27 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2022
  2. Aug 2022
  3. Jul 2022
    1. let me comment on your quantum physics i have only one objection please i think it's uh uh it's 01:01:21 what you said about the two uh sort of prototypical uh quantum puzzles which is schrodinger the double slit experiment uh it's uh it's perfect um my only objection is that in my book 01:01:34 i described of course i had a chapter about schrodinger cat but i don't use a situation in which the cat is dead or alive 01:01:46 i prefer a situation in which the cat is asleep or awake just because i don't like killing cats even in in in in mental experiments so after that 01:01:58 uh uh replacing a sleep cut with a dead cat i think uh i i i i completely agree and let me come to the the serious part of the answer um 01:02:10 what you mentioned as the passage from uh the third and the fourth um between among the the sort of the versions of 01:02:25 wooden philosophy it's it's exactly what i what i think is relevant for quantum mechanics for this for the following reason we read in quantum mechanics books 01:02:37 that um we should not think about the mechanical description of reality but the description reality with respect to the observer and there is always this notion in in books that there's observer or there are 01:02:50 paratus that measure so it's a uh but i am a scientist which view the world from the perspective of 01:03:02 modern science where one way of viewing the world is that uh there are uh you know uh billions and billions of galaxies each one with billions and billions of 01:03:14 of of of stars probably with planets all around and uh um from that perspective the observer in any quantum mechanical experiment is just one piece in the big story 01:03:28 so i have found the uh berkeley subjective idealism um uh profoundly unconvincing from the point 01:03:39 of view of a scientist uh because it there is an aspect of naturalism which uh it's a in which i i i grew up as a scientist 01:03:52 which refuses to say that to understand quantum mechanics we have to bring in our mind quantum mechanics is not something that has directly to do with our mind has not 01:04:05 something directly to do about any observer any apparatus because we use quantum mechanics for describing uh what happened inside the sun the the the reaction the nuclear reaction there or 01:04:18 galaxy formations so i think quantum mechanics in a way i think quantum mechanics is experiments about not about psychology not about our mind not about consciousness not 01:04:32 about anything like that it has to do about the world my question what we mean by real world that's fine because science repeatedly was forced to change its own ideas about the 01:04:46 real world so if uh if to make sense of quantum mechanics i have to think that the cat is awake or asleep only when a conscious observer our mind 01:05:00 interacts with this uh i say no that's not there are interpretations of quantum mechanics that go in that direction they require either am i correct to say the copenhagen 01:05:14 school does copenhagen school uh talk about the observer without saying who is what is observed but the compelling school which is the way most 01:05:27 textbooks are written uh describe any quantum mechanical situation in terms okay there is an observer making a measurement and we're talking about the outcome of the measurements 01:05:39 so yes it's uh it assumes an observer but it's very vague about what what an observer is some more sharp interpretation like cubism uh take this notion observer to be real 01:05:54 fundamental it's an agent somebody who makes who thinks about and can compute the future so it's a it's a that's that's a starting point for for doing uh for doing the rest i was 01:06:07 i've always been unhappy with that because things happen on the sun when there is nobody that is an observer in anything and i want to think to have a way of thinking in the world that things happen there 01:06:20 independently of me so to say is they might depend on one another but why should they depend on me and who am i or you know what observers should be a you know a white western scientist with 01:06:32 a phd i mean should we include women should we include people without phd should we include cats is the cat an observer should we fly i mean it's just not something i understand

      Carlo goes on to address the fundamental question which lay at the intersection of quantum mechanics and Buddhist philosophy: If a tree falls in the forest, does anybody hear? Carlo rejects Berkeley's idealism and states that even quantum mechanical laws are about the behavior of a system, independent of whether an observer is present. He begins to invoke his version of the Schrödinger cat paraodox to explain.

  4. Jun 2022
    1. What is color for?" And instead of telling you, I'll just show you. What you see here is a jungle scene, 00:02:08 and you see the surfaces according to the amount of light that those surfaces reflect. Now, can any of you see the predator that's about to jump out at you? And if you haven't seen it yet, you're dead, right? (Laughter) Can anyone see it? Anyone? No? Now let's see the surfaces according to the quality of light that they reflect. And now you see it. So, color enables us to see 00:02:32 the similarities and differences between surfaces, according to the full spectrum of light that they reflect. But what you've just done is in many respects mathematically impossible. Why? Because, as Berkeley tells us, we have no direct access to our physical world, other than through our senses. And the light that falls onto our eyes is determined by multiple things in the world, not only the color of objects, 00:02:56 but also the color of their illumination, and the color of the space between us and those objects. You vary any one of those parameters, and you'll change the color of the light that falls onto your eye. This is a huge problem, because it means that the same image could have an infinite number of possible real-world sources

      BEing journey 2 pattern detection

  5. Apr 2022
    1. 7 Notes could also focus on original thoughts, as in the Pen-sées of Blaise Pascal, the “commonplace book” of George Berkeley, or the Sudel-bücher of Georg Lichtenberg, which were devoted to original reflections ratherthan to excerpts from the writings of other authors.

