4,062 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. forced into the American Union

      It is important to think about the fear of being "forced into the American Union" in the context of the time. At this time, the American Civil War is still ongoing, and the situation was fragile. Since Canada did not exist and it was only colonies, it is realistic to view America as a threat to the possible development of Canada as a country.

    1. L’un des thèmes récurrents pendant les discussions a été celui de la rigueur.

      Not too surprising. It's an important consideration for the Academe. Almost part of the definition. And it's useful that learning pros are tackling such issues instead of jumping to conclusions. In a way, it's an extension of work done in the Sociology of Education since 1918.

    1. Maybe once the core onError lifecycle is implemented (if maintainers decide to go that way) everyone will discover you're right and an implementation will be built in. I think that's probably what's going to happen. But until real life has proved it, it's usually best to go for the smallest most broadly applicable solution. I can definitely imagine <svelte:error> eventually being a thing, but it's a pretty dramatic change compared to an added importable function.
    2. and if I think this is too boilerplatey, I can export a handler from some .js file and pass the error to that: <script> import { onError } from 'svelte' import { genericHandler } from '../my-error-handler.js' onError(genericHandler(e => { // code which is called first to try to handle this locally return true // we've handled it here, don't do anything else. }) </script>
    1. Yes, precisely because I've been involved in maintaining codebases built without real full stack frameworks is why I say what I said.The problem we have in this industry, is that somebody reads these blog posts, and the next day at work they ditch the "legacy rails" and starts rewriting the monolith in sveltekit/nextjs/whatever because that's what he/she has been told is the modern way to do full stack.No need to say those engineers will quit 1 year later after they realize the mess they've created with their lightweight and simple modern framework.I've seen this too many times already.It is not about gatekeeping. It is about engineers being humble and assume it is very likely that their code is very unlikely to be better tested, documented, cohesive and maintained than what you're given in the real full stack frameworks.Of course you can build anything even in assembler if you want. The question is if that's the most useful thing to do with your company's money.
    1. The RFC2617 model is one-user, one-credentials so the case where the user may have a second set of credentials that could be authorized may be ignored. It neither suggests nor implies that some sort of login page or other non-RFC2617 authentication protocol may or may not help - that is outside the RFC2616 standards and definition.
  2. canvas.ucsc.edu canvas.ucsc.edu
    1. The Culture Industry: Mass Deception in Dialectic of Enlightenment

      Culture is a paradoxical commodity. It is so completely subject to the law of exchange that it is no longer exchanged; it is so blindly equated with use that it can no longer be used. For this reason it merges with the adver­tisement. The more meaningless the latter appears under monopoly, the more omnipotent culture becomes. (pg 131).

      Unending sameness also governs the relationship to the past. What is new in the phase of mass culture compared to that of late liberalism is the exclusion of the new.

    1. To learn—A rather obvious one, but I wanted to challenge myself again.

      I love that Johannes Klingbiel highlights having his own place on the Internet as a means to learn. While I suspect that part of the idea here is to learn about the web and programming, it's also important to have a place you can more easily look over and review as well as build out on as one learns. This dovetails in part with his third reason to have his own website: "to build". It's much harder to build out a learning space on platforms like Medium and Twitter. It's not as easy to revisit those articles and notes as those platforms aren't custom built for those sorts of learning affordances.

      Building your own website for learning makes it by definition a learning management system. The difference between my idea of a learning management system here and the more corporate LMSes (Canvas, Blackboard, Moodle, etc.) is that you can change and modify the playground as you go. While your own personal LMS may also be a container for holding knowledge, it is a container for building and expanding knowledge. Corporate LMSes aren't good at these last two things, but are built toward making it easier for a course facilitator to grade material.

      We definitely need more small personal learning management systems. (pLMS, anyone? I like the idea of the small "p" to highlight the value of these being small.) Even better if they have social components like some of the IndieWeb building blocks that make it easier for one to build a personal learning network and interact with others' LMSes on the web. I see some of this happening in the Digital Gardens space and with people learning and sharing in public.

      [[Flancian]]'s Anagora.org is a good example of this type of public learning space that is taking the individual efforts of public learners and active thinkers and knitting their efforts together to facilitate a whole that is bigger than the sum of it's pieces.

    1. The key thing about the REST approach is that the server addresses the client state transitions. The state of the client is almost totally driven by the server and, for this reason, discussions on API versioning make little sense, too. All that a client should know about a RESTful interface should be the entry point. The rest should come from the interpretation of server responses.
    1. The client transitions through application states by selecting from the links within a representation or by manipulating the representation in other ways afforded by its media type. In this way, RESTful interaction is driven by hypermedia, rather than out-of-band information.
    1. I am committed to tending to this world as a gardener. I am committed to cultivating new shoots, new stories, new hopes, new futures. I do this work with dirt under my nails, with curiosity, reverence and respect.—Georgina Reid

      What a great quote for a digital garden. Reminiscent of the philosophy of care seen in the book Braiding Sweetgrass.

    1. China Illustrata emphasized the Christian elements of Chinese history, both real and imagined: the book noted the early presence of Nestorian Christians (with a Latin translation of the Nestorian Stele of Xi'an provided by Boym and his Chinese collaborator, Andrew Zheng),[23] but also claimed that the Chinese were descended from the sons of Ham, that Confucius was Hermes Trismegistus/Moses and that the Chinese characters were abstracted hieroglyphs.

