3,714 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2016
    1. pictures


    2. Capture, mark up, share images and text

      I.e. annotation.

    3. iPad Safari browser bookmarklet

      h desperately needs this. We should hire a contract to build it over the next 6 months.

    4. By default, student profiles are private.

      Key edu feature: special accounts for students.

    5. One key difference between Delicious and Diigo is annotation.

      Annotation as the key.

    6. folksonomy. Tags are collaboratively created and managed to annotate and categorize web content.

      So tagging is the key feature?

      Can page level tags and annotation level tags really be handled the same way (as in h)?...

    7. but the list is only available on the individual user's computer.

      But now they generally can be synced as in Chrome.

    8. user-friendly social platform


    9. Social bookmarking websites

      Hypothes.is needs built-in social bookmarking tools.

    10. Tuesday, September 27, 2011

      Pretty dated as far as innovation in tech/ed-tech.

    1. an excellent repository of resources which can be easily search

      So not primarily an annotation tool.

      But what is h doing to help users organize their resources? Or is h simply not a social bookmarking tool?

    1. said the revamped story was news to her.

      Again there’s a fundamental misunderstanding about what happened here that further reporting or thinking through might have corrected. It wasn’t likely any editorial intention at work, or at least that’s just the beginning of the problem—"revamping" is thus too simple a verb and one that elides the original transcription of the text to digital form at UVA and its then its further digital dissemination through copying to other sites like Genius.

      A broader point is missed as well: unlike in traditional print culture, the mistake here could have (and has) been easily corrected in the online text at Genius (not to mention historicized in annotation). This type of critical engagement from Internet users is what Genius and other Web 2.0 platforms are predicated upon. Indeed, if digital citizens continue to passively point to the mistakes online (like the mistakes of this article itself) the Internet will be an impoverished place for information and understanding.

    2. Anyone who needs an anecdote about how the Internet is untrustworthy even when it is asking you to trust it, feel free to use this.

      This is starting to sound like an Andy Rooney rant from 60 Minutes: “This darn Internet is always lying to me, why when I was a boy our books had spines and smelled like fall.”


    3. And there I saw that Rap Genius, a start-up that has received a lot of funding to annotate lyrics and other texts

      The very grammar of this sentence belies a basic misconception of the Internet and especially the (Rap) Genius project. Rap Genius should not be the active agent here and not only because they have since changed our name. Genius provides a platform for crowd-sourced discussion and explanation of texts, so the annotations on this Faulkner story are done by users not employees of the site.

    4. Had I missed a decision by the Faulkner estate to rewrite its author, or was the Internet just indulging in some casual adjusting of texts that are still under copyright?

      I'm copying and pasting the image of an annotation and reply from Genius--where I first annotated this blog:

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    5. the estimable firm of Jonathan Cape and Harrison Smith

      The tone of this article from beginning to end drips with technophobia–surprising for the “Bits” blog. The author seems to start with the presumption that Internet networks of knowledge are inferior to such “estimable” and traditional sources of information and authority such as print publishing and knowledge production.

      In fact the bowdlerization likely began with this text at a widely respected University of Virginia site. To put a finer point on it, the error began in a source that the the author would likely believe is trustworthy: the academy.

      There’s no doubt that the Internet and Genius especially are complicated knowledge ecosystems that require new literacies of citizens, but to simply throw up one’s hands and say “Look I found a mistake online” doesn’t even begin to engage that new frontier of knowledge creation.

    1. A second worry is somewhat Orwellian. Physical books are—more or less—textually stable.

      As if any text, especially academic anthologies, etc., isn't itself the construction of particular socio-political circumstances.

      Here's an example of this argument, partially deconstructed through annotation.

    2. The excessive privileging of the present.

      What an odd point given the acknowledgement of the power of digital archives above? Isn't Homer easier to access--both physically and intellectually--today than ever before?

    3. The experience of browsing is hard to replicate online.

      Isn't it rather hyper-activated? Abetted both by robust search mechanisms as well as utility for whimsy?

    4. First, our mental universe may, paradoxically, grow constricted, since so much of a dedicated reader’s life depends on browsing. At a used bookshop, you might pick up an old paperback from a bin because of the sexy brunette on its cover or pull

      Isn't "browsing" literally THE major activity of online inquiry/reading?

