71 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2019
    1. hese characteristics require thatemergent response groups adopt specific approaches forknowledge coordination. One such approach commonlydocumented in studies of such groups is their use ofa learn-by-doing (versus decision making) action-basedmodel of coordinated problem solving, in which sensemaking and improvisation are the norm rather than theexception

      Evokes LPP, sensemaking, and improvised coordination.

    1. However, failure to examine the critical roleof even the inactive participants in the functioning of thecommunity is to ignore that passive (and invisible) par-ticipation may be a step toward greater participation, aswhen individuals use passivity as a way to learn aboutthe collective in a form of peripheral legitimate partici-pation (Lave and Wenger 1991, Yeow et al. 2006).

      Evokes LPP

  2. Aug 2018
    1. Leaming viewed as situated activity has as its central defining characteristic a process that we call legitimate peripheral par­ticipation. By this we mean to draw attention to the point that learners inevitably participate in communities of practitioners and that the mastery of knowledge and skill requires newcom­ers to move toward full participation in the sociocultural practices of a community.

      LPP definition

      The phrase "situated learning" is contested (see pp. 31-35). Lave and Wenger use this definition:

      "In our view, learning is not merely situated in practice — as if it were some independently reifiable process that just happened to be located somewhere; learning is an integral part of generative social practice in the lived-in world. The problem — and the central preoccupation of this monograph — is to translate this into a specific analytic approach to learning. Legitimate peripheral participation is proposed as a descriptor of engagement in social practice that entails learning as an integral constituent."

      At the end of the chapter, Lave and Wenger offer this description:

      "In conclusion, we emphasize the significance of shifting the analytic focus from the individual as learner to learning as participation in the social world, and from the concept of cognitive processes to the more-encompassing view of social practice."

    2. There are central issues that are only touched upon in this monograph, and that need to be given more attention. The concept of "community of practice" is left largely as an intuitive notion, which serves a purpose here but which requires a more rigorous treatment. In particular, unequal relations of power must be included more systematically in our analysis. Hegemony over resources for learning and alienation from full participation are inherent in the shaping of the legitimacy and peripherality of participation in its historical realizations. It would be useful to understand better how these relations generate characteristically intersti­tial communities of practice and truncate possibilities for iden­tities of mastery.

      Lave and Wenger list a few limitations about LPP. Notably, for my study, the lack of definition around what is a "community of practice."

    3. In this sense, peripherality, when it is enabled, suggests an opening, a way of gaining access to sources for understanding through growing involve­ment. The ambiguity inherent in peripheral participation must t�en _be connected to issues of legitimacy, of the social orga­mzat10n of and control over resources, if it is to gain its full analytical potential.

      Not sure I understand this entirely.

      Are Lave and Wenger arguing that for LPP to be fully engaged as a learning theory, the organization's legitimacy must be fully on board.

    4. Furthermore, legitimate peripherality is a complex notion, imRlicated in social structures involving rel�tions _of pow�r •.

      Important to recognize that there are power dynamics in LPP within all 3 dynamics -- belonging, involvement, and relationship.

      As noted later in this passage:

      "In this sense, it can itself be a source of power or powerlessness, in affording or preventing articulation and interchange among communities of practice. The ambiguous potentialities of legitimate peripherality reflect the concept's pivotal role in providing access to a nexus of relations otherwise not perceived as connected."

    5. But we intend for the concept to be taken as a whole. Each of its aspects is indispensable in defining the others and cannot be considered in isolation. Its constituents contribute inseparable aspects whose combinations create a landscape _ shapes, degrees, textures -of community membership.

      LPP is constituted by each of its dimensions:

      legitimate: belonging to a community of practice

      peripheral: multiple ways to be involved in the community, that can/should change as learning is acquired

      participation: the degree of relationship in community membership, which also can/should change as learning is acquired

    6. In our view, earning is not merely situated in practice -as if it were some independently reifiable process that just happened to be located somewhere; learning is ao integral part of generative social practice in the lived-in world.

      Lave and Wenger's definition of LPP.