      Example of non-Europeans being considered the sons of Ham, in this case by an incredibly learned and influential Roman Catholic scholar.

    1. Active reading to the extreme!

      What a clever innovation building on the ideas of the art of memory and Raymond Llull's combinatoric arts!

      Does this hit all of the areas of Bloom's Taxonomy? I suspect that it does.

      How could it be tied more directly into an active reading, annotating, and note taking practice?

    2. Survivals of this spatially oriented technique still mark our language when we say “in the first place” and “passing on to the next point.”

      The use of mnemonic techniques through history have been crystalized into our language with phrases like "in the first place" and "passing on to the next point".

    1. Choose your custom packaging style

      I liked the strategy of customizing the boxes according to the customer's needs. The customer assembles how his box will best serve him.

    1. When Simonides offered to teach the Athenian statesman Themistocles the art of Memory, Cicero reports that he refused. "Teach me not the art of remem- bering," he said, "but the art of forgetting, for I remember things I do not wish to remember, but I cannot forget things I wish to forget."
    2. The effect was beautifully suggested by Victor Hugo in a familiar passage in Notre-Dame de Paris (183 1) when the scholar holding his first printed book turns away from his manuscripts, looks a t the cathedral, and says "This will kill that" (Ceci tuera cela). Print also destroyed "the invisible cathedrals of memory." For the printed book made it less nec- essary to shape ideas and things into vivid images and then store them in Memory-places.

      In Notre-Dame de Paris (1831) Victor Hugo depicts a scholar holding his first printed book. He turns away from his manuscripts to look at the cathedral and says "This will kill that" (Ceci tuera cela). Similarly the printed book made it far less necessary to store one's knowledge into cathedrals of memory.

    3. For centuries the standard work on Latin grammar was the 12th- century Doctrinale, by Alexander of Villedieu, in 2,000 lines of doggerel. Versified rules were easier to remember, though their crudity appalled Aldus Manutius when he reprinted this work in 1501.

      Alexander de Villedieu's Latin grammer Doctrinale from the 12th century was the standard work on the subject. Its 2,000 lines of doggerel were used as a mnemonic device because they were easier to remember. Famed publisher Aldus Manutius was appalled at their crude nature when he reprinted the book in 1501.

    4. The Lost Arts of Memory by Daniel J. Boorstin The Wilson Quarterly, Spring 1984 104-113

    1. Autopoiesis has been proposed as a potential mechanism of abiogenesis, by which primitive cells evolved into more complex molecules that could support the development of life.
    2. Until recently[30][31][32] there have been almost no attempts to compare the different theories and discuss them together.
      1. Letelier, J C; Cárdenas, M L; Cornish-Bowden, A (2011). "From L'Homme Machine to metabolic closure: steps towards understanding life". J. Theor. Biol. 286 (1): 100–113. Bibcode:2011JThBi.286..100L. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.06.033. PMID 21763318.
      2. Igamberdiev, A.U. (2014). "Time rescaling and pattern formation in biological evolution". BioSystems. 123: 19–26. doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2014.03.002. PMID 24690545.
      3. Cornish-Bowden, A; Cárdenas, M L (2020). "Contrasting theories of life: historical context, current theories. In search of an ideal theory". BioSystems. 188: 104063. doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2019.104063. PMID 31715221. S2CID 207946798.

      Relationship to the broader idea in Loewenstein as well...

    3. Autopoiesis is just one of several current theories of life, including the chemoton[20] of Tibor Gánti, the hypercycle of Manfred Eigen and Peter Schuster,[21] [22] [23] the (M,R) systems[24][25] of Robert Rosen, and the autocatalytic sets[26] of Stuart Kauffman, similar to an earlier proposal by Freeman Dyson.[27] All of these (including autopoiesis) found their original inspiration in Erwin Schrödinger's book What is Life?[28] but at first they appear to have little in common with one another, largely because the authors did not communicate with one another, and none of them made any reference in their principal publications to any of the other theories.
    1. ike Jungius, Boyle made use of loose folio sheets that he called memorials or adversaria; yet he did not worry too much about a system of self-referential relationships that enabled intentional knowl-edge retrieval. When he realized that he was no longer able to get his bearings in an ocean of paper slips, he looked for a way out, testing several devices, such as colored strings or labels made of letters and numeral codes. Unfortunately, it was too late. As Richard Yeo clearly noted, ‘this failure to develop an effective indexing system resulted from years of trusting in memory in tandem with notes’.69

      69 Yeo, ‘Loose Notes’, 336

      Robert Boyle kept loose sheets of notes, which he called memorials or adversaria. He didn't have a system of organization for them and tried out variations of colored strings, labels made of letters, and numerical codes. Ultimately his scrap heap failed him for lack of any order and his trust in memory to hold them together failed.


      I love the idea of calling one's notes adversaria. The idea calls one to compare one note to another as if they were combatants in a fight (for truth).


      Are working with one's ideas able to fit into the idea of adversarial interoperability?

