116 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
  2. Jul 2018
    1. I buy into Newton’s philosophy that we see further by standing on the shoulders of giants.

      I take his general point here, and Newton said something along these lines, but I wouldn't call it "Newton's philosophy". If anything this philosophy is really the scientific method and Newton didn't invent it.

  3. Dec 2017
    1. the visitors

      The University is open to absorb new brains continuously from the outside. It is one way of achieving diversity and competition without harming the euphony of the staff and student body.

    2. Encouraged therefore by the sentiments of the Legislature, manifested in this statute, we present the following tabular statement of the branches of learning which we think should be taught in the University, forming them into groups, each of which are within the powers of a single professor.

      It's interesting to examine the departments offering courses during the time this document was written and between now. At the time the document was constructed, slavery was very much present at the University and had great support from the Professors and the students. Now, the University offers an African-American studies major and minor. This is a major improvement and shows how far the University has come towards diversity. Students are now able to study African-American and African history and culture.

      http://woodson.as.virginia.edu/african-american-and-african-studies-major This resource details the requirements for African-American studies majors, why students should consider an African-American studies major, and what students can do with an African-American studies major.

    3. General Assembly

      The Virginia General Assembly is described as "the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World". At various times it may have been referred to as the Grand Assembly of Virginia. It became the General Assembly in 1776 with the ratification of the Virginia Constitution. The government was moved to Richmond in 1780 during the administration of Governor Thomas Jefferson.

    4. We should be far too from the discouraging persuasion, that man is fixed, by the law of his nature, at a given point: that his improvement is a chimæra, and the hope delusive of rendering ourselves wiser, happier or better than our forefathers were.

      This excerpt is very relevant in UVA’s current climate. While the negative histories of both Jefferson and UVA have always existed, they are receiving more scrutiny now because of the August 11 and 12 events on Grounds and in Charlottesville. I believe Jefferson’s (and the other commissioners’) own words support a solution to this issue. Instead of not drawing attention to this past, the university community should be making a conscious effort to recognize the error of “our forefathers” so we are not “fixed” to duplicate them. Ignoring them, however, runs the risk of us not “rendering ourselves wiser” and slipping into the same atrocities as our university’s founders.

    5. What, but education, has advanced us beyond the condition of our indigenous neighbours? and what chains them to their present state of barbarism & wretchedness, but a besotted veneration for the supposed supe[r]lative wisdom of their fathers and the preposterous idea that they are to look backward for better things and not forward, longing, as it should seem, to return to the days of eating acorns and roots rather than indulge in the degeneracies of civilization

      I think this is a very important part of the document. The authors of the document are using the "barbaric" ways of the Native Americans as a selling point for educations. The Native Americans are referred to as barbaric, wretched, uncivilized, and indigenous (which is especially ironic because they were here first.) However, the are overlooking the fact that the Native Americans are wise and educated in their own ways. This phrase shows the lack of cultural appreciation during this time, that anything other than the "American" way of education was uncivilized and barbaric. The authors are claiming that education is the future, but that there is only one way to be educated. How does this phrase add onto the recurring theme of close-mindedness in this document?

    6. And generally to form them to habits of reflection, and correct action, rendering them examples of virtue to others & of happiness within themselves.

      I feel that this phrase is a bit ironic. Telling students to act as "examples of virtue to others" while at the same time oppressing women and African Americans by only allowing white men to attend the university. It is understandable that this was the "norm" in this time period, but looking back, those were actions of discrimination not correct actions or virtuous actions. The University still holds these values, but the basis of the values have drastically changed. The current "correct action" and "examples of virtue" are often based off of inclusion and integrations. Given recent events, it is especially important to uphold the values.

    7. What, but education, has advanced us beyond the condition of our indigenous neighbours? and what chains them to their present state of barbarism & wretchedness, but a besotted veneration for the supposed supe[r]lative wisdom of their fathers and the preposterous idea that they are to look backward for better things and not forward, longing, as it should seem, to return to the days of eating acorns and roots rather than indulge in the degeneracies of civilization.