      "Legitimate pe­ripheral participation is proposed as a descriptor of engage­ment in social practice that entails learning as an integral con­stituent." (p. 35)

    7. The no­tion of situated learning now appears to be a transitory con-cept, a bridge, between a view according to w�ich cognit'.ve processes (and thus learning) are primary and a v�ew according to which social practice is the primary, generative p�eno�e­non and learning is one of its characteristics.

      Situated learning as a bridge beyond repetitive practice but learning as an actual social phenomenon.

    8. The gen­erality of any form of knowledge always lies i� the powe� to renegotiate the meaning of the past and future m constructing the meaning of present circumstances.

      In a longer passage not clipped here, Lave and Wenger argue that knowledge is situated by context and circumstance -- not all knowledge is generalizable.

      They also raise the point that knowledge also has a temporal component.

    9. Second, this conception of situated learning clearly was more �nc�m�assi�� in i�tent than �onventional notions of '' learning in suu or learnmg by domg" for which it was used as a rough equivalent.

      "Second, this conception of situated learning clearly was more encompassing in intent than conventional notions of 'learning in situ' or 'learning by doing' for which it was used a rough equivalent."

      LPP came about because the definitions of situated learning were inadequate to describe how people learn while engaged in a social practice.

    10. "Legitimate peripheral participation" provides a way to speak about the relations between newcom­ers and old-timers, and about activities, identities, artifacts, and communities of knowledge and practice. It concerns the process by which newcomers become part of a community of practice. A person's intentions to learn are engaged and the meaning of learning is configured through the process of be­coming a full participant in a sociocultural practice. This so­cial process includes, indeed it subsumes, the learning of knowledgeable skills.

      This is an apt description for how SBTF volunteers are onboarded and learn how to contribute to a crowdsourcing process.

  3. Jul 2018
    1. At the group level—group referring to all potential culture-carrying aggre­gations larger than a single individual (e.g., departments, organizations, soci­eties, etc.)—polychronicity is a value and belief complex that manifests itself in overt process strategies. Although the strength with which it is held may vary, as a fundamental process strategy—it is fair to say the fundamental process strategy—whichever position along the polychronicity continuum is normative in a culture is apt to be held strongly. This is because such process strategies are mainly learned unintentionally, usually unconsciously. Such learned knowledge is retained at the level of culture Edgar Schein (1992) labeled basic underlying assumptions. This deepest of cultural levels normally contains beliefs and val­ues prescribing behaviors that are so taken for granted and institutionalized that they seldom rise to the conscious level for extensive examination and dis­cussion (Schein 1992, p. 22). Consequently, they are difficult to change, and in this sense they are strongly held.

      Is this due to LPP or some other cultural learning strategy?

  4. Nov 2015
    1. rather than learning by ‘practicing’, ‘constructing’ or ‘appropriating’, learning is achieved by expandingfrom a current ‘knowledge location’ and building outwards onthe basis of that knowledge while simultaneouslysolving tensions inherent in it to create previously non-existent knowledge. This focus on the generation of the ‘new’ distinguishes expansive learning from the prevailing metaphors of learning, namelyacquisition and participation [22].

      is this possible with a teaching curriculum?

    1. Whypox

      This might be a stretch but could getting Whypox also be considered a indication for participation as it could be used a symbol of active participation? In the photo below one users writes "how cool! I have Whypox!!!!

    2. Much less is known aboutyounger players who participate in equal, if not larger, numbers in virtual worlds

      Would a research expect to same similar trends as they see in World of Warcraft? Is that why it is not explored. When i think of this in the light of LPP i would see it as the same field of mastery (online life), just a different setting. In the end though, the same skills are learned in each setting.

    3. Our avatar looks and chat lingo were clearly different—most often not assophisticated—compared to those of other players on the site.

      Here is a very clear example of what it means to be an old-timer vs a new comer in this CoP. There is a language that comes with belonging. This importance of language has come up over and over again in our readings. It was important with AA, the hurdlers, the little leaguers, the skaters, and I'm sure more. I also really appreciate how the authors here refer to the children's language as "sophisticated". I think this opens up the possibility that children can teach adults, and maybe in other settings as well. Maybe even in a classroom??? I think it's really important for adults to give me respect and value to the knowledge that children have.

    4. access to resources, whether theyare economic or cultural, is key for participation to the fullest extent.