    2. With respect to the Ark of Studies, for example, Johann Benedict Metzler did not use gratifying words; yet he nonetheless recommended numbering the hooks (aciculas) to which the paper slips should be attached and recording the matching of number and heading in a subject index. In this way, Metzler noted, scholars would not be compelled to leave empty spaces between entries and to recalibrate the entire content any time a new entry (a new commonplace) should be added.65

      65 Johann Benedict Metzler, Artificium excerpendi genuinum dictus Die rechte Kunst zu excer-piren (Leipzig, 1709), 23–4; 30; 91–2

      Is there really any mathematical difference between alphabetical order and a numerical decimal order? Can't they be shown to be one-to-one and onto?

      To a layperson they may seem different...

    3. Samuel Hartlib was well aware of this improvement. While extolling the clever invention of Harrison, Hartlib noted that combinations and links con-stituted the ‘argumentative part’ of the card index.60

      Hartlib Papers 30/4/47A, Ephemerides 1640, Part 2.

      In extolling the Ark of Studies created by Thomas Harrison, Samuel Hartlib indicated that the combinations of information and the potential links between them created the "argumentative part" of the system. In some sense this seems to be analogous to the the processing power of an information system if not specifically creating its consciousness.

    1. My point is school is ment to be a safe learning ground, so let's keep it that way.”

      The writer uses a claim of value, saying school is meant to be a safe place for learning, and implying that when minors or exercising shirtless, school is no long such a place, but rather dangerous and an unfit place for learning.

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  3. Jan 2022
    1. Most of the world's great books are available today, in reprint editions.

      Published in 1941, this article precedes the beginning of the project of publishing the Great Books of the Western World for Encyclopedia Britannica, so Adler isn't just writing this from a marketing perspective.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Books_of_the_Western_World

    1. Home

      Zuo, F., Abolhassani, H., Du, L., Piralla, A., Bertoglio, F., Campos-Mata, L. de, Wan, H., Schubert, M., Wang, Y., Sun, R., Cassaniti, I., Vlachiotis, S., Kumagai-Braesch, M., Andréll, J., Zhang, Z., Xue, Y., Wenzel, E. V., Calzolai, L., Varani, L., … Pan-Hammarström, Q. (2022). Heterologous immunization with inactivated vaccine followed by mRNA booster elicits strong humoral and cellular immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (p. 2022.01.04.22268755). https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.04.22268755

    1. Yes, age played a part. I find it disgusting and degrading that any parent would let their minor child run aroun in shorts and a bra anywhere.

      The speaker of the text is using a claim of value, stating that minors should not be able to exercise or be on school property without a shirt covering specifically bras. The speaker believes age to be a main contributor. The speaker is stating because of age, it is wrong to allow minors to exercise on school property. This is the speakers point of view.

    2. I find it disgusting and degrading that any parent would let their minor child run aroun in shorts and a bra anywhere

      The speaker of this text uses a negative tone (specifically a disgusted tone) when talking about minor children "running around in shorts and a bra". However, bra's are often tied to the female anatomy, however the speaker uses "child" when speaking about the intended argument. This could be because the speaker only has an issue with people who wear bras without a shirt while exercising but doesn't with people who society deems unrequired to wear bras.

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    1. We cannot make the above statement reactive because we touch tmpCopyAsTemplates.
    2. It works if you always want b to be the value deriving from a. However in the example above, we want the value of b to be temporarily out of sync of a.
    3. having inconsistencies when all the "subtle" conditions were met is unfriendly. it requires the user to have much deeper understanding of the nuances of the language.
    4. For me there is a distinct difference between these two scripts: let a = 1; $: b = a * 2; let a = 1; let b; $: { b = a * 2 }; The first example defines a "recipe" for how to create b and b is completely defined by that declaration. Outside of that it is immutable, data flows only into a single sink. The second example declares a variable b and then uses a reactive statement to update it. But it also allows you to do with b whatever you want. If someone wants to go that route (definitely not me), they are free to do so at their own risk of ensuring consistency.
    5. The intended behavior for the code snippet above is to reactively update b when a changes allows b temporarily go "out-of-sync" of a when calling update, setting b to 42 in this case, b is not always a * 2 however, if a changes again, b will be updated back to a * 2, instead of staying at 42
    1. I don't think these are two different interests in contrast with each other. I wanna update that temporary object and when the dep changes I re-create the temporary object. Simple as that.
    2. Svelte currently consistently gives the reactive statement priority over your checked binding.
    1. The change is emblematic of Spielberg’s failure, because it isn’t only visual imagination and fantasy that he can’t match.

      Richard Brody states that he is the only person right in this sentence to make it apparent and what the movie was lacking.

    2. whose mother is Colombian.

      Saying that Maria's mom is Columbian has nothing to do with the next sentence where it talks about singing.

    3. For all of its faults, the original film doesn’t rationalize aggression—or racism—away or reduce its characters to single motives.

      The speaker addresses one of the major problems with the new movie; however, doesn't give much reason to back it up.

    4. But, instead of reconceiving the story, they’ve shored it up with flimsy new struts of sociology and psychology, along with slight dramatic rearrangements.

      Here the writer is stating that the remake of the movie was "flimsy." This is a claim of value because the writer is stating that the movie is bad.

    1. these covid concentration camps are going to be ramped up into extermination / death camps

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: Repeating the claim again and again, does not make it true.

    2. WAC 246-100, which would authorize “health officers” (Democrat vaccine Gestapo) to kidnap anyone at gunpoint and throw them into covid concentration camps which have already been activated.