      The board shames Native Americans’ appreciation for the wisdom of their ancestors and state that education has allowed a shift from the following idea: that “we must tread with awful reverence in the footsteps of Our fathers”. This is rather ironic considering the legacy Thomas Jefferson has on ‘his’ university. It is a center of education structured in a manner that idolizes Jefferson at every opportunity, despite the reasoning (given in a document co-written by Jefferson) that education frees men from lingering on their ancestors.

    8. they do report the central college in Albemarle to be a convenient & proper part of the State for the University of Virginia.

      While perhaps not common in the US recently, there are times when one state splits into two or more because of internal conflict or other reasons. This happened in India two years ago. I wonder what would happen if Virginia ever split into the two, and what the effect on the university would be. This location was chosen to be a proper place for the university but in light of recent events, it is highly probable that Charlottesville will be one the places that it is the spotlight. I wonder what consequences there would be for the university if that happened .

    9. 15th year of their age when they might go with more safety and contentment to that distance from their parents. Untill this preparatory provision shall be made, either the university will be overwhelmed with the Gr

      The American culture today has changed in that children at the present tend to be so much more dependent on their families compared to the past. Both kids and young adults depend on their families financially, for housing, for nutrition/ healthcare, and many other forms of aid. It is the norm in this age for young students to live at home until they finish their education, not to mention they commute from home to school through secondary education. In past periods in history young students would live away from their families while studying- allowing students to learn and growth outside of the classroom as well as inside of the classroom; making decisions for themselves without guidance, whether positive or negative, and having to care for themselves without help. Today many students leave the house for the first time to go to college experiencing a steep learning curve having to adjust to both college level academics and having to take care of themselves without any help. Learning how to care for oneself at an earlier age could prepare students to better adjust to living and learning on their own.

    10. To give to every citizen the information he needs for the transaction of his own business

      This sentence brings to mind a thought concerning the idea of the liberal arts education. Some argue that an all encompassing liberal arts education does not properly prepare students to be citizens of the world- in that they master the art of writing papers though they may not necessarily understand how to pay they taxes. I understand this argument, though I am not necessarily a proponent of it- though I do believe that it is important for students to learn how to master certain skills in order to be a successful and secure citizen of this world. Though every student should not study business they should gain a basic understanding of day to day economics and financial duties upon completing university when they are expected to enter the world as a contributing citizen.

    11. : each of these was unexceptionable as to healthiness & fertility

      The qualifications by which these sites were chosen show an interesting criteria. What is meant by healthiness and fertility? Is it of the ground? Is it of the resources and material? Or is it of the people, as later stated? It seems that 200 years ago, when the cornerstone was placed, only the "healthiness & fertility" of the white population was the chief concern, and thus a central location by which they could further education became important.

    12. To give to every citizen the information he needs for the transaction of his own business.

      It is so ironic to see how they state that the objectives of the school was to give every CITIZEN the information they need, after stating that the the school was just meant for boys. Were women not considered citizens? If so who was a 'citizen'?

    13. reasoning faculties

      "In a republican nation whose citizens are to be led by reason and persuasion and not by force, the art of reasoning becomes of first importance." --Thomas Jefferson to David Harding, 1824. ME 16:30 ( https://famguardian.org/Subjects/Politics/ThomasJefferson/jeff0700.htm ). This quotation reveals how much reason played into TJ's daily life and his visions for the country, even after he was President. Reason was an Enlightenment ideal - one TJ most likely picked up during his time in France. Reason was a huge deal in Europe during the Enlightenment and it is interesting how TJ involved this obsession with reason in the foundation of UVA.

    14. cultivate their morals, & instil into them the precepts of virtue & order.

