9 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2021
    1. he most famous illustration of how the name of a substance is supposed to function in this way is provided not by Kripke, but by Putnam, another leading proponent of the ‘theory of direct reference’. Putnam asks us to imagine a Twin Earth – just like our Earth – which contains doppelgängers of us humans. The only difference between the two Earths is that on Twin Earth the clear, thirst-quenching, etc liquid that fills the oceans, lakes and rivers is not the chemical substance H2O, but another substance – XYZ. Suppose it’s 1750, before the chemical composition of water was discovered. On both Earths, the inhabitants call their liquid ‘water’. And, because it’s 1750, they associate the same mental checklist with that term: both think of ‘water’ as the substance that’s clear, thirst-quenching, boils at 100°C and so on. Now suppose a glass of XYZ is brought from Twin Earth to Earth and presented to Locke. Locke would believe it’s water, because it would tick his mental checklist. But would it be water? Not according to Putnam. Intuitively, that’s merely water-like stuff in the glass, not water. Putnam concludes that, while the term ‘water’ is associated with the same descriptions on Earth and Twin Earth, it has different meanings and picks out different chemical kinds. It is, and was, a necessary condition of something being water that it be H2O, despite this condition not being known back in 1750.
  2. Nov 2020
    1. Smart had to say that if sensation X is identical to brain process Y then if Y is between my ears and is straight or circular (absurdly to oversimplify) then the sensation X is between my ears and is straight or circular.

      If, X = my mind

      and, B= my brain

      and X == B

      then, if my mind X is in brain state B1 at t1 (i.e. acute pain) and your mind, Y is in brain state B2 at t1 (i.e. acute pain) then, B1 = X == Y = B2

      then, it follows that B1 == B2 at t1

      is it possible for two human being to have exact brain state at say t1?

  3. Oct 2020
    1. According to the endurantist view, material objects are persisting three-dimensional individuals wholly present at every moment of their existence
  4. Jul 2020
  5. May 2020
  6. Jul 2017
    1. Because it is so important to be seen as competent and productive members of society, people naturally attempt to present themselves to others in a positive light. We attempt to convince others that we are good and worthy people by appearing attractive, strong, intelligent, and likable and by saying positive things to others (Jones & Pittman, 1982; Schlenker, 2003). The tendency to present a positive self-image to others, with the goal of increasing our social status, is known as self-presentation, and it is a basic and natural part of everyday life.

      A short film captures how social interactions influence our complex relationships between self-presentation, self-esteem and self concept in a unique way.