      Access to resources are crucial to full successful participation. This relates back to my questions about privilege and access earlier in the semester in relation to LPP. I'm interested in this aspect of privilege in gaining access to resources for learning (both economic and cultural)

    1. He went on to suggest that new members have the optionof selecting different colored newbie faces when they initially register withWhyville, saying, ‘‘I just think it would be a good idea, so newbies who do not makemuch clams could get their own real skin color.’’

      Makes me think of LPP because the resources for newcomer participation may prohibit people from wanting to become a participant. This could turn off a lot perspective users.

    1. our view, her emphasison control meant that she sought out the learning resource that allowed her the greatestcontrol over the learning experience. In this case, the learning resource was her brother

      This straight up, 100% reminds me of lpp and the concept of apprenticeship. Rachel is becoming a part of a community, but using the expertise of her brother to also become an expert in the game. I wonder if she began being exposed to the video game by just observing her brother?

    2. in-room” interaction provides opportunities for sociality, joint projects, and empowermentthrough sharing one’s knowledge and seeing it used for concrete success by others. Sincethis interaction occurs primarily without adult guidance or direction, it may be that thekid-organized and kid-managed aspects of these contexts—for kids of this preteen and earlyteen age—make them powerful learning contexts

      Their key elements of a "good learning environment" - sociality, joint activity, sharing knowledge, concrete successes, self-guidance and organization.

      I understand these elements to be related closely to those described in Lave and Wenger's discussion of LPP and apprenticeship learning

    1. ‘‘the best thing about having why-pox is havinglost of other people having it too because they know what you are going through.’’This is consistent with the 17.4%of Whyvillians who did not get Whypox butwanted to.

      like when you're 12 and want braces because all of your friends have them despite having braces being a terrible experience ;)

      in all seriousness, if you can't voluntarily participate in what is perceived as a significant communal experience, how do you legitimately participate?

    1. the interpretive task is not merely to uncover what participants say or imply about their experience—but to do so in ways that illuminate how “all persons are busy, active and making sense

      makes me think of LPP and the role of internships. actually seeing how persons are busy, active and making sense" physical proof

    2. the additional set of developmental demands involved in boundary and border crossing, and the cultural and intellectual work of creating hybrid or liminal social spaces. As educators and researchers, we assume that the production of hybrid educational environments or “third spaces”

      I like this concept of the "third space" or what I've read as liminality in other pieces. I actually wrote in the margin of my notes for Lave & Wenger Ch 2 "liminality" so maybe my question before about if L&W would agree about this "horizontal" movement is answered here. No matter the situation, there is a period of liminality or existence in this "third space" as one learns to adapt to and become a member

    3. linear trajectories from novice to expert, often within a single set-ting or set of educational experiences. The risk here lies in overlooking a world of developmental experiences and processes that scholars within this tradition refer to as “horizontal” forms of learning

      I'm trying to determine if this is different to the AA examples in Lave & Wenger. There's a lot of discussion there about the movement from newcomer to old-timer, but do Lave & Wenger look at this movement as being vertical or are they more open to horizontal movement? I know in class we have discussed this horizontal movement (before we had a term for it) but I can't recall/find if Lave & Wenger discussed it in this way. I know they didn't use these terms, there are many times when the say something along the lines of "when the newcomer becomes an old-timer..."

    4. A view of learning as a cultural process, located in time and space, helps us to understand that people and their cultural practices both develop and transform through participation in the routine activi-ties of relevant communities of practice

      "LPP is the sea surrounding us" or something like that, citing Ma (2015, comment on the concept map developed last class)

  5. Oct 2015
    1. "Some of them we'll reach-! don't care if they're going to be professional dancers or not. That's not the point. The point is that they're working close with a teacher, and that's going to reflect for all their lives.

      Establishing a mentorship. This makes me think of lpp, but I also think this is promoting a social well-being through the mentorship, not just expertise in the dance field.

    1. We use the term “edited,” borrowing from Lave and her colleagues, to empha-size the reassembly of relevant aspects of the arena for the shopper for his or her purposes

      I think this looks at the difference between a veteran of a setting in comparison to a newcomer.

