12 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2019
    1. This slave code shows that this piece of legislation was used to allow slave owners to promote the spread of christianity while still maintaining ownership over their slaves. Also perhaps a select view people were baptizing slaves in order to try to circumvent laws and this was a way to prevent this from happening. This also perpetuates the idea that identity of being slave is passed down via the mother and this cannot be changed.

  2. May 2019
    1. culturally or anthropologically sensitive than they were at that time

      what does "culturally or anthropologically sensitive" mean? Her continued explanation sounds like it means using interpreters, local guides, learning the language. It does not sound at all like it means respecting local sovereignty or valuing local knowledge. This seems like a SUPER exploitative vision of anthropology, which likely is depressingly realistic for how it is used by the majority of people who claim to be "trained" in cultural anthropology.

  3. Jan 2019
    1. Second, I believe that the concept of entrainment could open new doors for understanding post-impact behavior, or the transition from post-impact to pre-impact (or everyday) behavi

      Neal argues that the temporal concept of entrainment (two things synchronizng their pace) can help to differentiate another long-standing critique of disaster research -- the different disaster phase impacts on individuals and sub-groups over time. This gets at his concern (see also Brenda Phillips' work) for feminist, post-colonial and critical theory perspectives on the study of disaster and social change.

      Here, Neal posits that returning to pre-impact social rhythms could be a better measure of social change catalyzed by a disaster.

      "Rather than using economic, demographic, familial or other measures of social change, entrainment could be a key measure in understanding social change and disaster."

    1. Cross-cultural disaster research may also provide further insights regard­ing disaster phases.

      Evokes feminist, critical and post-colonial theory, as well as multi- and inter-disciplinary research methods/perspectives, e.g., anthropology, etc.

      These points of view may also provide insights on how disaster phases interact with wholly different notions of social time.

    2. Phillips' (1991) analysis of housing following the Loma Prieta Earth­quake confirms these different phases. Also, her study shows that different groups of people, often based upon such factors as social class or ethnicity, go through the phases of housing recovery at different times.

      Makes a good case here for the need to use feminist and/or post-colonial lens to study disaster phases.

  4. Oct 2018
  5. allred720fa18.commons.gc.cuny.edu allred720fa18.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. To procure substitutes for his lost sailors, as well as supplies of water and sails, the captain, at the earliest opportunity, had made for Baldivia, the southernmost civilized port of Chili and South America;

      This "civilized port" called Valdivia, was named for invader Pedro de Valdivia, who also established what became Santiago de Chile in the mid 16th century.

      Valdivia became the first governor of the Captaincy General of Chile. In that post, he obeyed the viceroy of Peru and, through him, the King of Spain and his bureaucracy. Responsible to the governor, town councils known as Cabildo administered local municipalities, the most important of which was Santiago." (History of Chile), Wikipedia)

      "The greatest resistance to Spanish rule came from the Mapuche people, who opposed European conquest and colonization until the 1880s; this resistance is known as the Arauco War. Valdivia died at the Battle of Tucapel, defeated by Lautaro, a young Mapuche toqui (war chief), but the European conquest was well underway." See "A Brief History of the Mapuche People."

    2. Conception

      "View of Concepción, 1615." Concepción is situated just north of the Island of Santa Maria.

    3. saya-y-manta

      See this page on the history of the saya y el manto in Spanish colonial Peru

    4. Captain Delano could not but bethink him of the beauty of that relationship which could present such a spectacle of fidelity on the one hand and confidence on the other. The scene was heightened by, the contrast in dress, denoting their relative positions. The Spaniard wore a loose Chili jacket of dark velvet; white small-clothes and stockings, with silver buckles at the knee and instep; a high-crowned sombrero, of fine grass; a slender sword, silver mounted, hung from a knot in his sash–the last being an almost invariable adjunct, more for utility than ornament, of a South American gentleman’s dress to this hour.

      See this article by Verônica Undurraga Schüler on the dynamics of class relationships as they pertain to Spanish-colonial constructions of masculine authority and honor. In particular, it addresses "the relationship between honor and social practices in Chile's eighteenth century and analyzes ... various manifestations of the social ways used to deal with honor at that time, together with the inquiries about mechanisms used to restore honor and its links with traditional masculinity."

  6. Sep 2018
    1. Down I sat, with my heart as full as it could hold, and yet so hungry that I could not sit neither; but going out to see what I could find, and walking among the trees, I found six acorns, and two chestnuts, which were some refreshment to me.

      Again, hunger comes up. Mary speaks of both the need for nourishment both physically and spiritually.

  7. Mar 2017
    1. the northern frontier

      The Northern Frontier is a historical term which regards the arrival and exploitation of the Arctic region by outsider actors, or Tan’ngit, as a deterministic outcome of economic development. The notion of a predestined Arctic frontier therefore serves as a trend that significantly predates the Mackenzie Valley and Western Arctic gas pipeline and energy corridor proposal of 1977. Beginning in the 19th century, the arrival of imperial powers to the region sparked the beginning of a prolonged era of economic transformation and exploitation, fueled by the engine of an emergent capitalist economy and in the aura of colonial expansion. The establishment of industrial companies in the region, such as the Hudson Bay Company or the American Commercial Company, signified a physical presence in the region which symbolized a flag-staffing on the region. The economic trade among Inuit communities would be transformed as a result of this development. A primary example of this can be seen in the commercialization of the bowhead whale, which marked a significant advance for the drive of industrial development in the United States. The utility of whale products became widespread within metropolitan commerce, as “whale oil found its way to lighthouses, candle makers, and factory machines, while baleen formed corset stays and buggy whips”. This innovative process of commodifying the marine ecosystem of the Beaufort Sea attracted significant labor and capital investment, a development which culminated in the federal support of whale extraction from the region by the end of the century. The extension of the frontier moves beyond economic development as well. The emergence of scientific exploration in the region, often heralded for its “neutrality and objectivity”, served a particularly one-dimensional purpose in mapping the geography, ecology, and resource potential of the Arctic for imperialist powers. The historical basis of the Northern Frontier becomes important in understanding the cumulative experience of the indigenous communities upon the arrival of the pipeline and corridor proposal.

      Stuhl, Andrew. Unfreezing The Arctic: Science, Colonialism, and the Transformation of Inuit Lands. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2016.