    5. This recent nautil.us article serves as an interesting counterpoint to the current piece.

    6. Computers encourage skimming instead of focused attention and solitary engagement with a book’s words and ideas.

      The fallacy here is that computers are too blame. We simply need to cultivate better online reading practices.

    7. But consider this: Through social media,

      I'm admittedly bias here, but can't believe collaborative annotation is not included here. IMO it's really Goodreads 3.0.

    8. Goodreads
    9. but human beings can’t live without stories and poems. Young lovers will always read Sappho, Donne, and Keats.

      I love and want to believe this idea as a fellow humanist, but it's really an unsubstantiated claim.

    10. ‘What was wrong with scrolls?

      They're so linear, not really good for making intratextual connections.

    1. But, second of all, it allows the commenter to retain a copy of the annotations which I think is much more valuable in the long run, a larger reason why we are so supportive of domains in general. We should let students do work in environments where they can retain their work.

      This is so key and is why hypothes.is is just as much a client--that you can, as Adam has demonstrated elegantly integrate into your blog--as an advocacy group for open annotation. We want annotation to be part of the everyday experience of using the Web, but that doesn't necessarily mean using h. As long as a variety of annotation clients are built according to open protocols then users will have options and, best of all, their content will theirs for keeps.

    2. How great will it be once you can create a group for your class, see who is in the group, and then browse their annotations?

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    1. Meanwhile, some writers are taking advantage of the formal possibilities of digital media to tell stories and communicate information in new ways.
    2. Based on the fMRI data, Yarkoni, Speer, and Zacks concluded that the scrambled sentences forced the readers to keep remaking their “situation models,” their mental representations of what was happening in the story.

      This is so interesting. I'm reminded of studies that say similar things about students reading Shakespeare and how contemporary readers have to reorder his syntax to make sense of the writing. (More here from The Big Thing.)

    3. this engagement led to increased understanding, the way puzzling over a difficult poem yields more than reading quickly through an easy one.

      Hypertext as close reading! Love it.

    4. If those same students expected on-screen reading to be as slow (and as effortful) as paper reading, would their comprehension of digital text improve?

      Maria Konnikova also cites a 2014 study in a New Yorker article on this topic that concludes by offering annotation as a kind of deliberate, slow online reading practice. (Note: the article has been annotated by two sets of college students!)

    5. But a 2011 study by the cognitive scientists Rakefet Ackerman and Morris Goldsmith suggests that this may be a function less of the intrinsic nature of digital devices than of the expectations that readers bring to them.

      Very interesting. So an intentional online reading practice--fortified, let's say, by a collaborative annotation tool--might produce different results...

    6. we have been wandering off all along. 

      So important to break down that analog-digital binary. It's much more of a continuum.

      I'm reminded of this line from a recent Gardner Campbell essay:

      Go into your nearest college or university library. Ignore the computer stations and the digital affordances. Enter the stacks, and run your fingers along the spines of the books on the shelves. You're tracing nodes and connections. You're touching networked learning—slow-motion and erratic, to be sure, but solid and present and, truth to tell, thrilling.

    7. We may not keep the Iliad in our heads any longer, but we’re exquisitely capable of reflecting on it, comparing it to other stories we know, and forming conclusions about human beings ancient and modern.

      This is, in the end, a very persuasive argument from science.

    8. The fear of technology is not new.

      Love this article, but this is such a lame sentence. If a student wrote it, I'd cross it out.

    9. Done badly (which is to say, done cynically), the Internet reduces us to mindless clickers, racing numbly to the bottom of a bottomless feed; but done well, it has the potential to expand and augment the very contemplative space that we have prized in ourselves ever since we learned to read without moving our lips.

      Love this line!

    10. In Carr’s view, the “endless, mesmerizing buzz” of the Internet imperils our very being: “One of the greatest dangers we face,” he writes, “as we automate the work of our minds, as we cede control over the flow of our thoughts and memories to a powerful electronic system, is ... a slow erosion of our humanness and our humanity.”

      Clive Thompson's Smarter Than You Think offers a nice opposition to Carr's argument. For Thompson, it's less about man versus machine, with one or the other overtaking its counterpart. It's about the working togetherness of it all. A robot chess player, for example, is not better than a machine and human woking together, the human leveraging computational power, not succumbing to it.


