357 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2023
    1. 个人学习可能取决于他人行为的主张突出了将学习环境视为一个涉及多个互动参与者的系统的重要性
  2. Dec 2022
    1. Economists explain that markets work bestwith “perfect information.” And visibilityfeeds this market by translating and sharingskills. But the price of transparency in themodern age is invaded privacy, as well as biasinherent in automated products and services
    1. Imagine what happens when subscribers change activities, interests, or focus. As a result, they may no longer be interested in the products and services you offer. The emails they receive from you are now either ‘marked as read’ in their inbox or simply ignored. They neither click the spam reporting button nor attempt to find the unsubscribe link in the text. They are no longer your customers, but you don’t know it.
  3. Nov 2022
    1. partnerships, networking, and revenue generation such as donations, memberships, pay what you want, and crowdfunding

      I have thought long about the same issue and beyond. The triple (wiki, Hypothesis, donations) could be a working way to search for OER, form a social group processing them, and optionally support the creators.

      I imagine that as follows: a person wants to learn about X. They can head to the wiki site about X and look into its Hypothesis annotations, where relevant OER with their preferred donation method can be linked. Also, study groups interested in the respective resource or topic can list virtual or live meetups there. The date of the meetups could be listed in a format that Hypothesis could search and display on a calendar.

      Wiki is integral as it categorizes knowledge, is comprehensive, and strives to address biases. Hypothesis stitches websites together for the benefit of the site owners and the collective wisdom that emerges from the discussions. Donations support the creators so they can dedicate their time to creating high-quality resources.

      Main inspirations:

      Deschooling Society - Learning Webs

      Building the Global Knowledge Graph

      Schoolhouse calendar

    1. Donations

      To add some other intermediary services:

      To add a service for groups:

      To add a service that enables fans to support the creators directly and anonymously via microdonations or small donations by pre-charging their Coil account to spend on content streaming or tipping the creators' wallets via a layer containing JS script following the Interledger Protocol proposed to W3C:

      If you want to know more, head to Web Monetization or Community or Explainer

      Disclaimer: I am a recipient of a grant from the Interledger Foundation, so there would be a Conflict of Interest if I edited directly. Plus, sharing on Hypothesis allows other users to chime in.

    1. convert the string such that each 16-bit unit occupies only one byte

      What is a 16-bit "unit"?

      How can a 16-bit unit fit in 8 bits (1 byte)?

    1. Post.in_order_of(:type, %w[Draft Published Archived]).order(:created_at).pluck(:name) which generates SELECT posts.name FROM posts ORDER BY CASE posts.type WHEN 'Draft' THEN 1 WHEN 'Published' THEN 2 WHEN 'Archived' THEN 3 ELSE 4 END ASC, posts.created_at ASC
  4. Oct 2022
    1. The Ruby on Rails framework provides a builtin server tool, which you can access with the rails server command. The "rails server" is not an application server by itself, but just a small wrapper that launches your application in an application server. This is why people do not use "rails server" in production. They use an application server – such as Passenger – directly. "rails server" uses Puma by default as of Rails 5.
    1. However, most of the sites featured on Omeka's Showcase and Blog only feature a small number of publications for the purpose of a more focused exhibition, rather than large bibliographies.

      focused exhibition through small ... i don't get it....

  5. Sep 2022
    1. “Internationalization is the design and development of a product, application or document content that enables easy localization for target audiences that vary in culture, region, or language. Localization refers to the adaptation of a product, application or document content to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target market (a locale).”
    1. First, to clarify - what is "code", what is "data"? In this article, when I say "code", I mean something a human has written, that will be read by a machine (another program or hardware). When I say "data", I mean something a machine has written, that may be read by a machine, a human, or both. Therefore, a configuration file where you set logging.level = DEBUG is code, while virtual machine instructions emitted by a compiler are data. Of course, code is data, but I think this over-simplified view (humans write code, machines write data) will serve us best for now...
    1. Some people eventually realize that the code quality is important, but they lack of the time to do it. This is the typical situation when you work under pressure or time constrains. It is hard to explain to you boss that you need another week to prepare your code when it is “already working”. So you ship the code anyway because you can not afford to spent one week more.
    2. Code explains what and how Documentation explains why.
    1. throughout an individual's schooling, the activity of readinglacks a coherent or explicit relationship to work that is assessed,unlike writing (Du Boulay 1999; Saltmarsh & Saltmarsh, 2008)

      Du Boulay, 1999; Saltmarsh & Saltmarsh, 2008<br /> Noticing that they've left these references off of the end of the paper.