      Straw man fallacy, claim of fact: WAC 246-100 is a bill stating that health officers may order people to quarantine when a COVID-19 infection is suspected. The bill never mentions anything about kidnapping or "covid concentration camps". In fact, you can verify this by clicking on the hyperlink provided in this very article.

    3. Democrats have built death camps in America

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: Restating this claim once again.

    4. covid concentration camps are actually politically-motivated death camps

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: The article has repeated this claim multiple times.

    1. Children construct intuitive theories of the world and alter and revise those theories as the result of new evidence.

      A very sophisticated way to say that kids make things up as they go along! Perhaps the authors' surprise comes from the fact that adults are not so different?

      There seems to be more agreement than not with Bada & Olusegun (2015) regarding the overall value of constructivism. However, it's unclear if the Piagetian-dismissing authors of Reconstructing constructivism would agree with constructivism as explained by Bada and Olusegun.

      In my experience as a First-Year Composition educator, I can say that students value the process of active learning far more than, say, formulaic, fill-in-the-blank assignments. Perhaps this is because there's more recursive inquiry and metacognition in active, process-oriented learning that reflects the theory theory?

    1. Oh, I just figured out a workaround for my project, in case it helps someone. If you want the source of truth on the prop to come from the child component, then leave it undefined in the parent. Then, you can make the reactive variable have a condition on the presence of that variable. eg: <script> let prop; $: prop && console.log(prop); </script> <Child bind:prop/> Might not work for every use case but maybe that helps someone.
    1. http://www.focaalblog.com/2021/12/22/chris-knight-wrong-about-almost-everything/

      Chris Knight is a senior research fellow in anthropology at University College London, where he forms part of a team researching the origins of our species in Africa. His books include Blood Relations: Menstruation and the Origins of Culture (1991) and Decoding Chomsky: Science and Revolutionary Politics (2016).

      Another apparent refutation of Graeber and Wengrow.

    1. https://www.persuasion.community/p/a-flawed-history-of-humanity

      David A. Bell teaches history at Princeton and is the author, most recently, of Men on Horseback: The Power of Charisma in the Age of Revolution (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2020).

      Critique of Graeber and Wengrow's The Dawn of Everything

      Where is he right? Wrong? How does this dovetail with the evidence within the book?

    1. Unfortunately, the ideas most economists use have been too influenced by “methodological individualism,” rather than the more scientifically supported view of us as a super-social, super-cooperative, intensely interdependent species. Often, this economics-style individualism is of the Thomas Hobbes variety, which paints humans in “a state of nature,” waging a “war of all against all.”

      This statement in the framing of biology is quite similar to the framing in anthropology and archaeology that David Graeber and David Wengrow provide in The Dawn of Everything.

      Perhaps we should be saying (especially from a political perspective): Cooperation is King!

    1. In this spirit he castigated Alexander Harden as "an enemy of the spirit that was fed by a small mind with a large card index," taking up what appears to have been a common criticism of the author, who because of his style that relied overly much on quotations [Die Fackel, Heft 360-62 (1912)].

      Some of this critique relates to my classification about the sorts of notes that one takes. Some are more important or valuable than others.

      Some are for recall and later memory, some may be collection of ideas, but the highest seems to be linking different ideas and contexts together to create completely new and innovative ideas. If one is simply collecting sententiae and spewing them back out in reasonable contexts, this isn't as powerful as nurturing one's ideas to have sex.

    1. Reading "refreshes," but it must lead to writing. Neither activity should be pursued at the exclusion of the other. "Continuous writing will cast gloom over our strength, and exhaust it," while continuous reading "will make our strength watery and flabby. It is better to have recourse to them alternately, and to blend one with the other, so that the fruits of one's reading may be reduced to the concrete form by the pen" (277).

      Almost like saying that "man cannot live by bread alone"...

    1. Miracles reawaken the awareness that the spirit, not the body, is the altar of truth.

      How many times you thought a heavy bank account will make you happy? How many times you thought the same about careers, romantic lovers, fame or children and villa on a sheer? You might have also had some reveries that drinking alcohol will do or using drugs of any kind. Dig deep in this idea: what is it that you really want? If you look good enough you'll see the only reason why you're seeking all those things -- the joy is tied to them within your mind and it is joy indeed you really want. And yet, how many times your idols failed you? Weren't you shocked by the amount of side effects they bring? You thought a zillion coins will give you peace and happiness but what you've got is constant worry and distress. Is it not time for you stop chasing carrots but focus on your real goal instead?

      If you would look on anyone more closely to figure out their motivation and what exactly makes them tick, you'll be surprised to see that you are not the only one who's chasing happiness, it is at root for anyone indeed. There is no difference between a mother of a baby and user of some drug except in ways they're looking for it: the mother plans to get it from her baby the other - from the drug. Even the biggest tyrants you can name were doing what they've done only because they honestly believed: this is the way to joy. And so the universal goal is equal but everyone has a unique and special plan on how to get it, a map their very own. But if you've dared to lift this heavy brick of paper, it means you are among of those who've started to suspect: your plan has failed.

      what you seek for is a source of joy as you conceive it. T-24.5.1

      It never is the idol that you want. But what you think it offers you T-30.3.4

      You must have noticed an outstanding characteristic of every end that the ego has accepted as its own. When you have achieved it, it has not satisfied you. T-8.8.2