      This really is a wonderful analog analog to the Internet. One might even juxtapose it to that other proto-Internet machine, the Memex:

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    12. Purchase This Artwork

      Never seen this before. What a great idea for designers to share their work! New Yorker and New York Times should do this.

    1. squirmishes

      Folks, like Molly Ball of The Atlantic had fun with this one on Twitter:

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    2. You can watch the video of the speech below or here in this annotation:


    3. “He is from the private sector, not a politician, can I get a “Hallelujah!”

      It might seem odd to celebrate a candidate's lack of experience for a job--it would stand to reason that a experienced politician would be a good choice for the next president--Palin here plays on the rhetoric that Washington/the political system is "broken" and needs someone from outside it's corrupt influences to fix it.

    4. you betcha.

      One of Palin's signature lines:

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    5. “Mr. Trump, you’re right, look back there in the press box. Heads are spinning, media heads are spinning.

      The NYTimes's Michael Barbaro described this as "This is perhaps the most accurate statement in her speech."

    6. our great United States of America

      So America is great but also needs to be made great again? It mystifies me that the whole rhetoric around the lost greatness of the country doesn't get labeled anti-American.

    1. Indie EdTech is many times a personal; a philosophical, decision. It’s also many times a practical; an economical, decision. Open standards are about accessibility as much as anything else.

      Agree with everything here. But it also seems to me--and perhaps this is what is meant by "accessible"--that over the long haul, open is not just right, it's better. That is to say, especially from the standpoint of knowledge production (whether scholarly or pedagogical) we need open source tools/solutions to ensure the best knowledge infrastructure over time. In short, we need something besides Google.

    2. Inside there are nearly 100 open source applications

      Why not hypothes.is?

    1. You stay in control of your copyright

      This seems the central concern of these TOS ratings--outside of sharing user data.

    2. Google can use your content for all their existing and future services

      Genius says the same thing. Basically you don't control the content you create.

    1. This is an odd choice of text on a celebratory day like today, but I think it's a valuable use for a tool like hypothes.is.


      *But it's housed at a very legitimate URL,*

      a lesson if there ever was one in how we (and our students) but be vigilant critical readers of Internet information.

      It'd be an interesting exercise to expose the misinformation and hate tactics/rhetoric of the site through annotation...

    1. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred.

      Wow, people have been griping about youtube comments for a while now.

    2. the online metropolis MySpace

      wrings collar

    3. By Lev Grossman

      Interesting...he eventually annotated on Genius.

    1. The Internet is like sensation. The World Wide Web is like thinking.

      I like this simple explanation.

    2. to construct a thought network out of (upon, within, on top of, emerging from) a data network.

      Neat. This is all very Vannevar Bushian (?).

    3. not a technology, but a philosophy.

      Or a technology AND a philosophy?

    4. the crucial difference is the link.


    5. providing a layer of eye candy that makes the Internet more appealing and the metaphor of a “page” that makes the Internet seem more familiar?


    6. the enormous good

      TED talk.

    7. The Internet is about data transmission. It’s a network that enables any node to transmit any kind of data to any other node, and any group of nodes (any network) to transmit any kind of data to any other group of nodes. It’s a network and a network-of-networks.

      definition of internet

    1. If higher education can embrace the complexity of networked learning and can value the condition of emergence that networked learning empowers, there may still be time to encourage networked learning as a structure and a disposition, a design and a habit of being.

      I feel like what's missing--and it's emphasized more above--is the mechanical knowledge of networked learning. It's power is recognized and leveraged, but it's not fully understood in its infrastructure.

    2. For the first time since the emergence of the web, this past year I discovered that the majority of my sophomore-level students did not understand the concept of a URL and thus struggled with the effective use and formation of hyperlinks in the networked writing class that VCU's University College affectionately calls "Thought Vectors in Concept Space

      I bet they can SnapChat like pros, though!

    3. Go into your nearest college or university library. Ignore the computer stations and the digital affordances. Enter the stacks, and run your fingers along the spines of the books on the shelves. You're tracing nodes and connections. You're touching networked learning—slow-motion and erratic, to be sure, but solid and present and, truth to tell, thrilling.

      What a beautiful and evocative series of sentences!

    1. Democracy demands wisdom and vision in its citizens. It must therefore foster and support a form of education, and access to the arts and the humanities, designed to make people of all backgrounds and wherever located masters of their technology and not its unthinking servants.