      If we measure what we care about, why don't we do more grading and assessment of students' evidence of reading in addition to their writing? If we looked more closely at note taking and understanding first and foremost, would the ultimate analysis sort itself out? Instead we look only at the end products instead of the process. Focus more on the process and first class work here and the results will take care of themselves.

      cross reference:

      take care of the pennies and the pounds will take care of themselves (see: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/take_care_of_the_pennies_and_the_pounds_will_take_care_of_themselves)

    1. oallyoung menpraytakewarning,Highandlowofevery decree,Giveupdrirkingandnight-walking,Blayothoaeandshunbedcompany.Drinkhos"r,tmanyamantorain,‘Someithasevntacrossthesea,Someit.hascausedto die injail,”‘Andsomeuponthegollowstree,London PrintedandPublishedatTAYLOR'S‘SongMart,93,BrickLane,Bethnal Green,"(ienetheRailway Arch.)Haw!‘and the TradeSupplied.

      The night of the murder

  6. Aug 2022
  7. Jul 2022
    1. 5.5 Logic, reason, and common sense are your best tools for synthesizing reality and understanding what to do about it.

      5.5 Logic, reason, and common sense are your best tools for synthesizing reality and understanding what to do about it.

    2. 4.4 Find out what you and others are like.

      4.4 Find out what you and others are like.

    3. 4.3 Understand the great brain battles and how to control them to get what “you” want.

      4.3 Understand the great brain battles and how to control them to get what “you” want.

    4. 2 Use the 5-Step Process to Get What You Want Out of Life

      2 Use the 5-Step Process to Get What You Want Out of Life

  8. May 2022
    1. The metaverse definition is a bit wily, fuzzy, and moulded as per people’s objectives. In short, there cannot be a general definition of the Metaverse. There are a lot of articles which talk about the invention of the Metaverse. They claim metaverse was coined years ago in the novel Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson. Here, he quoted metaverse as a combination of digital aspects that builds a parallel universe to the real world.
    1. Also referred to as the backend development, Express.js is popularly used to design a web application’s behind-the-scenes architecture. The backend of an application is not visible to the end-users, but it exists. It is an inevitable part of the web application.
    1. Making the right choice between NativeScript vs Flutter can be overwhelming! This is because dozens of technology frameworks have made their mark in the coding industry. And anyway, when we are given choices that we can’t count on our fingers, Making a choice is as it is difficult.
    1. Second, we shape the work before giving it to a team. A small senior group works in parallel to the cycle teams. They define the key elements of a solution before we consider a project ready to bet on. Projects are defined at the right level of abstraction: concrete enough that the teams know what to do, yet abstract enough that they have room to work out the interesting details themselves.

    1. build a browser that comes pre-installed with node.js

      Nah. Just stop programming directly against NodeJS to start with!

      The Web platform is a multi-vendor standardized effort involving broad agreement to implement a set of common interfaces. NodeJS is a single implementation of a set of APIs that seemed good (to the NodeJS developers) at the time, and that could change whenever the NodeJS project decides it makes sense to.

      (Projects like WebRun which try to provide a shim to let people continue to program against NodeJS's APIs but run the result in the browser is a fool's errand. Incredibly tempting, but definitely the wrong way to go about tackling the problem.)

  9. Apr 2022
    1. “An NFT marketplace is abbreviated as a digital token. It is specifically designed to be used as proof of a digital certificate of the proprietary rights for things like tweets, physical or virtual assets, codes, videos and much more. For example, the very first tweet of Jack Dorsey (best known as being the co-founder of Twitter) was sold as an NFT for $2.9m.”
  10. Mar 2022
    1. mono

      mononucleosis = the presence of an abnormally large number of mononuclear leukocytes, or monocytes, in the blood. - definition pathology

      Mononucleosis is an infectious illness that’s usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It’s also called mono or “the kissing disease.”

