25 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2022
    1. Because std::unique_ptr is designed with move semantics in mind, copy initialization and copy assignment are disabled. If you want to transfer the contents managed by std::unique_ptr, you must use move semantics.

      std::unique_ptr 可以使用 copy 初始化吗?

    1. std::move_if_noexcept will return a movable r-value if the object has a noexcept move constructor, otherwise it will return a copyable l-value. We can use the noexcept specifier in conjunction with std::move_if_noexcept to use move semantics only when a strong exception guarantee exists (and use copy semantics otherwise).

      如果在 move 过程中遇到异常,有什么办法可以处理?

    1. std::move can be used whenever we want to treat an l-value like an r-value for the purpose of invoking move semantics instead of copy semantics.

      std::move 在什么情况下可以使用?

    1. the goal of the move constructor and move assignment is to move ownership of the resources from one object to another (which is typically much less expensive than making a copy).

      move constructor 和 move assignment 的目的是什么?

  2. Mar 2022
    1. The danger of working at "internet time" is that hasty decisions may be poor, and rapid changes may cause troubling turbulence for many users.

      In 1998, Ben Shneiderman wrote "The danger of working at "internet time" is that hasty decisions may be poor, and rapid changes may cause troubling turbulence for many users." He's essentially admonishing against the dangerous and anti-social idea of what Mark Zuckerberg would later encourage at Facebook when he said "move fast and break things."

  3. Jan 2022
    1. If one of those two expressions couldpossibly generate an error condition or a side effect, this could lead to invalidbehavior. Such is the case for our earlier example

      有什么情况下必须使用 branching 方式,而不能使用 conditional move?

  4. Nov 2021
    1. One important feature is that memoryreferences in x86-64 are always given with quad word registers, such as %rax, evenif the operand is a byte, single word, or double word.

      memory reference 属于那种 register 类型?

    2. logicallybe named movzlq, but this instruction does not exist. Instead, this type of datamovement can be implemented using a movl instruction having a register as thedestination. This technique takes advantage of the property that an instructiongenerating a 4-byte value with a register as the destination will fill the upper 4bytes with zeros.

      为什么在 movz 的指令中缺少 movzlq?

    3. in memory, to a register destination. Instructions in the movz class fill out theremaining bytes of the destination with zeros, while those in the movs class fillthem out by sign extension, replicating copies of the most significant bit of thesource operand.

      那两种 move 指令针对 copy smaller source 到 larger destination,他们的做法分别是什么?

    4. The source operand designates a value that is immediate, stored in a register,or stored in memory. The destination operand designates a location that is either aregister or a memory address. x86-64 imposes the restriction that a move instruc-tion cannot have both operands refer to memory locations. Copying a value fromone memory location to another requires two instructions—the first to load thesource value into a register, and the second to write this register value to the des-tination.

      move 的 source operand 和 destination operand 分别可以是哪些类型?

  5. Feb 2021
  6. Aug 2020
    1. Amylin interacts cooperatively with leptin. The anorexigenic effects of lepin when paired with amylin are greater than the sum of leptin and amylin’s independent anorexigenic effects. In other words, there is a greater-than-additive effect on satiety when leptin and amylin signaling pathways are simultaneously activated. The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is one site of amylin-leptin interactions. The administration of amylin enhances leptin binding in the VMH, and both leptin and amylin receptor activation initiate some of the same signaling cascades (e.g., STAT3, Akt, and ERK). The STAT3 pathway seems to be particularly important in the interaction between leptin and amylin. Amylin-enhanced leptin signaling in the VMH requires amylin’s induction of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Notably, even following the development of leptin insensitivity (e.g., in obese individuals), amylin administration can restore leptin sensitivity.

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    2. Pramlintide is an amylin agonist approved for the treatment of T1DM and T2DM. Pramlintide is co-administered with insulin analogs and contributes to suppression of postprandial blood glucose by delaying gastric emptying, inhibiting glucagon secretion, and reducing food consumption. Like amylin, pramlintide is primarily deactivated by renal clearance, which also likely involves degradation by insulin-degrading enzyme. In obesity, satiety signals often have a diminished capacity to elicit their anorexigenic effects due to decreased receptor sensitivity. This is particularly true in the case of the adipose tissue-derived satiety signal leptin. In obesity, leptin insensitivity (also called leptin resistance) is profound. However, amylin receptor agonists remain potent appetite-suppressing agents in obese individuals but require continuous administration to effectively treat obesity. Furthermore, in some cases, amylin enhances the anorexigenic effects of other satiety signals (e.g., CCK, PYY, insulin, leptin) when co-administered.