      Originally intended as upholding the virtues of the humanities in opposition to science and technology, I'd like to co-opt the argument for the humanities within, mainly, technology. We need more humanists in tech!

    1. cyborg tactic

      I like this phrase.

    2. Google has built the greatest global surveillance system.

      Nicely put.

    3. nor does it neatly fit into this view of “scale” either

      But wouldn't it be great if everyone owned their own domain?

      I've always thought of the idea of scale, perhaps naively, as about access. It's a cynical, but not completely incorrect, take on MOOCs, to say that their advocates don't intend scale to mean democratic reach of education content.

    1. and the business owner who gives him that second chance. 

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    2. inspired by those voices of fairness and vision, of grit and good humor and kindness that have helped America travel so far.

      An image of Alice Paul appeared next to the video feed on wh.gov when Obama spoke these lines:


    3. There are a whole lot of folks in this chamber

      He really address the room here. I don't remember such a direct, sincere address of the house/senate as this in my SOTU listening.

    4. There are a whole lot of folks in this chamber

      He really address the room here. I don't remember such a direct, sincere address of the house/senate as this in my SOTU listening.

    5. words that insist we rise and fall together.

      He actually added the lines "more perfect union" here live. He of course gave a famous campaign speech in 2008 centered around those lines.

    6. Infographics next to video on wh.gov are pretty cool. Visually rhetorically support Obama's points.

    7. echoing the lie that ISIL is representative of one of the world’s largest religions. 

      So refreshing to hear a thoughtful person speak about these issues.

    8. The United States of America is the most powerful nation on Earth.  Period.

      Seems a jab at Trumps's "Make America Great Again."

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    9. But even if the planet wasn’t at stake;

      Stakes are low.

    10. We’ve protected an open internet,

      A reference to Net Neutrality. But is it open enough? Or how exactly is the word "open" being used here?

    11. Austin


    12. Food Stamp recipients didn’t cause the financial crisis; recklessness on Wall Street did.

      Food stamps recipients (welfare mothers, etc) have long been a touchpoint in American politics.

    13. Now, I’m guessing we won’t agree on health care anytime soon. 

      As Obama noted live in an aside, this is not an applause line, but it got a few claps from someone who I'm guessing does not agree with so -called Obama Care and is proud of it. LOL.

    14. Students and teachers! We're annotating the State of the Union live and in the days that follow here at this link. Join the conversation at any point!

      No pressure. Really, this is just a conversation. Respond as you might if you were watching the speech in class. You can ask questions, make comments, and reply to those of others. Feel free to get historical, political, even humorous--you can add GIFs!

    15. I want to go easy

      So conversational! I feel like he's in my living room!!

    1. But Zuckerberg has no intention of allowing anyone to use Facebook as the foundation for building anything that he doesn't control. He's kicking away the ladder up which he climbed, in other words. And if he ever gets the Queen Elizabeth prize then I'm leaving the country.


    2. (it's like believing that Virgin Pendolino trains are the railway network)

      Good analogy.

    1. The key here is the crafting of an identity with a purpose, the conscious consideration and creation of one’s professional/academic identity online: a domain of one’s own!

      Original use of phrase?

    1. each student builds a personal cyberinfrastructure that is as thoughtfully, rigorously, and expressively composed as an excellent essay or an ingenious experiment.

      Nice line.

    2. They would become, in myriad small but important ways, system administrators for their own digital lives.3 In short, students would build a personal cyberinfrastructure, one they would continue to modify and extend throughout their college career — and beyond.

      "personal cyberinfrastructure"

    3. Here's one idea. Suppose that when students matriculate, they are assigned their own web servers — not 1GB folders in the institution's web space but honest-to-goodness virtualized web servers of the kind available for $7.99 a month from a variety of hosting services, with built-in affordances ranging from database maintenance to web analytics.

      Origin of the Domain of One's Own?

    4. L-M-S.

      LMS vs HTML?

    5. This answer seemed to be the way forward into a world of easy-to-use affordances that would empower faculty, staff, and students without their having to learn the dreaded alphabet soup of HTML, FTP, and CSS.

      This of course was not just true on college campuses.

    1. portability and interoperability.

      Key principles for hypothes.is as well.

    2. It’s a drawback to our digital citizenship conversations — we’re concerned about what students do online but we fail to probe the “appropriateness” of the demands on data and content that (education) technology companies increasingly make on the students in turn.