    2. They both oriented to their time together as a learning event for Laura: Laura asked ques-tions, watched Austin, and practiced while Austin watched Laura, demonstrated, offered advice,and cheered her on

      How about for Austin? Is this a learning event for him as well? As a more experienced skater, is it understood in the community that part of his "practice" now includes being a resource for novices or no? If it is, is the park also giving him an opportunity to engage in that role?

    1. The facilitative effect of explanation,(also holds for children, although they are less likely than adults to spontaneously generate explanations in the course of exploration, categorization, or problem solving.

      Is this because of children's cognitive development not being fully developed? Who is to say that children who have been exposed to a particular problem more frequently than others and have become an expert at that situation are not able to generate a spontaneous explanation to a similar problem? Also what is defining spontaneous?

    2. Similarly, Chi's (1978) earlier work demonstrated that children skilled in chess were better able to recall configurations of chess pieces than a group of college students who were chess novices

      This only makes sense, right? Exposure to something is what creates for learning. Take into account the idea of mentorship and exposure to the field you want to become an expert at.

    3. Finally, and most importantly with respect to the idea of islands of exper-tise, the mother makes an explicit connection between the exhibit and the boy's prior learning experience with his computer game which is appar-ently about different dinosaurs and their eggs.

      Developing one island of expertise by using analogies from other islands of expertise. This relational form of learning and participation has been undertheorized in our study of Figured Worlds, Funds of Knowledge and LPP.

    1. The purpose of the fieldwork reported in this study was to describe the ideals that surrounded learning within team life and to capture—primarily through detailing the language of activities—manifestations of the environment of learning that the specialized domain

      I am linking this right away with the AA article and the excerpt in LPP. Particularly because of this focus on language. "How to talk like a ..." has a lot to do with "being a..." according to both LW and these authors. Thus it seems that language, it's development, and its use, in particular ways supports particular identities.

    2. requests of the players were usually couched in terms of "How would they do this in the major leagues?" (personal communication, December 27, 1988). Fo

      This type of command asks the students at least to assume the identity of a professional player, and then give their "best guess" as to what they feel the proper behavior would be.

      This seems different from the kind of identity formation that we saw with LPP. Through that lens, identity shifts by moving from peripheral participation and slowly working one's way into the center; here, it seems almost the opposite: The coach tries to get them to "pretend" to be real players as much as possible, and from that assumed identity, slowly uncover attitudes and behaviors that will legitimize it

    1. It follows that becausepeople learn (e.g.,observational skills) along theirlines of practice,intersectionsbetweenlinesshow knowledge and learning that cross line boundaries

      Learning is defined by lines of practice. This sounds a lot like LPP. Although, in some ways it provides nuance because it conceptualizes a possibility of boundary crossing and embraces difference in LPP for different contexts and different people in the same CoP.

    2. As is commonly the case, initial coding of the data yielded a very largenumber of categories

      The coding categories, in this specific instance, name the resources that support learning and engagement (including telescopes above). These are the physical tools, the objects/concepts being looked at and the participants goals. They support the LPP and eventual participation in the community of practice of astronomers (amateur)

    3. ectures, planets(Saturn, Jupiter, Mars,andVenus), theMoon,asteroids, deep sky objects, Messier objects, star clusters, variable stars, dou-ble stars, galaxies, comets, globular clusters, periodical events(e.g.,eclipsesand planetalignments),nebula, Cassiopeia, atlasandcharts, goals

      In this specific instance, all of these are resources that support learning and engagement (including telescopes, books above). These are the physical tools, the objects/concepts being looked at and the participants goals. They support the LPP and eventual participation in the community of practice of astronomers (amateur)

    4. taking observational notes helps one tolearn about various celestial objects and their defining features and eventually tobetter see such objects (Levy, 1991). Note taking is also a requirement for receiv-ing certificates/awards for certain achievements.

      This is interesting to me because note taking works to do two distinct things. First, it is a resource for the person to go back to and learn more about astronomy as a practice after the night of star gazing. But more interestingly, it is "a requirement for receiving awards." Thus, the participate has to do a particular activity to be recognized as a participant and move towards becoming a fuller participant in the CoP. In that way, having a "sense of a future" is crucial - otherwise, why take the notes?

    5. Learning, therefore, is seen in the different rolesthat a newcomer progressively takes on, in the process becoming accountable tomore central aspects of the practice.