      As some of my peers have iterated, it is hypocritical to place "morals" and "virtue" on such a high pedestal but not legitimately consider the importance of being acceptance towards those of other races. According to a website on US history, economic advantages to slavery were of more importance than modern values to accept difference. Therefore, it seems illegitimate for the board to make this claim that the university will help their students reach higher virtues as long as their policies are racist. http://www.ushistory.org/us/27f.asp

    15. James Madison

      "At the University of Virginia there are additional reasons to remember this Founding Father with gratitude, for he is truly an unsung hero of the University. Overshadowed by the tremendous contributions made by Thomas Jefferson to establish the University, Madison's role is often overlooked, although he worked closely with Jefferson to realize his vision for an institution of higher education to prepare students for their responsibilities as citizens of the new Republic." http://static.lib.virginia.edu/jamesmadison/introduction.htm James Madison is one of the more recognizable names on this list of influencers in the creation of the University of Virginia. Of course, these names are often overlooked because Thomas Jefferson hold the spotlight. I was surprised to learn about how much Madison contributed in funds and service to the University that no one ever talks about. His endowment funded the libraries and his leadership leaded the University after Jefferson's death. Neither are things to take for granted.

    16. chimæra,

      What is a chimæra and what does it have to do with the University of Virginia. In Greek Mythology, the chimæra is a creature with multiple parts of different animals. When seen, disaster was inevitable. As a figure of speech, the similar "chimera" means a fanciful mental illusion or fabrication. Because I can't see the greek mythical creature fitting into this document and contex, I take the close spelling as the intended meaning. Therefore, a defense of education lasts, and trying to convince one against the notion that education improves is false.

      https://www.thefreedictionary.com/chimera https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimera_(mythology)

    17. The considerations which have governed the specification of languages to be taught by the professor of Modern Languages were that the French is the language of general intercourse among nations, and as a depository of human Science is unsurpassed by any other language living or dead: that the Spanish is highly interesting to us, as the language spoken by so great a portion of the inhabitants of our Continents, with whom we shall possibly have great intercourse ere long; and is that also in which is written the greater part of the early history of America.

      I find it very interesting that Jefferson recognized the importance of the Spanish language. Today, many people do not see the importance of speaking Spanish and some even have a negative connotation towards Spanish speakers here in the United States. This does not make sense to me since a large base of this country which is also the back bone is made up oh spanish speaking latinos and latinas. People tend to overlook this, however they do not understand that the best way to communicate with this population is by catering to their language. Even when there are resources available for underserved communities, spanish speakers are often left uninformed or have to rely on their younger children to translate for them. Besides being a business advantage, learning the language is also important to better serve a huge part of the American population, especially since there is no official language of the United States.

    18. What, but education, has advanced us beyond the condition of our indigenous neighbours?

      Here, again, Jefferson displays how he believes that whites are elite. Most of the document people have discussed Jefferson's relationship with slaves and how African-Americans are below being able to attend this University, but here, he mentions another minority group: Native Americans. Earlier in the document, they list the values of education, but here they mention explicitly how education is powerful, especially in the sense of taking over another group of people, whether that be African or Native Americans. Time after time throughout the document, Jefferson and his team mention the value of education for our citizens but they have a long list of people who do not fall in that category, another one of them being Native Americans.

    19. may be rooms for religious worship under such impartial regulations as the visitors shall prescribe

      The committee seems very open to different forms of religious worship and different religions, but are they actually? They may only be open to different Protestant religious forms. This is all in consideration of the target of students and faculty being white, upper-class Protestants. Religious freedom is a part of the Constitution and all but was it enforced, considering our first Catholic President was John F. Kennedy, the 35th President, and his approval wasn't that high because of that. YIKES.

    20. What, but education, has advanced us beyond the condition of our indigenous neighbours? and what chains them to their present state of barbarism & wretchedness, but a besotted veneration for the supposed supe[r]lative wisdom of their fathers and the preposterous idea that they are to look backward for better things and not forward, longing, as it should seem, to return to the days of eating acorns and roots rather than indulge in the degeneracies of civilization.