      Great point. Which is mode insidious?

    1. Interoperabilityacross the humanities and social science cyberinfrastructure therefore requires the continued developmentand promotion of vendor-independent, open standards for document modeling and data documentation aswell as open-source methods for software development.

      "Vendor-independent": hypothes.is as client but also as advocacy group.

    2. consortium of major universities

      What does this coalition look like within education/annotation.

    3. With respect to open standards, commercial entities that create significant digital collections (such as Googlewith its digitization of collections from major U.S. research libraries) should produce at least one version ofthe resource in a nonproprietary format, if only for deposit with and local use by the institution that holdsthe originals being digitized—and universities should speak with a stronger voice on that point.

      I'm guessing this didn't happen...

    4. For hundreds of years, the most important tools of humanistsand social scientists were pen or brush and paper. Today, scholars require a range of digital tools for research,teaching, and writing, including tools for finding, filtering and reviewing, processing and organizing, anno-tating, analyzing, and visualizing digital information. Even though we can point to current efforts in many ofthese areas, lack of coordination among them is a problem: a great deal of tool building is done on a localscale, and this results in unnecessary redundancy of effort.1

      Another great line about the importance of open standards.

    5. technologists

      Vendors? Included in the conversation?...

    6. As NSFdirector Ardent L. Bement, Jr., observes, “with today's electrical grid. . . my neighbor and I can use differentappliances to meet our individual needs; as long as the appliances conform to certain electrical standards,they will work reliably,” and a sufficiently advanced cyberinfrastructure will work similarly: researchers willhave “easy access to the computing, communication, and information resources they need, while pursuingdifferent avenues of interest using different tools.”92

      Helpful analogy for thinking about importance of open standards/interoperability.

    7. Access to data should be seamless across repositories. This will require standards-based tools and metadatathat ensure interoperability and enable use for a variety of purposes.

      Open standards written into recommendations.

    8. The GI Bill itself created no institutions, nor did it mandate institutional behavior; but thisdirect means of distributing opportunity and resources dramatically expanded the number of people whoconsidered college a possibility and prompted colleges and universities to see themselves as national, ratherthan local or regional, institutions.

      Comp the MOOC movement's extension of college "access."

    9. the vastly more messy and idiosyncratic realm of human expe-rience

      The drive for data overrides this messiness. It makes sense, and a certain kind of commercialized sense, of everything.

    10. The humanities and thesocial sciences are critical players in the development of cyberinfrastructure because they deal with theintractability, the rich ambiguity, and the magnificent complexity that is the human experience

      machine as tractable/human as intractable

    11. Democracy demands wisdom and vision in its citizens. It must therefore foster and support aform of education, and access to the arts and the humanities, designed to make people of all back-grounds and wherever located masters of their technology and not its unthinking servants.

      Very interesting 1965 statement in legislation that created the NEH. Oppositional to technology.

    12. What Are the Distinctive Needs and Contributions of the Humanities and SocialSciences in Cyberinfrastructure?


    13. 7. Develop and maintain open standards and robust tools.


    14. be sustainable;3. provide interoperability

      Interoperability as sustainability versus "the right thing" in some higher moral sense. It is, f course, but it's also pragmatic.

    15. As the title of this report is meant to indicate, the online world is a new cultural commonwealth in whichknowledge, learning, and discovery can flourish. Our aim, therefore, is to show how best to achieve this cul-tural commonwealth for the betterment of all.

      It's not a given that it will benefit all...

    16. the ability to uncovermeaning even in scattered or garbled information,

      Rap Genius as a piece of humanities cyberinfrastrcuture....

    17. hese disciplines have essential anddistinct contributions to make in designing, building, and operating cyberinfrastructure, the AmericanCouncil of Learned Societies (ACLS) in 2004 appointed a Commission on Cyberinfrastructure for theHumanities and Social Sciences.

      Role of the humanities in the development of cyberinfrastrcuture.

    1. Just don’t forget: your text is their data. The letters mean something different to humans than they do to machines.

      and Tweet this...

    2. You’d have a little browser bookmarklet/action within the app that would let you highlight text and embed it into a tweet. That’d get Twitter more data: the text and the metadata about where it came. This wouldn’t encroach on the media’s reasons for Tweeting any more than a screenshort, but it would be better for users.

      This is annotation!

      And Medium does this already.

