5 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2018
  2. Sep 2017
    1. While it intervenes to protect legitimate state interests, the state must nevertheless put into place a robust regime that ensures the fulfilment of a three-fold requirement. These three requirements apply to all restraints on privacy (not just informational privacy). They emanate from the procedural and content-based mandate of Article 21. The first requirement that there must be a law in existence to justify an encroachmenton privacy is an express requirement of Article 21. For, no person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except in accordance with the procedure established by law. The existence of law is an essential requirement. Second, the requirement of aneed, in terms of a legitimate state aim, ensures that the nature and content of the law which imposes the restriction falls within the zone of reasonableness mandated by Article 14, which is a guarantee against arbitrary state action. The pursuit of a legitimate state aim ensures that the law does not suffer from

      21 obligates the state to take steps to protect privacy (even in horizontal relationships?)

    2. reasonable expectation that it will be utilised

      Does the constitutional right to privacy envisage the purpose limitation principle? Does it only apply to state/private parties acting on behalf of state or for purely horizontal relationships as well?

  3. Feb 2016
    1. horizontal collaboration

      Terminology note: For Brown, 'horizontal' seems to reference the sometimes-at-tension network and protocol theories, where network theorists sometimes neglect to consider how protocols assemble nodes into hierarchies, (i.e.,compose edges/structures). In short, power and social relations are not distributed "horizontally" / cast in pure lines.

  4. Dec 2014
    1. This can not occur in the natural world.

      Genes from unrelated species may be incorporated in the wild by the process known as horizontal gene transfer.

      For example, approximately 8% of the human genome originated in viruses.

      Up to a quarter of the cow genome apparently originated in snakes, and was probably spread by ticks around the animal kingdom.