    1. level 1Fatal_Taco · 2 days ago · edited 2 days agoArch Linux, and likely most distros, are defined by these few things and are not limited to:The Linux Kernel, what type of config and modules it's been compiled with.The pre-packaged programs it comes with by default.The init.The package manager.The repositories it references.The slightly differing Linux Filesystem Hierarchy.The types of computers it runs on.
    2. Just like any other distribution, Arch Linux is just a collection of utilities strapped together running Linux kernel under the hood.
    1. Ruby Object Mapper (rom-rb) is a fast ruby persistence library with the goal of providing powerful object mapping capabilities without limiting the full power of the underlying datastore.
    1. ensures active participation
    2. A larger group would limit each student’s participation and make scheduling of regular study sessions a real problem.
    3. your work will just be much more effective.
    4. A study group that is too large is more likely to digress into casual conversation.
    5. take short breaks at least once an hour.
    6. Don’t let a wrong answer be the last thing you wrote on a subject, because you will most likely continue to remember the wrong answer.
    7. reviewing and applying stage of the learning cycle involves studying and using the material you have been exposed to
    8. take the learning cycle to its conclusion and a new beginning.
    9. Effective studying is your most important tool to combat test anxiety,
    1. What is scamScam is a tricky effort to grab someone else property especially money by promising nonsense sum of money back to the victims, nevertheless it won't ever and never happen. However many ways to scam and all those categorized as crappy benefits upon the other's losesHow to avoid being scammedSimply use your healthy mind, nobody in this world would give you free money except your parents, verified donation institutions, very kind of people you've ever met on street or wherever he was and other rare types of human - in religious points, hard to find these daysHow to categorize scam1. High Alerted Scam: i.e. HYIP - High Yield Investment Programs. This scam is the most popular and successful trick to cheat innocent's money. Do you believe your money will be doubled on the hand of anonymous person? ah.. come on... Without working or having business our money stuck on static sum. Scammer give you illusion and grab your money, that's the point2. Common or Classic Scam: e.g. Carding, MLM, Ponzi, Pyramid Scheme, Fictitious Job Offer - Shark Loan, Fake Gift Card - Microsoft Call Center - Reward Pop Up - Tech Support - Amazon Giveaway, Scam Romance, Bank Of Scam Inc, Classic 419  etc.. 3. Crypto Scam: e.g. ICO, Self Drop, Scam Elon Musk Giveaway, Fake Crypto Trading, Fake Minted NFT, Scam Bot, Cloud Mining, Smart Contract etc.. 4. Threat: e.g. Phishing, Keylogger, Click Jacking, Deceptive Sites, Harmful Software, Botnets, Brute Force, Social Engineering, Malicious Files, Data Harvester etc..

    1. That part of the Russian fears that are motivating Putin and motivating people around him is memories of past invasions of Russia, especially, of course, in Second World War. And of course, it's a terrible mistake 00:27:11 what they are doing with it. They are recreating again the same things that they should learn to avoid. But yes, these are still the terrible fruits of the seeds being planted in the 1940s.

      It's up to us to break the cycle of intergenerational pain. This is the key insight of cultural evolution towards a peaceful species. Today we reap what we sowed decades ago. In the same way, decades from now, our ancestors will reap what we sowed today.

  11. Feb 2022
    1. In the early chapters Ahrens outlines the general form and method for taking notes for a zettelkasten, though he's not overly descriptive of the method and provides no direct examples.

      In the middle chapters he talks broadly about learning research and how the zettelkasten method dovetails with these methods.

      He does this almost as if he's a good teacher showing the student an outline of what to do and why, but leaving it up to them to actually do the work and experimentation to come up with their own specific methods of use to best suit their purposes. This allows them to do the work themselves so that they have a better chance of following a simple, but easy set of rules, but in a way that will allow them to potentially more quickly become an expert at the practice.

      “The one who does the work does the learning,” writes Doyle (2008, 63) [Section 10.5]

      In some sense, he's actively practicing what he preaches as a teaching device within his own book!

      I think that this point may be actively missed by those readers who aren't actively engaging with and converting his ideas into their own and doing the work which he's actively suggesting.