    3. the metadata about where the screenshotted text originally came from.

      Not in Oneshot...

    4. But people screenshot because it increases the engagement on tweets.

      Also a pedagogical choice.

    5. Translation: What if human-readable text became machine-readable, searchable, editable data?

      Searchability is also better for knowledge production though...

    1. Jeremy Dean showed graduate students how to use Rap Genius to teach the classics

      I love this line so much!

    2. As Interest Fades in the Humanities, Colleges Worry

      Is the crisis evoked here necessary?

    1. in Twitter at the hashtag #HowtheWebWorks, in our Hypothes.is web annotation group, in our Diigo social bookmarking group, in the student domains listed in the sidebar, and anyplace else we can colonize on the web.

      We should be better connected to the former. Easier, more elegant Tweeting from h.

      And, more importantly, we need to be bookmarking plus annotation. Death to Diigo.

    1. The goal is to crowd-source Fact Tracks, but we couldn’t do it for the initial launch.

      This is pretty interesting and all very vague. Why couldn't the crowd-sourced version of the lyrics be included? If it is then this product isn't all that different from lots of other media productions, though it is cool that it's inside Spotify.

    1. Like scrolling through a friend’s Facebook page or Twitter feed, seeing someone else navigate the world through annotation can be compelling and edifying.

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    2. a comment on Facebook or YouTube.

      So interesting to think of Twitter, etc. as annotation platforms. Twitter just announced they are going beyond 140 characters and adding the ability to screenshot text.

    1. Will we accept an economy where only a few of us do spectacularly well? 

      A rhetorical question to which the answer is clearly "No!" But phrasing it as a question forces the audience to momentarily consider the truth of the statement and thus more emphatically agree with Obama's alternative statement that follows.

    2. It’s now up to us to choose who we want to be over the next 15 years and for decades to come.

      This line really drew me into the speech, making me feel like I was part of the decision.

    3. our economy is growing and creating jobs at the fastest pace since 1999. 

      Politifact rated this claim "Mostly True.", though those that disagree with Obama would likely argue that this single statistic does not tell the whole story of the nation's economy.

    1. Will we accept an economy where only a few of us do spectacularly well?

      A rhetorical question to which the answer is clearly "No!" But phrasing it as a question forces the audience to momentarily consider the truth of the statement and thus more emphatically agree with Obama's alternative statement that follows.

    2. It’s now up to us to choose who we want to be over the next 15 years, and for decades to come.

      This line really drew me into the speech, making me feel like I was part of the decision.

    3. our economy is growing and creating jobs at the fastest pace since 1999.

      Politifact rated this claim "Mostly True.", though those that disagree with Obama would likely argue that this single statistic does not tell the whole story of the nation's economy.

    4. 15 years that dawned with terror touching our shores;

      A reference to September 11, 2001, when Al-Queda terrorists flew two hi-jacked commercial planes into the World Trade Center Buildings in New York City.

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    1. instructively

      Hi, Jenny!


    1. The outbound piece depends on Tantek Çelik‘s “POSSE,” which stands for “Publish (on your) Own Site, Syndicate Elsewhere. Getting the comments, likes, favorites and other responses back depends on Ryan Barrett‘s Bridgy.

      I find this helpful in thinking about the future of hypothes.is.

    2. Simple: We’re in danger of losing what’s made the Internet the most important medium in history – a decentralized platform where the people at the edges of the networks – that would be you and me – don’t need permission to communicate, create and innovate.

      Right on!

    1. Why associate myself with Reverend Wright in the first place, they may ask?

      This is really the question that Obama was answering with this speech. It was the focus of the campaign at the time.

    2. National Constitution Center

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      The National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is across the street from Independence Hall where both the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence were signed.

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      The choice of location is obviously deeply symbolic, linking Obama’s presidential bid with the founding moment of US history. A black president would go a long way to “finishing” the “improbable experiment” in equality begun by the Constitutional Convention in 1787.

    3. the spring of 1787.

      What happened at this time in US history?

    4. In South Carolina, where the Confederate Flag still flies,

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      While true at the time, the flag was removed in June 2015 after a racially-motivated mass shooting that took place in the capital.


    5. March 18, 2008

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      This now famous speech was originally delivered during Obama's campaign for the 2008 Democratic Party presidential nomination. While it was given in response to criticism over his association with the controversial pastor Jeremiah Wright, the speech more broadly serves to locate his historic campaign within the arc of US history.