      It is essential that you accept the fact, and accept it gladly, that there is no form of littleness that can ever content you. You are free to try as many as you wish, but all you will be doing is to delay your homecoming. T-15.3.2

      I will not value what is valueless. W-133

      The world I see holds nothing that I want. W-128

      Seek not outside yourself. For it will fail, and you will weep each time an idol falls. T-29.7.1

      Perceiving equality, the Holy Spirit perceives equal needs. This invites Atonement automatically, because Atonement is the one need in this world that is universal. T-6.2.5

      Accept the plan you did not make W-186.5

      Only God's plan for salvation will work. W-71

  4. Dec 2021
    1. The main feature of iA Writer is not having many features. The program is, essentially, a white rectangle, where the user can do little else but type in a custom monospaced font. There are no headers, footers, drawing tools, or chatty paper-clip assistants. The bare-bones interface uses special characters in a simple formatting language called Markdown to bold, italicize, or otherwise transform text—a way of encouraging writers to keep their hands on the keyboard and their minds on their work.

      Using a completely blank page as the start of any creative endeavor is a miserable choice for writing. Start with some other object and annotate either on it or next to it. Look at something else as a base. Starting with blank nothing is a recipe for loneliness and disaster. So-called distraction free writing tools are the worst.

      Didn't Ernest Hemmingway analogize staring at a blank page like facing a white bull? There is a litany of quotes about writers facing the blank page.

      Why not, instead, use the advice of ancient rhetors by starting with the best? Become a bee and collect the best materials for your honey first. If we don't look to them, then perhaps follow the lesson taught by Benjamin Franklin on writing or the same lesson repeated in the movie Finding Forrester. Start with someone else's work and rewrite that until you find your own words. This is what makes writing while annotating so easy and simple. You've got a nice tapestry of textures to begin your work.

      Giving birth to something fully formed as if from the head of Zeus is a fallacy. It only works for the gods.

    2. The tools of writing have seldom been designed with writers in mind.

      Perhaps its just that modern writers have been so long divorced from the ideas of classical rhetoric that they're making the process so much harder than it needs to be. Do writers know what they really need in the first place? Perhaps they've been putting the cart before the horse for too long.

      Rethinking one's writing process to start at the moment of reading and annotation is possibly a far better method for composition? Then instead of needing to do the work of coming up with an idea and then researching toward one's idea and then creating something de novo, one can delve into one's notes of things they know have previously been of interest to them. By already being of interest or answering questions they've previously asked themselves and had interest in pursuing, they might make the load of work more evenly spread across their lives rather than designing a massive mountain of a problem first and then attempting to scale it after the fact.

      By building the mountain from the start, it then isn't a problem to be solved, just a vista from which to stand and survey the area.

    1. you know, I liked the results very much

      That feeling of self satisfaction is a happy end per se. I think it is a characteristic of rewilding if you are looking to assess that.

    1. Desired workflow:

      1. I navigate to the APL login page https://austin.bibliocommons.com/user/login
      2. I invoke a bookmarklet on the login page that opens a new browser window/tab
      3. In the second tab, I navigate here—to a locally saved copy of (a facsimile of) my library card
      4. I invoke a bookmarklet on my library card to send the relevant details to the APL login page using window.postMessage
      5. The bookmarklet set up in step 2 receives the details, fills in the login form, and automatically "garbage collects" the second tab

      Some other thoughts: We can maintain a personal watchlist/readlist similarly. This document (patron ID "page") itself is probably not a good place for this. It is, however, a good place to reproduce a convenient copy of the necessary bookmarklets. (With this design, only one browser-managed bookmarklet would be necessary; with both bookmarklets being part of the document contents, the second bookmarklet used for step 4 can just be invoked directly from the page itself—no need to follow through on actually bookmarking it.)

    1. A plumber was a man who used lead for many reasons. Since lead was very malleable and had a low melting temperature it was employed quite a great deal to seal and repair.Pipes used to be connected and secured just as they are at present, although now we use plastics or ceramics.
    2. One may think that the pipes leading to the sink, and the job of installing or maintaining them is described as plumbing since pipes were previously made with lead and the Latin word for lead was plumbum (consequently the elemental letters Pb).While this fact is absolutely valid, it is additionally true that plumbers were once employed in additional ways than installing pipes when the phrase plumber originally became popular in French then English within a century around the 14th Century A.D.
    3. Furthermore, lead is very weighty and so it was often used in the role of a weight. At the end of a twine hung to be certain of a perpendicular line it is described as a plumb bob. Persons in charge of water workings earlier than the era of dependable pressure systems had to fall back on on gravity defined methods and so accurate lines and levels were essential.
    1. The possibility of arbitrary internal branching.

      Modern digital zettelkasten don't force the same sort of digital internal branching process that is described by Niklas Luhmann. Internal branching in these contexts is wholly reliant on the user to create it.

      Many digital systems will create a concrete identifier to fix the idea within the system, but this runs the risk of ending up with a useless scrap heap.

      Some modern systems provide the ability for one to add taxonomies like subject headings in a commonplace book tradition, which adds some level of linking. But if we take the fact that well interlinked cards are the most valuable in such a system then creating several links upfront may be a bit more work, but it provides more value in the long run.

      Upfront links also don't require quite as much work at the card's initial creation as the creator already has the broader context of the idea. Creating links at a future date requires the reloading into their working memory of the card's idea and broader context.