      In this phrase, Jefferson talks about the importance of education and advancement by using the native Americans as an example. He describes them as barbaric and is basically making fun of their ideology to worship their ancestors and their traditional ways. This is not the first time Jefferson expressed his views of Native Americans in such a negative light. For my Art Inside/Out Engagement course, I am doing a project on the Declaration of Independence. The quote that my group decided to use was “He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.” The discrimination against Native Americans is engraved in the Declaration of Independence of the United States and in the Rockfish Gap Report of the University of Virginia.

    21. greater security against fire

      Side Comment: Seems like they should've been more concerned with the Rotunda when thinking about this

    22. degree of centrality to the white population of the state which alone then constituted the important point of comparison between these places:

      What exactly was considered white at this point in history of the U.S. of A? Just Anglo- Saxon? If so, this statement is also discriminatory to the European Immigrants that were migrating into the U.S. As I have learned from my COLA: "Whiteness: A Racial Category," Thomas Jefferson believed the Anglo- Saxons were the most pure and "legitimate" white population. So was the creation of UVA meant to be only accessible to Anglo-Saxons?

    23. To enable him to calculate for himself, and to express & preserve his ideas, his contracts & accounts in writing.

      The idea that the University exists to provide its students with financial independence and literacy is an interesting one in terms of how curriculum are constructed today. Students do not have to engage in a financial responsibility or literacy class in order to graduate (http://gened.as.virginia.edu/new-college-curriculum-requirements). In the New Curriculum which we are a part of, it focusses upon interdisciplinary approaches to largely social problems in a broader sense. In my EGMT 1540 course, we have discussed the purposes of universities as to whether it should be to provide a career with a satisfying material lifestyle or should it be to provide a large enlightenment of the world around us. This line certainly suggests that a more pragmatic approach to education was the foundation of the UVa curriculum.

    24. Projectiles, a leading branch of the Military art Military Architecture, includes Fortification, another branch of that art

      Although we see less military-focused classes in the curriculum, I looked up the Naval Academy's core course requirements and army's ROTC requirements and found similar types of classes. In other words, emphasis on military training has not necessarily been replaced as the US has developed more liberal arts colleges, it has just become more specialized to groups of people who are interested in military careers. This is likely because college educations are needed for so many careers now, while in the past the curriculum was geared towards few, more advanced jobs.

      https://www.usna.edu/Academics/Majors-and-Courses/Course-Requirements-Core.php https://www.goarmy.com/rotc/courses-and-colleges/curriculum/basic-course.html

    25. proceeded to the second of the duties assigned to them, that of proposing a plan for its buildings; and they are of opinion that it should consist of distinct houses or pavilions, arranged at proper distances on each side of a lawn of a proper breadth,

      This part of the document introduces the first plans for the Lawn as a living, as well as learning, community. As the University has expanded and grown overtime (https://www.monticello.org/site/research-and-collections/timeline-founding-university-virginia), such a community has grown significantly more exclusive and prestigious. What does that signify for the University as a whole? Would it be better to remain a smaller more elite university where a more tight-knit community can form, or is it better to keep UVa at its current size/rate of growth with enclaves the resemble the old institution, such as competitive lawn rooms.

    26. To give to every citizen the information he needs for the transaction of his own business.

      This passage is interesting because Jefferson compares his view of education to a "business transaction". At face value, this metaphor makes sense--one receives their education and then uses that in whatever manor they choose, in whatever field of study they choose, and apply it in any way they choose. But in another sense, equating education to a transaction seems to go against what Jefferson stood for in education. At UVA, we use the terms "first year", etc to represent how education is eternal. But, in the sense of a transaction it seems very formal and that people should be educated as the first step in wherever their lives take them. Yet, I think that even if one doesn't have "his own business" or know what is next, that education is valuable for all people, as Jefferson said, and that the primary goal of education could stop at, "To give every citizen the information he needs".

