordinación recursiva del comportamiento a través de la creación de ámbitos consensuales. Maturana llama conversación “al trenzado consensual del lenguaje y las emociones” (

      Interesante la aparición del lenguaje en las teorías autopoiéticas. No pareciera ser un constructo aparte de lo social, lo mental y lo biológico, e incluso lo artefactual (en la separación de Jonas) sino integrado a ellos, en sus distintas esferas. ¿Cómo los lenguajes de programación atraviesan dichas capas?

  7. Jan 2018
    1. Los conceptos de biomimética y cuna-a-cuna están ganando cada vez más atención en el diseño de productos. En América Latina la agroecología se ha convertido en un espacio de encuentro de la agricultura campesina y el diseño ecológico, a menudo en conjunto con movimientos sociales, como Vía Campesina.

      Averiguar: ¿Qué es cuna-a-cuna? y ¿Vía Campesina?

  8. Mar 2017
    1. Seco, si bien es una implementación del 2004, tiene varias ideas que son similares a las de Grafoscopio de hoy, incluyendo la persistencia de una imagen (ellos usan HyperGraphDB, pero incluso mencionan Smalltalk), el hecho de ser una aplicación de escritorio y la idea de una computación p2p, o la opción de embeber el motor de rendering de un browser o el browser mismo en un ambiente más rico, incluso la inspiración de los notebooks de mathematica.

  9. Dec 2016
    1. Smalltalk doesn’t have to be pragmatic, because it’s better than its imitators and the things that make it different are also the things that give it an advantage.
  10. Nov 2016
    1. TR: How do you account for the fact that C++ is both widely criticized and resented by many programmers but at the same time very broadly used? Why is it so successful?BS: The glib answer is, There are just two kinds of languages: the ones everybody complains about and the ones nobody uses.There are more useful systems developed in languages deemed awful than in languages praised for being beautiful–many more. The purpose of a programming language is to help build good systems, where “good” can be defined in many ways. My brief definition is, correct, maintainable, and adequately fast. Aesthetics matter, but first and foremost a language must be useful; it must allow real-world programmers to express real-world ideas succinctly and affordably.

      La idea, de Stroupstrup en C++, de un lenguaje para escribir sistemas (¿de computo?) constrasta con la de uno que sirva a la expresión creativa del espíritu humano, de Ingalls en Smalltalk. El programador profesional como destinatario del lenguaje en C++ también contrasta con los niños en Smalltalk.

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  11. Sep 2016
    1. This is aimed at people in the tech industry, and is more about what you can do with your career than at a hackathon. I’m not going to discuss policy and regulation, although they’re no less important than technological innovation. A good way to think about it, via Saul Griffith, is that it’s the role of technologists to create options for policy-makers.

      Nice to see this conversation happening between technology and broader socio-political problems so explicit in Bret's discourse.

      What we're doing in fact is enabling this conversation between technologist and policy-makers first, and we're highlighting it via hackathon/workshops, but not reducing it only to what happens there (an interesting critique to the techno-solutionism hackathon is here), using the feedback loops in social networks, but with an intention of mobilizing a setup that goes beyond. One example is our twitter data selfies (picture/link below). The necesity of addressing urgent problem that involve techno-socio-political complex entanglements is more felt in the Global South.

      ^ Up | Twitter data selfies: a strategy to increase the dialog between technologist/hackers and policy makers (click here for details).