    1. "Context" manipulation is one of big topic and there are many related terminologies (academic, language/implementation specific, promotion terminologies). In fact, there is confusing. In few minutes I remember the following related words and it is good CS exam to describe each :p Thread (Ruby) Green thread (CS terminology) Native thread (CS terminology) Non-preemptive thread (CS terminology) Preemptive thread (CS terminology) Fiber (Ruby/using resume/yield) Fiber (Ruby/using transfer) Fiber (Win32API) Generator (Python/JavaScript) Generator (Ruby) Continuation (CS terminology/Ruby, Scheme, ...) Partial continuation (CS terminology/ functional lang.) Exception handling (many languages) Coroutine (CS terminology/ALGOL) Semi-coroutine (CS terminology) Process (Unix/Ruby) Process (Erlang/Elixir) setjmp/longjmp (C) makecontext/swapcontext (POSIX) Task (...)
  12. Jan 2022
    1. Children construct intuitive theories of the world and alter and revise those theories as the result of new evidence.

      A very sophisticated way to say that kids make things up as they go along! Perhaps the authors' surprise comes from the fact that adults are not so different?

      There seems to be more agreement than not with Bada & Olusegun (2015) regarding the overall value of constructivism. However, it's unclear if the Piagetian-dismissing authors of Reconstructing constructivism would agree with constructivism as explained by Bada and Olusegun.

      In my experience as a First-Year Composition educator, I can say that students value the process of active learning far more than, say, formulaic, fill-in-the-blank assignments. Perhaps this is because there's more recursive inquiry and metacognition in active, process-oriented learning that reflects the theory theory?

  13. Dec 2021
    1. Note also that testators left cloth as bequests during the epidemic. Apparently they were not as concerned with clothes retaining miasma as were anti-plague ordinances of the government.

      I did not know what the word miasma meant, after searching it up I learned that it was a "highly unpleasant or unhealthy smell". I wanted to learn more about what personal hygiene was like and how it changed during the time of the plague. I learned that it was a very unsanitary time and this helped to spread the plague. The doctors were unsure where the plague could spread from some, the community continued on with their everyday routine in little sense of where the disease came from which made the plague spread more.

  14. Nov 2021
    1. Professional musicians, concert pianists get to know this instrument deeply, intimately. And through it, they're able to create with sound in a way that just dazzles us, and challenges us, and deepens us. But if you were to look into the mind of a concert pianist, and you used all the modern ways of imaging it, an interesting thing that you would see 00:11:27 is how much of their brain is actually dedicated to this instrument. The ability to coordinate ten fingers. The ability to work the pedal. The feeling of the sound. The understanding of music theory. All these things are represented as different patterns and structures in the brain. And now that you have that thought in your mind, recognize that this beautiful pattern and structure of thought in the brain 00:11:52 was not possible even just a couple hundred years ago. Because the piano was not invented until the year 1700. This beautiful pattern of thought in the brain didn't exist 5,000 years ago. And in this way, the skill of the piano, the relationship to the piano, the beauty that comes from it was not a thinkable thought until very, very recently in human history. 00:12:17 And the invention of the piano itself was not an independent thought. It required a depth of mechanical engineering. It required the history of stringed instruments. It required so many patterns and structures of thought that led to the possibility of its invention and then the possibility of the mastery of its play. And it leads me to a concept I'd like to share with you guys, which I call "The Palette of Being." 00:12:44 Because all of us are born into this life having available to us the experiences of humanity that has come so far. We typically are only able to paint with the patterns of thoughts and the ways of being that existed before. So if the piano and the way of playing it is a way of being, this is a way of being that didn't exist for people 5,000 years ago. 00:13:10 It was a color in the Palette of Being that you couldn't paint with. Nowadays if you are born, you can actually learn the skill; you can learn to be a computer scientist, another color that was not available just a couple hundred years ago. And our lives are really beautiful for the following reason. We're born into this life. We have the ability to go make this unique painting with the colors of being that are around us at the point of our birth. 00:13:36 But in the process of life, we also have the unique opportunity to create a new color. And that might come from the invention of a new thing. A self-driving car. A piano. A computer. It might come from the way that you express yourself as a human being. It might come from a piece of artwork that you create. Each one of these ways of being, these things that we put out into the world 00:14:01 through the creative process of mixing together all the other things that existed at the point that we were born, allow us to expand the Palette of Being for all of society after us. And this leads me to a very simple way to go frame everything that we've talked about today. Because I think a lot of us understand that we exist in this kind of the marvelous universe, 00:14:30 but we think about this universe as we're this tiny, unimportant thing, there's this massive physical universe, and inside of it, there's the biosphere, and inside of that, that's society, and inside of us, we're just one person out of seven billion people, and how can we matter? And we think about this as like a container relationship, where all the goodness comes from the outside to the inside, and there's nothing really special about us. 00:14:56 But the Palette of Being says the opposite. It says that the way that we are in our lives, the way that we affect our friends and our family, begin to change the way that they are able to paint in the future, begins to change the way that communities then affect society, the way that society could then affect its relationship to the biosphere, and the way that the biosphere could then affect the physical planet 00:15:21 and the universe itself. And if it's a possible thing for cyanobacteria to completely transform the physical environment of our planet, it is absolutely a possible thing for us to do the same thing. And it leads to a really important question for the way that we're going to do that, the manner in which we're going to do that. Because we've been given this amazing gift of consciousness.