      Of course there may also be side benefits (including to memory) brought by the spaced repetition of the card's ideas as well as potential new contexts gained in the interim which may help add previously unconsidered links.

      It can certainly be possible that at some level of linking, there is a law of diminishing returns the decreases the value of a card and its idea.

      One of the benefits of physical card systems like Luhmann's is that the user is forced to add the card somewhere, thus making the first link of the idea into the system. Luhmann's system in particular creates a parent/sibling relation to other cards or starts a brand new branch.

    2. The fixed filing place needs no system. It is sufficient that we give every slip a number which is easily seen (in or case on the left of the first line) and that we never change this number and thus the fixed place of the slip. This decision about structure is that reduction of the complexity of possible arrangements, which makes possible the creation of high complexity in the card file and thus makes possible its ability to communicate in the first place.

      There's an interesting analogy between Niklas Luhmann's zettelkasten numbering system and the early street address system in Vienna. Just as people (often) have a fixed address, they're able to leave it temporarily and mix with other people before going back home every night. The same is true with his index cards. Without the ability to remove cards and remix them in various orders, the system has far less complexity and simultaneously far less value.

      Link to reference of street addressing systems of Vienna quoted by Markus Krajewski in (chapter 3 of) Paper Machines.


      Both the stability and the occasional complexity of the system give it tremendous value.

      How is this linked to the idea that some of the most interesting things within systems happen at the edges of the system which have the most complexity? Cards that sit idly have less value for their stability while cards at the edges that move around the most and interact with other cards and ideas provide the most value.

      Graph this out on a multi-axis drawing. Is the relationship linear, non-linear, exponential? What is the relationship of this movement to the links between cards? Is it essentially the same (particularly in digital settings) as movement?

      Are links (and the active creation thereof) between cards the equivalent of communication?

    1. For Europeanaudiences, the indigenous critique would come as a shock to thesystem, revealing possibilities for human emancipation that, oncedisclosed, could hardly be ignored.

      Indigenous peoples of the Americas critiqued European institutions for their structures and lack of freedom. In turn, while some Europeans listened, they created an evolutionary political spectrum of increasing human complexity to combat this indigenous critique.

    2. Intellectual historians have never really abandoned the GreatMan theory of history. They often write as if all important ideas in agiven age can be traced back to one or other extraordinary individual– whether Plato, Confucius, Adam Smith or Karl Marx – rather thanseeing such authors’ writings as particularly brilliant interventions indebates that were already going on in taverns or dinner parties orpublic gardens (or, for that matter, lecture rooms), but whichotherwise might never have been written down

      The Great Man theory of history is the misconception that all the most important ideas can be traced back to a single great individual—usually a man—and ignoring the fact that they had likely been brewing in the social milieu of their time before being encapsulated, like a bug in ember, by a particular writer who then gets an outsized amount of credit for "inventing" the idea.


      I wonder if the effect of social media and ubiquity of communication will dampen this effect?

    3. ‘Security’ takes manyforms. There is the security of knowing one has a statistically smallerchance of getting shot with an arrow. And then there’s the security ofknowing that there are people in the world who will care deeply if oneis.
    4. Among the most eloquent commentaries on this wholephenomenon is to be found in a private letter written by BenjaminFranklin to a friend:When an Indian Child has been brought up among us,taught our language and habituated to our Customs, yet ifhe goes to see his relations and make one Indian Ramblewith them there is no persuading him ever to return, andthat this is not natural merely as Indians, but as men, isplain from this, that when white persons of either sexhave been taken prisoner young by the Indians, and livedawhile among them, tho’ ransomed by their Friends, andtreated with all imaginable tenderness to prevail withthem to stay among the English, yet in a Short time theybecome disgusted with our manner of life, and the careand pains that are necessary to support it, and take thefirst opportunity of escaping again into the Woods, fromwhence there is no reclaiming them. One instance Iremember to have heard, where the person was to bebrought home to possess a good Estate; but finding somecare necessary to keep it together, he relinquished it to ayounger brother, reserving to himself nothing but a gunand match-Coat, with which he took his way again to theWilderness.30

      Franklin, Benjamin. 1961 [1753]. Letter to Peter Collinson, 9 May 1753. In Leonard W. Labaree (ed.), The Papers of Benjamin Franklin. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, vol. 4, pp. 481–3.

      Is Stockholm syndrome a temporary or permanent condition? Likely that it's not permanent and that basic lifeways may win out in a switch of lifeways.

    5. That, Pinker tells us, is the kind of dismal fate ordained for usby evolution. We have only escaped it by virtue of our willingness toplace ourselves under the common protection of nation states,courts of law and police forces; and also by embracing virtues ofreasoned debate and self-contro

      It's interesting to note that the founders of the United States famously including Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr regularly participated in duel culture which often ended in death despite its use as a means of defending one's honor and relieving tensions between people.

    6. When archaeologistsundertake balanced appraisals of hunter-gatherer burials from thePalaeolithic, they find high frequencies of health-related disabilities –but also surprisingly high levels of care until the time of death (andbeyond, since some of these funerals were remarkably lavish).16
      1. Formicola, Vincenzo. 2007. ‘From the Sungir children to the Romito dwarf: aspects of the Upper Palaeolithic funerary landscape.’ Current Anthropology 48: 446–53.