      Examples of notes focusing on one's original ideas and reflections rather than excerpts of others' works.

  6. Jun 2020
    1. Figure 6.1.46.1.4\PageIndex{4}: Temperature versus heat. The system is constructed so that no vapor evaporates while ice warms to become liquid water, and so that, when vaporization occurs, the vapor remains in the system. The long stretches of constant temperatures at 0oC0oC0^oC and 100oC100oC100^oC reflect the large amounts of heat needed to cause melting and vaporization, respectively.

      Figure 6.1.4 : Temperature versus heat. The system is constructed so that no vapor evaporates while ice warms to become liquid water, and so that, when vaporization occurs, the vapor remains in the system. The long stretches of constant temperatures at 0oC and 100oC reflect the large amounts of heat needed to cause melting and vaporization, respectively.

    2. Heat and work have signs (positive or negative), and the sign of each depends on whether the system we are considering is gaining or losing energy. In this class, if a process makes the system gain energy, qqq and/or www are positive; if the process makes the system lose energy, qqq and/or www are negative. We can put this information into four formal statements: If heat flows into a system, qqq is positive. If heat flows out of a system, qqq is negative If the surroundings do work on the system, www is positive. If the system does work, www is negative.

      Heat and work have signs (positive or negative), and the sign of each depends on whether the system we are considering is gaining or losing energy. In this class, if a process makes the system gain energy, q and/or w are positive; if the process makes the system lose energy, q and/or w are negative. We can put this information into four formal statements:

      • If heat flows into a system, q is positive.
      • If heat flows out of a system, q is negative
      • If the surroundings do work on the system, w is positive.
      • If the system does work, w is negative.
    3. In order to measure energy, we need a unit for it. In the metric system, the standard unit of energy is the joule. The formal definition of a joule is: A joule is the amount of energy expended when an object is moved 1 meter against a resisting force of 1 newton. (You can learn all about the concept of force in a physics class.) As for the joule, here are some statements that may help you visualize this unit.  A joule is… …enough energy to lift a one kilogram object 10.2 centimeters. …enough energy to heat one milliliter of water from 20ºC to 20.24ºC. …enough energy to keep a 60 watt light bulb glowing for 0.0167 seconds. Obviously, a joule is a very small amount of energy, and in fact it is an inconveniently small amount when we describe chemical reactions. Chemists usually report energies for reactions in kilojoules (1 kJ = 1000 J).

      In order to measure energy, we need a unit for it. In the metric system, the standard unit of energy is the joule. The formal definition of a joule is: A joule is the amount of energy expended when an object is moved 1 meter against a resisting force of 1 newton. (You can learn all about the concept of force in a physics class.) As for the joule, here are some statements that may help you visualize this unit. A joule is…

      …enough energy to lift a one kilogram object 10.2 centimeters.

      …enough energy to heat one milliliter of water from 20ºC to 20.24ºC.

      …enough energy to keep a 60 watt light bulb glowing for 0.0167 seconds.

      Obviously, a joule is a very small amount of energy, and in fact it is an inconveniently small amount when we describe chemical reactions. Chemists usually report energies for reactions in kilojoules (1 kJ = 1000 J).