      The Palette of Being is a very useful idea that is related to Cumulative Cultural Evolution (CCE) and autopoiesis. From CCE, humans are able to pass on new ideas from one generation to the next, made possible by the tool of inscribed language.

      Peter Nonacs group at UCLA as well as Stuart West at Oxford research Major Evolutionary Transitions (MET) West elucidates that modern hominids integrate the remnants of four major stages of MET that have occurred over deep time. Amanda Robins, a researcher in Nonacs group posits the idea that our species of modern hominids are undergoing a Major Systems Transition (MST), due specifically to our development of inscribed language.

      CCE emerges new technologies that shape our human environments in time frames far faster than biological evolutionary timeframes. New human experiences are created which have never been exposed to human brains before, which feedback to affect our biological evolution as well in the process of gene-culture coevolution (GCC), also known as Dual Inheritance theory. In this way, CCE and GCC are entangled. "Gene–culture coevolution is the application of niche-construction reasoning to the human species, recognizing that both genes and culture are subject to similar dynamics, and human society is a cultural construction that provides the environment for fitness-enhancing genetic changes in individuals. The resulting social system is a complex dynamic nonlinear system. " (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048999/)

      This metaphor of experiences constituting different colors on a Palette of Being is a powerful one that can contextualize human experiences from a deep time framework. One could argue that language usage automatically forces us into an anthropomorphic lens, for sophisticated language usage at the level of humans appears to be unique amongst our species. Within that constraint, the Palette of Being still provides us with a less myopic, less immediate and arguably less anthropomorphic view of human experience. It is philosophically problematic, however, in the sense that we can speculate about nonhuman modalities of being but never truly experience them. Philosopher Thomas Nagel wrote his classic paper "What it's like to be a bat" to illustrate this problem of experiencing the other. (https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/iatl/study/ugmodules/humananimalstudies/lectures/32/nagel_bat.pdf)

      We can also leverage the Palette of Being in education. Deep Humanity (DH) BEing Journeys are a new kind of experiential, participatory contemplative practice and teaching tool designed to deepen our appreciation of what it is to be human. The polycrisis of the Anthropocene, especially the self-induced climate crisis and the Covid-19 pandemic have precipitated the erosion of stable social norms and reference frames, inducing another crisis, a meaning crisis. In this context, a re-education of embodied philosophy is seen as urgent to make sense of a radically shifting human reality.

      Different human experiences presented as different colors of the Palette of Being situate our crisis in a larger context. One important Deep Humanity BEing journey that can help contextualize and make sense of our experiences is language. Once upon a time, language did not exist. As it gradually emerged, this color came to be added to our Palette of Being, and shaped the normative experiences of humanity in profound ways. It is the case that such profound shifts, lost over deep time come to be taken for granted by modern conspecifics. When such particular colors of the Palette of Being are not situated in deep time, and crisis ensues, that loss of contextualizing and situatedness can be quite disruptive, de-centering, confusing and alienating.

      Being aware of the colors in the Palette can help us shed light on the amazing aspects that culture has invisibly transmitted to us, helping us not take them for granted, and re-establish a sense of awe about our lives as human beings.

    1. How people use to write was on Papyrus which was made out of hands and other natural things you find in nature. People also wrote with black and red ink. And they would make those into scrolls. What is papyrus?