      It will require some investigation, but on it's face this reference to Formicola seems to be about a small number of cases and doesn't point to or back up their claim about high frequencies of societal care and support. Where is their evidence within the archaeological record.

    7. Romito 2 is the 10,000-year-old burial of a male with a raregenetic disorder (acromesomelic dysplasia): a severe type ofdwarfism, which in life would have rendered him both anomalous inhis community and unable to participate in the kind of high-altitudehunting that was necessary for their survival. Studies of hispathology show that, despite generally poor levels of health andnutrition, that same community of hunter-gatherers still took pains tosupport this individual through infancy and into early adulthood,granting him the same share of meat as everyone else, andultimately according him a careful, sheltered burial.15
      1. Tilley, Lorna. 2015. ‘Accommodating difference in the prehistoric past: revisiting the case of Romito 2 from a bioarchaeology of care perspective.’ International Journal of Paleopathology 8: 64–74.

      In a case like this what might have been the reasons for keeping and helping such an individual?

      In an oral society, it's possible that despite his potential physical disabilities for hunting that he may have been an above-average store of knowledge from a memory perspective, thus making him potentially even more valuable to his society.

    8. ‘What is it about the ancients,’ Pinker asks at one point, ‘that theycouldn’t leave us an interesting corpse without resorting to foul play?’

      Part of their point here seems to be that Pinker is suffering from a form of bias related to the most sensational cases which will tend to heighten the availability bias. (Is there a name for this sort of sensationalism effect?)

      Is there also some survivorship bias at play here as well?

      We don't have access to a wide statistical survey of dead bodies from a large swath of times and places which makes it difficult to determine actual numbers.

    9. Now, this may seem counter-intuitive to anyone who spendsmuch time watching the news, let alone who knows much about thehistory of the twentieth century.

      Are they suffering from potential availability heuristic (cognitive bias) here? Are they encouraging it in us? Just because we see violence on the news every day doesn't mean it's ubiquitous.

      Apparently we'll need real evidence here to provide actual indications.

      Does Steven Pinker provide archaeological evidence in his book? What are the per capita rates of violence and/or death over time?

    1. you look at Rousseau he's writing two years later you know this is what everybody's discussing and the sort of social circles he's in so what does he do he synthesizes there's these two positions there's the evolutionist position and there's this sort of 00:53:31 indigenous critique possession and he does both so he comes up with the the first fusion well yes there was this primordial state where we were truly free and equal and that's cool but of 00:53:44 course then social evolution sets in and we lose it but you know someday we might get there again so basically by synthesizing these two opposed positions he essentially invents leftist discourse

      Graeber and Wengrow argue that Rousseau invents leftist discourse by juxtaposing the evolutionist idea of societies and the indigenous critique in Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes) in 1754.

    1. I think it may have been the British Library interview in which Wengrow says something like, you know, no one ever challenges a new conservative book and says, so and so has just offered a neoliberal perspective on X. But when an anarchist says something, people are sure to spend most of their time remarking on his politics. I think it's relevant that G&W call out Pinker's cherry-picking of Ötzi the ice man. They counter this with the Romito 2 specimen, but they insist that it is no more conclusive than Ötzi. So how does a challenging new interpretation gain ground in the face of an entrenched dominant narrative?

      This sentiment is very similar to one in a recent lecture series I'd started listening to: The Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida #.

      Lawrence Cahoone specifically pointed out that he would be highlighting the revolutionary (and also consequently the most famous) writers because they were the ones over history that created the most change in their field of thought.

      How does the novel and the different manage to break through?

      How does this relate to the broad thesis of Thomas S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions?


      The comment Wengrow makes about "remarking on [an anarchist's] politics" as a means of attacking their ideas is quite similar to the sort of attacks that are commonly made on women. When female politicians make relevant remarks and points, mainstream culture goes to standbys about their voice or appearance: "She's 'shrill'", or "She doesn't look very good in that dress." They attack anything but the idea itself.

    1. If ever any beauty I did see, Which I desired, and got, ’twas but a dream of thee.

      It's a clever reworking of Plato's cave allegory.

      The lover is presented as the Ideal of Beauty, which all earthly beauty is but an imperfect reflection of it. The previous mistresses that the speaker had a relationship with were mere fantasy(dream) of the lady that he is now in love with. It's a quite common conceit in Renaissance lyrics. However, the expression 'desired and got' is an original line of John Donne to refresh this overused cliché.

      Source:

      1. Nassaar S., Plato in John Donne's 'The Good Morrow' (2003)
      2. Book: John Donne, The Complete English Poet (1971)
      3. https://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/320/cave.htm
    2. den

      A cave where wild animals live.

      Another expression to demean the immature pleasures the speaker and the addressee once enjoyed.

      Also, the imagery of cave connects to the Plato's allegory of the cave which is the inspirational basis for line 6 and 7.

    3. THE GOOD-MORROW

      The Good-Morrow is an aubade, a love poem sung at dawn that greets the morning by recalling the pleasant night spent with the lover and the togetherness they shared while also lamenting as they realize that they should soon be parted.

      In The Good-Morrow the greeting aspect of aubade is particularly emphasized, celebrating the astonishing power of love that transcended them from individuals who dwelled on the unsophisticated pleasure to wholesome, perfectly balanced souls that are awakened in a new world.

