12 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2020
    1. Amylin interacts cooperatively with leptin. The anorexigenic effects of lepin when paired with amylin are greater than the sum of leptin and amylin’s independent anorexigenic effects. In other words, there is a greater-than-additive effect on satiety when leptin and amylin signaling pathways are simultaneously activated. The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is one site of amylin-leptin interactions. The administration of amylin enhances leptin binding in the VMH, and both leptin and amylin receptor activation initiate some of the same signaling cascades (e.g., STAT3, Akt, and ERK). The STAT3 pathway seems to be particularly important in the interaction between leptin and amylin. Amylin-enhanced leptin signaling in the VMH requires amylin’s induction of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Notably, even following the development of leptin insensitivity (e.g., in obese individuals), amylin administration can restore leptin sensitivity.

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    2. Pramlintide is an amylin agonist approved for the treatment of T1DM and T2DM. Pramlintide is co-administered with insulin analogs and contributes to suppression of postprandial blood glucose by delaying gastric emptying, inhibiting glucagon secretion, and reducing food consumption. Like amylin, pramlintide is primarily deactivated by renal clearance, which also likely involves degradation by insulin-degrading enzyme. In obesity, satiety signals often have a diminished capacity to elicit their anorexigenic effects due to decreased receptor sensitivity. This is particularly true in the case of the adipose tissue-derived satiety signal leptin. In obesity, leptin insensitivity (also called leptin resistance) is profound. However, amylin receptor agonists remain potent appetite-suppressing agents in obese individuals but require continuous administration to effectively treat obesity. Furthermore, in some cases, amylin enhances the anorexigenic effects of other satiety signals (e.g., CCK, PYY, insulin, leptin) when co-administered.

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    3. The delay in gastric emptying induced by amylin is most likely achieved through central effects on the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain. The dorsal vagal complex contains multiple nuclei and plays a critical role in regulating gastric motility. The dorsal vagal complex includes the area postrema, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV). The area postrema mediates some of the physiological and behavioral effects of amylin, and projects to the NTS. The NTS integrates both neural and endocrine signals (including amylin) and relays the integrated signals to the DMV. The DMB projects preganglionic axons toward the stomach, providing autonomic control over gastric motility. One proposed (though not yet validated) mechanism by which amylin delays gastric emptying is through excitation of the NTS. Amylin may accomplish this excitation of the NTS by interacting with the area postrema to promote the area postrema’s excitation of the NTS (possibly complimenting excitatory glutamatergic vagal input to the NTS) or by directly exciting the NTS. When the NTS is excited by amylin (whether directly or indirectly), the NTS could then modulate the activity of the DMV, resulting in DMV-mediated reductions in gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. In support of this proposed pathway, gastric emptying is accelerated during hypoglycemia to increase the rate of glucose absorption to raise blood glucose to normal levels. Amylin-activated neurons in the area postrema have been shown to exhibit significant reductions in activity when exposed to low plasma glucose, which, through the same proposed pathway, would yield the increased rate in gastric emptying evident in hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia may also diminish these neurons’ responsiveness to amylin.

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    4. In addition to the roles of GLP-1 in regulating energy homeostasis at the level of the hypothalamus, another interesting hypothalamic effect of GLP-1R activation is to promote the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the hypophyseal portal system, at which point GnRH can stimulate gonadotropin release from the anterior pituitary. This promotion of GnRH secretion is accomplished through an interesting signaling pathway. In GnRH neurons, there is continuous production of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, an endocannabinoid) by the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) and a tonic retrograde release of 2-AG. The tonic retrograde release of 2-AG inhibits excitatory GABAergic inputs (GABA is usually inhibitory, but GABA is excitatory to GnRH neurons). GLP-1R activation on GnRH neurons increases the production of anandamide (another endocannabinoid). Anandamide in GnRH neurons activates TRPV1 receptors, leading to the inhibition of DGL. This prevents the production and tonic retrograde release of 2-AG. Furthermore, GLP-1R activation also increases the activity of adenylyl cyclase, leading to increased cAMP production, and the consequent activation of protein kinase A (PKA). PKA activates nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which produces nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is released as a retrograde signal to the excitatory GABAergic inputs, where it promotes GABA release. Thus, GLP-1R activation suppresses 2-AG-mediated inhibition of GABAergic excitation, while also promoting GABAergic excitation through retrograde NO signaling. Both of these effects of GLP-1R activation increase the excitatory GABAergic input to GnRH neurons, resulting in increased excitation of GnRH neurons.

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    5. If the chyme entering the duodenum and jejunum contains fat, the presence of fat triggers the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) by I cells. However, CCK is also released by I cells in response to acetylcholine released by the vagus nerve. CCK is both a central neuropeptide and a gastric peptide hormone. In addition to its release by I cells in the duodenum and jejunum, CCK is also released by enteric nervous system neurons as well as by neurons in the brain.

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    6. The presence of protein-rich foods accumulating in the lower stomach or stimulation by vagus nerve afferents causes G cells in the pyloric antrum of the stomach to release gastrin, an endocrine signal with numerous targets. Gastrin is also released by enteroendocrine cells in the duodenum in response to large quantities of incompletely digested proteins and it can also be released by the pancreas.

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  2. Apr 2018
    1. Be smart about killing and moving; if there is a closed fold, act on the entire fold.

      This is very good

  3. Mar 2017
  4. Feb 2017
    1. Another remedy is to look carefully at the exact meanings of words used to describe women's activities in the early Christian Church. Willard gives further examples of readings in which literal and loose inter-pretations are irrationally mixed

      Did she pull the John Kerry move?

      In a way, she got her foot in the door by using Bible quotes and American history. Now she says that some of it needs another look... preferably through eyes that are partial to temperance.

    2. Mattingly has shown, Willard and the temperance women who followed her lead also made heavy use of tmditional cultuml references, especially to the Bible and American history, to identify their reforms with accepted values.

      Appealing to higher authority... good move.

  5. Dec 2016
  6. Oct 2013
    1. The eloquent divine, then, when he is urging a practical truth, must not only teach so as to give instruction, and please so as to keep up the attention, but he must also sway the mind so as to subdue the will. For if a man be not moved by the force of truth, though it is demonstrated to his own confession, and clothed in beauty of style, nothing remains but to subdue him by the power of eloquence.

      It's interesting that he links the divine or persuasion of the spirit with rhetorical persuasion