  15. Oct 2021
    1. Feed Army is a browser based unified dashboard for all your social media & online feeds.
  16. Sep 2021
  17. Aug 2021
    1. Always use the word ‘Africa’ or ‘Darkness’ or ‘Safari’ in your title.

      I love the style in which this is written. While it appears to be a "how-to" guide, the author is doing nothing more than addressing the stereotypes that surround Africa. Turning this piece into a " how NOT to " guide.

  18. Jul 2021
  19. Jun 2021
    1. "Many North American music education programs exclude in vast numbers students who do not embody Euroamerican ideals. One way to begin making music education programs more socially just is to make them more inclusive. For that to happen, we need to develop programs that actively take the standpoint of the least advantaged, and work toward a common good that seeks to undermine hierarchies of advantage and disadvantage. And that, inturn, requires the ability to discuss race directly and meaningfully. Such discussions afford valuable opportunities to confront and evaluate the practical consequences of our actions as music educators. It is only through such conversations, Connell argues, that we come to understand “the real relationships and processes that generate advantage and disadvantage”(p. 125). Unfortunately, these are also conversations many white educators find uncomfortable and prefer to avoid."

    1. Test we react correctly to any events emitted from child components:
    2. Test any directive that defines if/how child component is rendered (for example, v-if and v-for).
    1. Wooow! Have you passed this level with or without tools?

      Are they expecting the post author has written/found a tool to programmatically find the optimal solution?? That is something I would think to do but seems so unlikely to expect a general player to do that, or to think that such a tool even exists.

  20. May 2021
    1. what is ozonation?

      what is ozonation. Ozone gas perfect disinfectant and this is used to purify water. Unlike chlorine gas, which leaves harmful residual chlorine gas in the treated water, ozone leaves no harmful residual gases. Any unreacted ozone decomposes to oxygen gas.