    1. Donald J. Trump is calling for a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States

      Clearly, this is a remarkable statement in it's anti-Muslimness, but it's also deeply anti-American, especially for a "candidate"--I don't even like dignifying him with that word--whose primary slogan is "Make American great again!"

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      Blatant bigotry aside--just for sake of argument--"freedom of religion" is one of the basic rights guaranteed by the First Amendment of the Constitution:

      "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..."

    1. Your articles and status messages can go to all services, not just one


    2. When you post something on the web, it should belong to you, not a corporation.

      Ownership of data/content. My annotations are mine.

    1. Occasionally he inserts a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item.

      So, yeah, he's talking about hyperlinks and annotations as two separate aspects of the memex.

    2. There is a new profession of trail blazers, those who find delight in the task of establishing useful trails through the enormous mass of the common record. The inheritance from the master becomes, not only his additions to the world's record, but for his disciples the entire scaffolding by which they were erected.

      What's missing here is the power of peer to peer sharing of such scaffolding. It doesn't need to be only "master to disciple."

    3. He can add marginal notes and comments


    4. A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.

      Really does sound like the networked PC.

    5. Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified.

      Is this the point at which the kind of annotation imagined by Bush becomes social? Where one person's trail of associations becomes useful to another?

    1. What has become distinctive now is the extreme rapidity of searching one’s own marginalia,

      This emphasizes the importance of "My Annotations" as a navigable and searchable space. Currently it is just infinite scroll. @judell

      To my mind, another major difference is the multimedianess enabled by web writing.

    2. each of these three abilities are still fundamental to the way we interact online with text, images, sound, and video. They can also be invaluable aspects of web writing for the liberal arts.

      Both inside and outside of school.

    1. The importance of collaboration is incorporated into Mellon’s initiative. In an added twist, the foundation required the university presses interested in the program to find a partner -- such as a research library, a museum or an organization already involved in providing digital publishing services -- before applying.

      But what about collaboration between the presses and partners? So many of the projects overlap and might create siloed efforts in the long run if not working together/sharing their work to the fullest.

    2. pre- and post-publication peer review;


    3. the interaction of the publication on the Web with primary sources and other related materials

      enriched text--from composition to publicaiton

    4. editing

      improved collaborative workflow

    5. The foundation’s proposed solution is for groups of university presses to work together on testing new business models for publishing digital works, or tackle any of the moving parts that task is comprised of, including

      Much of this could be addressed by annotation...

    1. Journal editors who want to save time on needless formatting and copy editing should be able to provide their authors with a formatting template which takes care of the typesetting minutia.

      Is this happening?

    2. At the very least, your files will always remain comprehensible to you, even if the editor you are currently using stops working or “goes out of business.”

      The MySpace/Friendster phenomenon.

    3. difficult to search, to print, and to convert into other file

      So this is kind of the same problem as having your photos locked into Facebook et al.

    4. what you see is not what you get.

      Clever reversal of the claim that these interfaces are WYSIWYG.

    5. many authors base their practice on proprietary tools and formats that sometimes fall short of even the most basic requirements of scholarly writing.

      So the issue is both with the proprietary nature of the tools (and the concomitant vicissitudes) and the simple pragmatism of the tool for the job.

    1. To jump-start interest in the annotation program, arXiv has been converting mentions of its articles in external blog posts (called trackbacks) into annotations that are visible on an article's abstract page when using Hypothes.is.

      I'm not sure I understand what's so great about this. Isn't this info relatively easy to reproduce. And wouldn't it be better displayed as a list in a sidebar rather than as annotations?

    2. create their own annotation reader or writer — just as anyone can create their own web browser using standards-based technology.

      This is the key analogy.

    3. However, annotations are visible only to users on those sites. Other annotation services, such as A.nnotate or Google Docs, require users to upload documents to cloud-computing servers to make shared annotations and comments on them.

      Various silos in other words.

    4. not clear that researchers — who have proved reluctant in repeated trials to comment on published articles — will take to annotation, even if they can share their comments privately.

      Kathleen Fitzpatrick has recently addressed this issue, suggesting implicitly that scholarly societies can mobilize their extant communities in this regard.