      To read other examples of John Donne's aubade, see The Sunrising.

      Source: https://poets.org/glossary/aubade

    4. troth

      Truth

      It can also be interpreted as a marital oath, implying that the previous night they spent together is not an ordinary one but a wedding night. The plausible addressee of this poem is Donne's wife , Anne More.

    1. “proof of stake” where the design literally becomes “he who has the gold makes the rules”.
    1. I buy domains on a regular basis and often from more than one registrar because of a better deal or TLD availability. As a result, I tend to forget I have some domains! True story, I once ran a WHOIS search on a domain I own.

      The subtext here is, "that's why i created BeachfrontDigital". But this shows how "apps" (and systems) have poisoned how we conceptualize problems and their solutions.

      The simplest solution to the problem described is a document, not a never-finished/never-production-ready app. Bespoke apps have lots of cost overhead. Documents, on the other hand—even documents with rich structure—are cheap.

    1. Summary of evaluation: The eight white clergymen who wrote this letter to civil rights leaders missed an opportunity by not using the Rogerian structure. Classical oration left their audience feeling not heard and not understood. This combined with only first-hand qualitative evidence and several insulting logical fallacies makes for a letter just asking for Martin Luther King's scathing response.

    1. Une communauté d’apprentissage numérique dans son collège Animation : René Bélanger et Suzanne Mercier (Cégep de Matane) La mise en place d’une communauté d’apprentissage numérique dans son collège amène la mobilisation d’un groupe d’enseignants à innover dans sa pratique ce qui insuffle un vent de changement pour tout le collège. Partage d’expertise, validation de pratique, formation, réflexion sur les enjeux du numérique…
    1. Discussion is led by an instructor, but the instructor’s job is not to give the students a more informed understanding of the texts, or to train them in methods of interpretation, which is what would happen in a typical literature- or philosophy-department course. The instructor’s job is to help the students relate the texts to their own lives.

      The format of many "great books" courses is to help students relate the texts to their own lives, not to have a better understanding of the books or to hone methods of interpreting them.

      This isn't too dissimilar to the way that many Protestants are taught to apply the Bible to their daily lives.

      Are students mis-applying the great books because they don't understand their original ideas and context the way many religious people do with the Bible?

    2. The idea of the great books emerged at the same time as the modern university. It was promoted by works like Noah Porter’s “Books and Reading: Or What Books Shall I Read and How Shall I Read Them?” (1877) and projects like Charles William Eliot’s fifty-volume Harvard Classics (1909-10). (Porter was president of Yale; Eliot was president of Harvard.) British counterparts included Sir John Lubbock’s “One Hundred Best Books” (1895) and Frederic Farrar’s “Great Books” (1898). None of these was intended for students or scholars. They were for adults who wanted to know what to read for edification and enlightenment, or who wanted to acquire some cultural capital.

      Brief history of the "great books".

    1. The anarchist inspiration is clear than ever here: social complexity without “monopoly of legitimate violence” has been possible before, and can be possible again.

      In which contexts has this worked? And if so, how were those societies structured? How might we evolve back to that particular state space or adjacent spaces?

    1. been intensified by his long residence in the tropics

      Says a lot about the Victorian society and their views of non-white, British people. Blaming Dr. Roylott's rage and violence on his time in a foreign land portrays the idea of foreign influence to be something to fear and reinforces idea of English superiority.

    2. Were there gypsies in the plantation at the time

      Sherlock asking a question about the gypsies directly after Helen described her death as caused by "fear and nervous shock" is very telling about the society of this time. The fear of these traveling people and people who had foreign influences can be seen all throughout this short story and allows readers to have commentary about the stereotypes of foreign people during this time, as well as social darwinism in terms of English superiority.

    3. wretched gypsies

      The use of the word wretched shows what Helen thinks of the gypsies. Shows how much the gypsies presence affects Helen and another show of what the society thought of these people at the time.

    4. troubled by the smell of the strong Indian cigars

      Another show of foreign influence Dr. Roylott had. Cigars were not uncommon for people to smoke, Sherlock Holmes himself smokes cigars in short stories, but the identification of the cigar being a "strong Indian" reinforces the influences of foreign on Dr. Roylott.

    5. feared by the villagers almost as much as their master

      Important as a description of Roylott. Portraying him as even scarier than these violent animals that wander Stoke Moran, once again showing his violent nature and bad temper that was influenced by his time in India

    6. passion also for Indian animals

      More foreign influences

    7. wandering gypsies

      Gypsies are groups of traveling people that were often seen as a trope of exoticism in Victorian literature and were feared by many due to their lifestyle. The stereotype of gypsies in literature were often unfair and the word gypsy had a connotation that showed them as lesser than the lowest class people

    8. became the terror of the village

      Reinforcing his violent nature and showing that his foreign influence created a violent man who can not be controlled, changing a respectable man into a monster to be feared. Setting up Dr. Roylott as the prime suspect in this case due to his violent nature and his foreign influences.

    9. been intensified by his long residence in the tropics

      The theme of the exotic and more specifically the fear of the foreign can be seen throughout this short story. Mr. Roylott is seen to have become violent because of the influence of his time in a foreign land. The connection of this character and his time spent in India gives the reader the idea that his savage and violent nature was due to his time in a foreign area, portraying the foreign to be something to fear.