    1. I'm coding an email for a project and man! it's such a pain. Every other client has it's own implementation and supported rules. Some don't allow even simple properties like background-image while some support most advanced rules like media queries
    2. I've worked with people at companies where this was their only responsibility. Setting up emails for clients, making sure they pass a battery of tests and look great in all browsers and clients. It's an incredible PITA and it's not a set it and forget it thing. Clients can change month to month; spam filters change, etc...
  21. Apr 2021
    1. GRADE K-4 GRADE 5-6 GRADE 7-8 GRADE 9-12 SPANISH TECH TEACHER Teacher Sign Up Sign In Teacher Sign Up Sign In GRADE K-4 GRADE 5-6 GRADE 7-8 GRADE 9-12 SPANISH TECH TEACHER TT GRADE K-4 GRADE 5-6 GRADE 7-8 GRADE 9-12 SPANISH TECH TEACHER Teacher sign up Sign In Why did ancient Greeks and Romans eat lying down? (Thinkstock) Why did ancient Greeks and Romans eat lying down? By: Ask Smithsonian, Smithsonianmag.com November 25, 2015 Published: November 25, 2015 Lexile: 1230L var addthis_config = { services_exclude: 'print,printfriendly', data_ga_property: 'UA-6457029-1', data_track_clickback: true }; var addthis_share = { url_transforms : { shorten: { twitter: 'bitly' } }, shorteners : { bitly : {} }, templates : { twitter : '{' + '{title}' + '}: {' + '{url}' + '} via @TweenTribune' } }; 530L 780L 1040L 1230L Assign to Google Classroom You asked us, "Why did ancient Greeks and Romans eat lying down?"   Reclining and dining in ancient Greece started at least as early as the 7th century BCE and was later picked up by the Romans.   To eat lying down, while others served you, was a sign of power and luxury enjoyed by the elite. People further down the social ladder copied the laid-back dining style, if they could afford to.   I mean, who wouldn't want to stretch out while chowing down, but not everyone was so lucky in ancient Greece. You see, women didn't generally get invited to banquets except for rare occasions like wedding feasts and even then they had to sit upright.   It was only in ancient Rome that customs changed, allowing upper-class women to lounge alongside men, and while it sounds sweet, all that lying down and eating can't have been good for the heartburn. Source URL: https://www.tweentribune.com/article/teen/why-did-ancient-greeks-and-romans-eat-lying-down/ Filed Under:   Video Culture Odd news Smithsonian Assigned 49 times CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION Why did people “further down the social ladder” copy people above them? Write your answers in the comments section below Please log in to post a comment COMMENTS (15) arellanoj-rob 11/30/2015 - 09:46 a.m. I think that people "further down the social ladder" copied people above them because they thought it'd earn them some sort of respect. It probably gave them sense of power back then. julianc-bag 11/30/2015 - 07:32 p.m. I don;t like eating at the dinner table I prefer the living room. ShawnaWeiser-Ste 12/02/2015 - 03:56 p.m. This seems quite unnecessary and dangerous. Its very common for people lying down to choke while they are eating, I mean come on. Good thing the women and the poor were not allowed to engage in such activities; they probably lived much longer than the rich men. laurenc-bag 12/03/2015 - 09:18 p.m. People "further down the social ladder" copied people above them, possibly to make themselves look a little wealthier than they were. It was a sign of luxury and was only enjoyed by the elite, so they wanted to experience that as well. laurenc-bag 12/03/2015 - 09:21 p.m. And, most likely, my weirdest custom at home is listening to music while watching a video on my phone while FaceTiming my friends, if that even counts as a strange custom... But, I also pray before I eat every meal with my family, which might seem strange to some people. laurenc-bag 12/03/2015 - 09:30 p.m. (It didn't allow me to take the test for some reason...) carsonb-2-bar 12/03/2015 - 10:28 p.m. In the early 7th century reclining and dining in Greece started and later on picked up by the Romans. According to the article it was a sign of power, especially when others served you. People in lower social classes copied it. The lower class people probably copied the upper-class people to be cool. Maybe it made them feel powerful. I thought the article was interesting. I never knew why many pictures back in the 7th century show people eating while lying down. I guess you could say they were the first couch potatoes! bellae1-lin 12/04/2015 - 02:57 p.m. People "further down the social ladder" copied people above them because they wanted to feel luxurious and wealthy. They would want to feel this way because they may not be treated like luxury, and they wanted to see with the eyes of a wealthy being. briannec-ste 12/07/2015 - 05:09 p.m. I personally don't like to eat laying down because I feel like I am being choked. I don't understand how laying down and being fed was a sign of wealth. The laying down not at all but the getting fed I understand. gisellem-pay 12/08/2015 - 11:11 a.m. I think that this concept is similar to our current society. Many people find or develop a custom, in which will catch on to others just to prove their power or how modern they believe they are. This also reminds me of China and foot binding. This tradition was passed down for women as a beauty concept. Page 1 of 2 Next » Take the Quiz Leave a comment ADVERTISEMENT TOPICS Animals Video Education Art Entertainment Culture Food & Health Inspiration National news Odd news Science Technology World news ADVERTISEMENT LEXILE LEVELS 500L-590L 600L-690L 700L-790L 800L-890L 900L-990L 1000L-1090L 1100L-1190L 1200L-1290L 1300L-1600L ADVERTISEMENT Take the Quiz Leave a comment ABOUT US FAQs Terms of Use Privacy Statement LOGIN Sign In Teacher Sign Up Can't Login GET IN TOUCH Contact Us Facebook Twitter Pinterest RSS The Smithsonian Institution is a trust instrumentality of the United States established by an act of Congress in 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge" googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-tt-outofpage'); }); window.webtrendsAsyncInit=function(){ var dcs=new Webtrends.dcs().init({ dcsid:"dcs8v0iiladzpxfcn5y7c8cy2_5j6f", domain:"logs1.smithsonian.museum", timezone:-5, i18n:true, fpcdom:".tweentribune.com", plugins:{ } }).track(); }; (function(){ var s=document.createElement("script"); s.async=true; s.src="https://static.media.tweentribune.com/js/webtrends.min.js"; var s2=document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0]; s2.parentNode.insertBefore(s,s2); }()); <img alt="dcsimg" id="dcsimg" width="1" height="1" src="//logs1.smithsonian.museum/dcs8v0iiladzpxfcn5y7c8cy2_5j6f/njs.gif?dcsuri=/nojavascript&amp;WT.js=No&amp;WT.tv=10.4.23&amp;dcssip=www.tweentribune.com"/>

      The central idea of the text is that people ate lying down during Ancient Greece because lying down when eating was considered to be a luxury, and symbolized a high class, although high class men and women had different standards. High class women didn't have the right to lie beside men until Ancient Rome, when the customs finally changed.