      Learning not as a set of objects ("knowledge") to be had but as a process or development and action of and by the learner towards a particular practice.

    6. As newcomers are assisted by more capable peers inworking with various aspects of garment making, they take on new responsibil-ities in the production process and develop into more mature forms of practiceparticipation.

      Azevedo does a nice job of summarizing how access to resources plays a role in accountability in LPP

    1. Children’s language development is a prime example of the power of learn-ing through keen observation and listening

      This is evident also in adults learning a second language, and immersing oneself into a community of speakers of a language (CoP) you are interested in learning (agency) will help you learn it faster as you have become a part of the community of practice in order to participate in it meaningfully.

    2. Young children are widely known to monitor events around them, learning throughobservation

      The idea that children learn through observation redirects my thinking to lpp, and as they become proficient, they start doing things on their own.

    3. They are initially given supporting tasks and work close enough to observe themore advanced participants; they move to more complex aspects of the activityas they learn (Metge 1984).

      Also a theme of LPP (See Case study chapter)

    4. Theyobserve and listen with intent concentration and initiative, and their collaborativeparticipation is expected when they are ready to help in shared endeavors. Thistradition, which we refer to asintent participation,

      Recalling LPP Chapter 4 conversation about Lainey, Heidi, and I were having about observation.

      Rogoff is already defining a specific kind of observation, one that is focused on what is going on, active in listening and watching, and that leads to participation at some point. To me this is in contrast to passive observing which might not lead to any kind of action/participation. I think LW would be using Rogoff's kind of observation in their discussion of its involvement with LPP

    5. If children are integrated in a wide range of community settings, they areable to observe and listen in on the ongoing activities of their community aslegiti-mate peripheral participants(Lave & Wenger 1991).

      The differing roles individuals play in society impacts how children are able to observe and accomplish intent participation.

    1. The OC was started 18 years ago by a group ofparenls and teachers who wanted to form a public elementary school with an innovative educational philosophy

      taking into account the community's needs and wants makes for a school that will fit the framework of how learning will take on a more participatory role of apprentices and masters within what is familiar.

    1. he principal limitation of joint work, therefore, is that youth with less experi-ence or knowledge in the domain are given little support or assistance. Althoughadults modeled expert strategies for novices, this modeling was usually tacit. Theresult was that novices played more peripheral roles throughout the planning pro-cess. This contrasted with YELL and Youth Rising, where activities were designedto foster novices’ participation.

      This made me think about LPP with respect to a time-horizon. Clearly the student above felt that this approach was rather suboptimal, but what if it had gone on for a longer period of time? Would that have been sufficient to turn that limited peripheral participation into a truly legitimate peripheral participation, and slowly allow the student to have a more central role?

    1. instruction builds on the children's interests.

      Lave & Wenger would be thrilled since they believe that students have no agency in what they are learning. By bridging the gap between their social worlds and the learning in their classrooms, they can now become participants in learning instead of recipients of information.

  6. Sep 2015
    1. Findings from our research and evaluation studiessuggest that immediate apprehendability may also be increased through the use of fa-miliar activities as over-arching schemas.

      Current school wide practices, which are being challenged by theories like LPP, are hard to change because of hard wired schemas of what school should be.

    2. focuses on the detailed features of the physical environment in which suchlearning is deeply situated.

      i feel that this connects nicely to the concept of situated learning from the Lave and Wenger book

    1. dramatically

      I think the "dramatically" here is very important. It is a signal of the ownership the students had of the rules, and establishes them as important actors in their craft. The teacher, while undoubtedly an arbiter of what gets put on the rules, nevertheless allowed the students to have ownership over this part of the process. Definitely a great example of LPP

    2. instruction builds on the children's interests. The contentis learned through the different social relations and activities that theteacher facilitates in consultation with the children.

      Learning curriculum versus Teaching curriculum - not static or prescribed rather is flexible based on students needs

    3. teacher in these classrooms is that of a mediator, in the Vy-gotskian sense: to provide guidance, strategic support, and assistanceto help the children assume control of their own learning

      I really like this conception of Teacher as Mediator, reminds me of the discussions of oldtimer mentorship in AA in Lave and Wenger and Holland et al.