    27. Chemistry, is meant, with its other usual branches, to comprehend the theory of Agriculture

      When I first read this description I immediately thought this association between agriculture and chemistry was outdated. Chemistry classes today often focus on preparing students for medical fields or laboratory work. Yet according to the American Chemical Society, agricultural chemists "delve into all aspects of crop and animal production, food safety, quality, nutrition, processing, packaging, and utilization of materials including bioenergy." So, while the use of chemistry has certainly expanded with the industrialization of society, agricultural chemists are still just as important, if not more, than they were 200 years ago.

      https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/careers/college-to-career/chemistry-careers/agricultural-and-food-chemistry.html

    28. banishing all arbitrary & unnecessary restraint on individual action shall leave us free to do whatever does not violate the equal rights of another.

      Thomas Jefferson believed particularly strongly in a country whose government was based on the well-being of the small, agricultural farmer through strong state, not central, government. His ideal government focused on helping the “uncorrupt” rural farmer, not the industrialists or those focused on money. Along with this came his ideas that individual liberty should be a fundamental aspect of democracy, shown here through this assertion. Any “arbitrary and unnecessary restraint” on the individual must be eliminated in order to maintain this freedom. This belief is so crucial to his ideas that it will even be a key objective to the teaching at the university and the development of the students. In accordance with the views of the time, however, when the document claims that individuals should be free to do anything as long as it “does not violate the equal rights of another,” only other white citizens are included in this. If it included other groups, slavery would be completely unacceptable, as it is certainly a violation of rights. But because the rights of African-Americans were not considered to be “equal” to that of whites, there was no internal contradiction in the minds of the writers between this statement and the institution of slavery, as we often see with Jefferson. Although obviously Jefferson did not write this document alone, his influence and opinions are clearly seen throughout.

    29. after full enquiry & impartial & mature consideration, are of opinion that the central point of the white population of the state is nearer to the central college,

      It’s interesting here that today we read this as racist and exclusionary, but at the time, the school’s founders were simply trying to find the location that would be most convenient and efficient for its student body and faculty. To them, having the school close to the “white population” made perfect sense; the white population included the people that would be attending and teaching at the university. Today, we would call this explicit racism with a focus on social distance – that is, the desired physical distance between different groups because of an unwillingness to assimilate and mix. Generally, social distance is not something people willingly admit, so here it is interesting that the founders of the school very readily note their desire for distance from other groups in order to cater to a specific race. It points to how different their world views were regarding race and the permissibility of blatantly viewing races as unequal.

    30. To instruct the mass of our citizens in these their rights, interests and duties, as men and citizens, being then the objects of education in the primary schools, whether private or public, in them should be taught reading, writing & numerical arithmetic, the elements of mensuration (useful in so many callings) and the outlines of geography and history, and this brings us to the point at which are to commence the higher branches of education, of which the legislature require the development: those for example which are to form the statesmen, legislators & judges, on whom public prosperity, & individual happiness are so much to depend.

      This object of primary education sounds a bit like a general mission statement for the University. In particular, I found interesting the line about forming "statesmen, legislators and judges." This phrasing seems to resemble an element of UVA's current mission statement, which states that UVA serves by "developing responsible citizen leaders and professionals." It's cool to see how these two statements that were made almost 200 years apart are actually very similar, and communicate a lasting goal of the University. Statesmen, legislators, and judges I think would definitely translate to being considered prominent citizen leaders and professionals in today's world. I also like the rest of the line ,"on whom public prosperity, & individual happens are so much to depend." This speaks a lot to the purpose of the dedication to creating citizen leaders, in that it is beneficial to the public to have more of these virtuous figures, and that it brings one fulfillment to achieve this position. [](http://www.virginia.edu/statementofpurpose