    1. It has two very different meanings, that you would have to distinguish by context. One meaning is just expressing that we have limitations. If you don't know something, that's just tough, you don't know it and you have to live with that. You don't have information if you don't have that information. The other meaning is that not only are there gaps in our knowledge, but often we don't even know what the gaps in our knowledge are. I don't know how to speak Finnish. That's a gap in my knowledge that I know about. I know that I don't know how to speak Finnish. But there are gaps in my knowledge that I'm not even aware of. That's where you can say "You don't know what you don't know" meaning that you don't even know what knowledge you are missing.

      I had this thought too.

    2. but in essence I expect OP means Rumsfeld's "unknown unknowns"
    3. But there are also unknown unknowns – the ones we don't know we don't know.
    4. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know.

      known unknown

      like what?

    5. Some risk management techniques urge practitioners to consider the "known unknowns" and the "unknown unknowns"
    6. Incidentally, I'd add that it can also be used in looking toward the future, in awareness that we lack such a crystal ball: We base our plans on our knowledge, and there'll be times where we know there is a gap in that knowledge, but we're also aware that there may be things we can't possibly foresee, because "we don't know what we don't know".
    7. Yet, in all these instances, life offers no crystal ball; there's no way of knowing what the future holds, or to be cognizant of something we are unaware of. This is the essence of "You don't know what you don't know," only it's being expressed in a comical way
    8. Had I known the van was going to overheat, I would have driven the car instead.
    9. If I had known you were going to get such bad grades on your report card, I wouldn't have let you go to the dance last weekend.
    10. If I had known your plane was going to be two hours late, I wouldn't have rushed to the airport.
    1. How is a pseudoconsole different from a pseudoterminal ?

      I'm guessing that's just a Microsoftism to make it easier to search/find things that are specifically about Microsoft's flavor of pseudoterminal.

      I see they don't use the word "pseudoterminal" at all, but they do mention

      ConPTY, or the Windows PTY

      where PTY is another synonym/name for pseudoterminal. So I think we're safe in saying that this is talking about a pseudoterminal.

    1. At first you feel confused because usual pipe constructions such as: $ echo luser && echo TopSecret | telnet foo.bar.com fail you and the problem which seemed so plain on the face of it grows into “mission impossible”.
    1. can be easily invoked directly from shell prompt or script

      Can't expect / unbuffer / etc. (whatever this is attempting to contrast itself with) be easily invoked directly from shell prompt or script too??

      Okay, I guess you have to know more about how expect is invoked to understand what they mean. One glance at the examples, comparing them, and all becomes clear:

      #!/bin/sh
      empty -f -i in -o out telnet foo.bar.com
      empty -w -i out -o in "ogin:" "luser\n"
      

      I didn't realize that expect required/expected (no pun intended) to be used in scripts with its own shebang line:

      #!/usr/bin/expect
      
      spawn telnet foo.bar.com 
      expect ogin {send luser\r}
      

      That does make it less easy/normal to use expect within a shell script.

      I was coming to the expect project from/for the unbuffer command, which by contrast, is quite easy to include/use in a shell script -- almost the same as empty, in fact. (Seems like almost a mismatch to have unbuffer command in expect toolkit then. Or is expect command the only odd one out in that toolkit?)

    1. In many computing contexts, "TTY" has become the name for any text terminal, such as an external console device, a user dialing into the system on a modem on a serial port device, a printing or graphical computer terminal on a computer's serial port or the RS-232 port on a USB-to-RS-232 converter attached to a computer's USB port, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudoterminal device.

      It's still confusing, but this at least helps/tries to clarify.

    1. TTY is right there in the name, but this article makes no attempt to clarify what exactly the relationship between a pseudoterminal and a TTY. I feel like a whole paragraph about the relation to TTY would be warranted, including a link to TTY article, of course, which does link [back] to and explain some of the relation to pseudoterminal:

      In many computing contexts, "TTY" has become the name for any text terminal, such as an external console device, a user dialing into the system on a modem on a serial port device, a printing or graphical computer terminal on a computer's serial port or the RS-232 port on a USB-to-RS-232 converter attached to a computer's USB port, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudoterminal device.