    1. In any electrochemical process, electrons flow from one chemical substance to another, driven by an oxidation–reduction (redox) reaction. A redox reaction occurs when electrons are transferred from a substance that is oxidized to one that is being reduced. The reductant is the substance that loses electrons and is oxidized in the process; the oxidant is the species that gains electrons and is reduced in the process. The associated potential energy is determined by the potential difference between the valence electrons in atoms of different elements.
    1. Theoretical Yields When reactants are not present in stoichiometric quantities, the limiting reactant determines the maximum amount of product that can be formed from the reactants. The amount of product calculated in this way is the theoretical yield, the amount obtained if the reaction occurred perfectly and the purification method were 100% efficient. In reality, less product is always obtained than is theoretically possible because of mechanical losses (such as spilling), separation procedures that are not 100% efficient, competing reactions that form undesired products, and reactions that simply do not run to completion, resulting in a mixture of products and reactants; this last possibility is a common occurrence. Therefore, the actual yield, the measured mass of products obtained from a reaction, is almost always less than the theoretical yield (often much less). The percent yield of a reaction is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100 to give a percentage: percent yield=actual yield (g)theoretical yield(g)×100%(3.7.29)
    1. What happens to matter when it undergoes chemical changes? The Law of conservation of mass says that "Atoms are neither created, nor distroyed, during any chemical reaction." Thus, the same collection of atoms is present after a reaction as before the reaction. The changes that occur during a reaction just involve the rearrangement of atoms.
    2. C7H16(l)+O2(g)→CO2(g)+H2O(g)(3.1.4)(3.1.4)C7H16(l)+O2(g)→CO2(g)+H2O(g) C_7H_{16} (l) + O_2 (g) \rightarrow CO_2 (g) + H_2O (g) \label{3.1.3} The complete combustion of any hydrocarbon with sufficient oxygen always yields carbon dioxide and water. Figure 3.1.23.1.2\PageIndex{2}: An Example of a Combustion Reaction. The wax in a candle is a high-molecular-mass hydrocarbon, which produces gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor in a combustion reaction (see Equation 3.1.43.1.4\ref{3.1.3}). Equation 3.1.43.1.4\ref{3.1.3} is not balanced: the numbers of each type of atom on the reactant side of the equation (7 carbon atoms, 16 hydrogen atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms) is not the same as the numbers of each type of atom on the product side (1 carbon atom, 2 hydrogen atoms, and 3 oxygen atoms). Consequently, the coefficients of the reactants and products must be adjusted to give the same numbers of atoms of each type on both sides of the equation. Because the identities of the reactants and products are fixed, the equation cannot be balanced by changing the subscripts of the reactants or the products. To do so would change the chemical identity of the species being described, as illustrated in Figure 3.1.33.1.3\PageIndex{3}. Figure 3.1.33.1.3\PageIndex{3}: Balancing Equations. You cannot change subscripts in a chemical formula to balance a chemical equation; you can change only the coefficients. Changing subscripts changes the ratios of atoms in the molecule and the resulting chemical properties. For example, water (H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are chemically distinct substances. H2O2 decomposes to H2O and O2 gas when it comes in contact with the metal platinum, whereas no such reaction occurs between water and platinum. The simplest and most generally useful method for balancing chemical equations is “inspection,” better known as trial and error. The following is an efficient approach to balancing a chemical equation using this method.
  7. Mar 2018
  8. Mar 2017
    1. Protection Level 0 Limited or none Information intended for public access, e.g.,: Public directory information

      Includes name and email.

    2. Student Directory Data (link is external) (unless the student has requested that information about them not be released as public information) Name of student Address, telephone, e-mail

      Not considered private or high level?

    3. Evaluations

      Anything graded with grade indicated? Or simply gradeable?

  9. Sep 2015
    1. la universalidad no consiste, por lo que se me alcanza, en la natura­leza o concepto absoluto, positivo de una cosa, sino en la relación que guarda con los particulares significados o re­presentados por ella

      La universalidad no consiste en la naturaleza del concepto general sino en la relación lógica que guarda con los conceptos particulares.

    2. del mismo modo que esta linea particu­lar se convíerte en general al hacerse de ella un signo, el nombre linea, que tomado en sentido absoluto es particu­lar, al ser un signo se coD.víerte en ge

      La generalidad consiste en el signo.

    3. una idea, que considerada en sí misma es particular, se convíerte en general al hacerla representar o significar a todas las demás ideas particulares del mismo tipo.

      Las ideas generales, según Berkeley.

    4. Acepción exacta de la abstrac­ción. Todo el mundo está de acuerdo en que las cualidades o modos de las cosas nunca existen realmente cada una de ellas aparte por si misma y separada­mente de todas las demás, sino todas ligadas y mezcladas, por decirlo asi, varias. en el mismo objeto. Pero, se nos dice,. como la mente es capaz de consi­derar cada cualidad aisladamente, o abstraída de aquellas otras cualidades con las que está unida, construye de este modo para si misma ideas abstrac­tas.

      Definición de la abstracción por omisión.

    5. Tratado sobre los principios del conocimiento humano

      Berkeley, Tratado sobre los principios del conocimiento humano

  10. Dec 2014
    1. Some protesters also sat on a train track in Berkeley, blocking a train from moving, the San Francisco Bay Guardian reported.

      The Bay Guardian had already been shut down at the time of writing. The author was confused by out-of-date information in the bio of former Bay Guardian news editor Rebecca Bowe.

  11. Aug 2013
    1. One thing that’s been clear to us from the start is that getting the world to adopt new technologies, tools and workflows is hard. We think inattention to this has been one of the primary reasons why

      BERKELEY