    1. Recent Mellon Grants –building capabilities:◦Expand existing distribution business into publishing services platform (UNC Press)◦Portal for art & architectural history content (Yale U Press)◦Peer review for born-digital content (Stanford U Press)◦Open access digital monographs (U California Press)◦Mixed-media digital publishing platform (WVU)◦Manage Monographic Source Materials (U Michigan Press)◦Iterative Monographs Platoform(U Minnesota Press)◦Networked Monographs Infrastructure (NYU Press)

      Mellon press grantees

    1. He and his colleagues are keenly interested in the ability to annotate scholarship online, he says; Mellon has made serious investments in annotation tools and the development of open annotation standards by the university community and projects like Hypothes.is, which just received a two-year, $752,000 grant from the foundation to look into digital annotation in humanities and social-science scholarship.


    2. a major report on cyberinfrastructure, "Our Cultural Commonwealth," underwritten by Mellon and published in 2006, was used by the NEH "as a blueprint" in forming its Office of Digital Humanities, says Brett Bobley, the director of that office.

      Must read.

    3. Although it defends the persistent value of the humanities, Mellon also champions the idea that they must change with the times.
    4. including the papers of the Founding Fathers,

      We should partner with these guys.

    5. the foundation is widely admired for using its money and clout to reinforce the idea that, in an age of "disruption" and the veneration of science and technology, "the humanities and the arts are central to any life that one should want to live," as Mellon’s then-president, Don M. Randel, wrote in his 2012 annual report.
    1. “We’re developing a social network that is specifically around close-reading texts,” said Jeremy Dean of Rap Genius.

      Okay line.

    2. “I’m a Ph.D. in English,” Mr. Dean said. “I just started working here a month ago. I don’t have a great answer to that.”

      Great line.

    1. Don’t be evil. We believe strongly that in the long term, we will be better served—as shareholders and in all other ways—by a company that does good things for the world even if we forgo some short term gains.

      I can't personally make the argument, but I don't think it would be hard to argue that in more than one way, through more than one initiative, Google has NOT held up this promise from this IPO letter.

    2. Our search results are the best we know how to produce.

      Is this really true?

    1. the goal is to seek knowledge and experience wherever it is vested and most easily accessed. Where does the knowledge and experience of literature occur? It occurs distributed through combinations of authors, documents, readers, and scholar-critics—that is, in the social networks of all the above.

      Great quote.

    2. A successful online reading environment would integrate social networking tools in a way that extends readers’ existing strategies.”


    3. make central the social environment of literature.

      This is really what drew me into collaborative annotation. It's what I loved most about English class and grad school. More so than the research and writing--outside of the social.

    4. coffee house model of public reading and debate
    5. Scholarship, equipped with Web 2.0, becomes a fully social act.

      Nice line.

    6. conversation” (432).31

      Thumbs up emoji!

    7. ‘review of the reviews’ (with reviewers weighing in on the issues raised by others),

      Breaking down hierarchies...

    8. brings in more voices

      Expanding participation...

    9. forming communities of discourse around discrete zones of text.

      In other words, conversations.

    10. socially computed reading may even experimentally deform literature to discover new truths about the significance of literature.


    11. After setting up pseudonymous Facebook accounts for twenty-one characters in the play

      Don't think you can do this anymore.

    12. Consider, to start with, the way that social-computing technologies are beginning to be used to experience—that is, to read, perform, and communicate (overlapping with “analyze” and “interpret”)—primary literature.

      Yes! Might we include collaborative digital annotation here?...

    13. Figure 6. Post of 4 September 2007 from Robin Hunicke’s blog Gewgaw. The full, scrollable length of this post, including the sidebar, is here split in two for static display.

      Seems like one could find a better example of a web page who central text is superceeded by paratext.

    14. by adding what can be generalized as a margin

      Love this incredibly clever play on margins. I will leverage/extend this in my own work:

      • writings or marginalized peoples

      • writings in the literal margins of texts


    15. Or consider such recent historians of the book as Ann Blair and William Sherman, who study annotation practices—for example, notes scribbled in the margins of a manuscript or book—to witness a whole zone of literary activity that is undecidably readerly and writerly.

      Study of annotators.

    16. readers inevitably make their own meanings.

      This is why I find the "Annotation" article in this same volume--focused as it is on expert explanatory comments rather than readerly, discursive ones--so conservative. It really just reinforces the core circuit of literary meaning making, the "lite" version of literary sociality, as Liu might put it.