    4. thinking as distributed dynamically in inter-personal relationships among people, their artifacts, and their envi-ronments

      Thinking as distributed. When I think about what that means for a classroom I immediately go to the understanding that learning happens through dialogue and interaction (between people, artifacts and the environment). This means a focus on those interactions is necessary to see/develop classroom thinking. How does that fit into a theory of communities of practice and LPP?

    1. seen to witness the activities of others, to responding to their action andhaving them respond to yours.

      LPP connection. In LPP is there a specific moment of motivation and thus participation?

    2. The discovery of the functionalities of the piece are largely discoveredin and through interaction with others, both people accompanying otherpeople and others who happen to be in the same space.

      This makes me think of the observations for everyday activities, learning and navigating an activity through interaction in a given space. Also seems to relate to LPP and FW

    3. The moment of an action almost embodiesthe principle concerns of those interested in ‘peripheral participation’ andrelated matters

      LPP connection in the text.

    4. This achievement is produced in thecollaboration of the participants. They shape their own and each other’sexperience in and through the installation.

      Sounds very much like FW and LPP here.

    5. In a way, we are concerned with the ways in which visitors and viewersare, and can be seen to be, active and engaged spectators.

      Looking to both study and define what being an "active and engaged spectator." The participation across time of the artist/curator and spectators in interesting. It is a different way of seeing learning from an LPP perspective; the community of practice is shaped by the creator and the spectators across different times.

    6. a connection which is critical for constituting the sense andsignificance of conduct and its environment.
    7. It demands the engagement and complicityof the spectator, the viewer’s, active involvement ininterweaving the figures and scene of the paintingwith its location within the Church.

      it seems that the artist wanted to evoke a membership from the community, a sense of participation when they view this piece of art, as well as how they interpret it according to where they are located (situated activity / participation )

    1. happenings of a figured world

      (Highlight should continue to the end of the paragraph)

      Happenings, for Holland, are ways the figured world is reproduced, through the participants actions (such as learning to tell their story). In this too is LW idea that the same process of learning to tell your story is part of LPP and becoming a member in a CoP. These two uses of story telling highlight the interactive nature of the formation of both the CoP/Figured world and the participant's place in it as a member.

    2. There is, Goodenough con-no uniform, conslstf.nt, or coherent set of meanings-no "cul-ture"-that applies equally in every activity.

      Reminds me of the need for culturally responsive pedagogy - the teaching curriculum v. learning curriculum

    3. A figured world is formed and re-formed in relation to the everyday activities and events that or-dain happenings within it.

      Reminds me of the reproduction of social contexts from LPP

    1. From Coach J'sperspective, this was an indication of Gozi being both lazy and a goof-off, while forGozi, this was simply a mistake he had made under the misdirection of a more seniorteammate. Unlike Yaheem, Gozi did not choose to approach Coach J directly to repairthe relationship

      Similar to Lave and Wenger's discussion of the Butchers needing to seek out teachers and mentors, the assertiveness to be taught is key.

    2. three levels of analysisthat are required to offer an account of identity, including individuals, social interac-tion, and broader society.

      Identity - must consider individuals, social interaction, broader society. This is consistent with previous readings

  7. newclasses.nyu.edu newclasses.nyu.edu
    1. For the women we studied, the cultural interpretation of romance became salient and compelling as their expertise with romantic relation-ships increased and as they came to form an engaging interpretation of themselves in the world of romance

      Within identity processes - reinterpreting the self and their location in the world

    2. Those who ap-peared to be less knowledgeable or less expert closely copied and took direction from others, attended to relatively circumscribed aspects of relationships, and had difficulty generating possible responses to roman-tic situations.

      Participatory learning through observations (romance as an apprenticeship) - this identity as something that evolves

    3. The themes of male/female relationships also dominated a vocabulary that the students used to talk about one another.

      Within communities of practice - unique vocabularies and norms to be learned

    4. Tlie figured wortaD£ romance acquired motivating force as ---the women developed mastery of it, and their mastery, in turn, depended upon their development of a concept of themselves as actors in the world of romance.

      Figured World of Romance - almost like Legitimate Peripheral Participation in Communities of Practice