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    3. The delay in gastric emptying induced by amylin is most likely achieved through central effects on the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain. The dorsal vagal complex contains multiple nuclei and plays a critical role in regulating gastric motility. The dorsal vagal complex includes the area postrema, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV). The area postrema mediates some of the physiological and behavioral effects of amylin, and projects to the NTS. The NTS integrates both neural and endocrine signals (including amylin) and relays the integrated signals to the DMV. The DMB projects preganglionic axons toward the stomach, providing autonomic control over gastric motility. One proposed (though not yet validated) mechanism by which amylin delays gastric emptying is through excitation of the NTS. Amylin may accomplish this excitation of the NTS by interacting with the area postrema to promote the area postrema’s excitation of the NTS (possibly complimenting excitatory glutamatergic vagal input to the NTS) or by directly exciting the NTS. When the NTS is excited by amylin (whether directly or indirectly), the NTS could then modulate the activity of the DMV, resulting in DMV-mediated reductions in gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. In support of this proposed pathway, gastric emptying is accelerated during hypoglycemia to increase the rate of glucose absorption to raise blood glucose to normal levels. Amylin-activated neurons in the area postrema have been shown to exhibit significant reductions in activity when exposed to low plasma glucose, which, through the same proposed pathway, would yield the increased rate in gastric emptying evident in hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia may also diminish these neurons’ responsiveness to amylin.

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    4. In addition to the roles of GLP-1 in regulating energy homeostasis at the level of the hypothalamus, another interesting hypothalamic effect of GLP-1R activation is to promote the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the hypophyseal portal system, at which point GnRH can stimulate gonadotropin release from the anterior pituitary. This promotion of GnRH secretion is accomplished through an interesting signaling pathway. In GnRH neurons, there is continuous production of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, an endocannabinoid) by the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) and a tonic retrograde release of 2-AG. The tonic retrograde release of 2-AG inhibits excitatory GABAergic inputs (GABA is usually inhibitory, but GABA is excitatory to GnRH neurons). GLP-1R activation on GnRH neurons increases the production of anandamide (another endocannabinoid). Anandamide in GnRH neurons activates TRPV1 receptors, leading to the inhibition of DGL. This prevents the production and tonic retrograde release of 2-AG. Furthermore, GLP-1R activation also increases the activity of adenylyl cyclase, leading to increased cAMP production, and the consequent activation of protein kinase A (PKA). PKA activates nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which produces nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is released as a retrograde signal to the excitatory GABAergic inputs, where it promotes GABA release. Thus, GLP-1R activation suppresses 2-AG-mediated inhibition of GABAergic excitation, while also promoting GABAergic excitation through retrograde NO signaling. Both of these effects of GLP-1R activation increase the excitatory GABAergic input to GnRH neurons, resulting in increased excitation of GnRH neurons.

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    5. If the chyme entering the duodenum and jejunum contains fat, the presence of fat triggers the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) by I cells. However, CCK is also released by I cells in response to acetylcholine released by the vagus nerve. CCK is both a central neuropeptide and a gastric peptide hormone. In addition to its release by I cells in the duodenum and jejunum, CCK is also released by enteric nervous system neurons as well as by neurons in the brain.

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    6. The presence of protein-rich foods accumulating in the lower stomach or stimulation by vagus nerve afferents causes G cells in the pyloric antrum of the stomach to release gastrin, an endocrine signal with numerous targets. Gastrin is also released by enteroendocrine cells in the duodenum in response to large quantities of incompletely digested proteins and it can also be released by the pancreas.

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  7. Apr 2018
    1. Be smart about killing and moving; if there is a closed fold, act on the entire fold.

      This is very good

  8. Mar 2017
  9. Feb 2017
    1. Another remedy is to look carefully at the exact meanings of words used to describe women's activities in the early Christian Church. Willard gives further examples of readings in which literal and loose inter-pretations are irrationally mixed

      Did she pull the John Kerry move?

      In a way, she got her foot in the door by using Bible quotes and American history. Now she says that some of it needs another look... preferably through eyes that are partial to temperance.

    2. Mattingly has shown, Willard and the temperance women who followed her lead also made heavy use of tmditional cultuml references, especially to the Bible and American history, to identify their reforms with accepted values.

      Appealing to higher authority... good move.

  10. Oct 2013
    1. The eloquent divine, then, when he is urging a practical truth, must not only teach so as to give instruction, and please so as to keep up the attention, but he must also sway the mind so as to subdue the will. For if a man be not moved by the force of truth, though it is demonstrated to his own confession, and clothed in beauty of style, nothing remains but to subdue him by the power of eloquence.

      It's interesting that he links the divine or persuasion of the spirit with rhetorical persuasion