      Link to UVA's mission statement

    31. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in num

      I have to agree that mentioning slaves in this report is hard to ignore. However, it is worth noting that non-white people is hardly depicted in 19th century writings and artworks. For examples, thousands of Chinese railroad workers labored and died building the first trans-continental railroad. However, shockingly, when the railroad was finally finished, and people were going to lay the last golden spike, they drove away all the Chinese workers. Therefore, in the famous picture celebrating the complete of the first pacific railroad, those who worked the hardest is not depicted purely because of their ethnicity. The point I try to make that is it is worth study the topic of non-white depiction in 19th writings and art.

    32. The objects of this primary education determine its character & limits. These objects would be,

      These objects listed here are tools towards the goal of granting those who receive an education at UVA the capabilities to pursue happiness and well-being. This is actually a perfect example for Amartya Sen's capability approach with well-being. Sen argued that it is the capability not the result for people to achieve personal and agency achievement that matters as the ultimate goal. By improving morals and faculties, students are better equipped with the toolset to decide what's right and what's wrong. By have the information for the transaction of his own businesses, the students have the ability to provide for himself and his family in terms of materialistic gains. We can clearly see that the objectives are conceived in regard to capabilities but not simple outcomes.

    33. To these should be added the arts, which embellish life, dancing music & drawing; the last more especially, as an important part of military education. These innocent arts furnish amusement & happiness to those who, having time on their hands, might less inoffensively employ it; needing, at the same time, no regular incorporation with the institution, they may be left to accessory teachers,

      These sentences seem to form a little bit of a contradiction, in that at first the report says that the arts are important/valuable, but then saying they need not be "incorporated with the institution." Nonetheless, they do show some thoughts about the arts back when UVA was being founded. In my current engagement class, Art: Inside/Out, we always discuss how art comes into play in our daily lives and how people view art on large and small scales. I see these same themes in this part of the report, because it is reflecting on how the commissioners see art and for what purpose they think it serves. In this case, its seems the purposes are either for military use or plain enjoyment. I believe if we asked the University community what the value and purpose of art is today, we would see a stark contrast to this, as well as an extreme variety of answers. Many people would say that art might be to spread a message or support some larger movement. Today we see the presence of art so much at UVA, such as through musical and theater groups, public art installations like the curiosity shop, or the mural on the side of the Graduate Charlottesville Hotel.

    34. To know his rights; to exercise with order & justice those he retains;

      This statement is interesting because it claims that one of the University's goals was to ensure that students were aware of their rights and how to exercise them. This is quite the contrast from the University's opinion on slavery and the treatment of African-Americans. Perhaps, because the University did not consider enslaved persons as actual human beings, they did not think about how contradicting they were being with this statement.

      https://famguardian.org/Subjects/Politics/ThomasJefferson/jeff1275.htm This article demonstrates Jefferson's well-rounded knowledge of the justice system and the rights of all citizens, which is interesting given his positive view of slavery and the treatment of his slaves, specifically Sally Hemmings.

    35. so important to be woven into the American character

      One of the most interesting motifs I've noticed in the report is Jefferson's desire to shape society in his image. Jefferson doesn't just want to educate the youth; he wants to define "The American Character". He and his compatriots spend a good deal of the report defining what they believes the ideal character of a person should be, and then proceed to design the curriculum around how they believe such a person can be created. The founders of UVA were obviously intent on using the university for some form of social engineering. I don't necessarily believe that manipulating the thoughts and feelings of the population is a bad thing, provided that the attempt at doing so is done properly with a strong ethical basis*, but it does bother me how all these old white men used their positions to shape the "American character" in their image.

      *Let's face it, we need a bit of social engineering sometimes. By and large, the American People have a tendency to behave horrendously when they find themselves in a position from which they can act with impunity.

    36. To harmonize & promote the interests of agriculture, manufactures & commerce and by well informed views of political economy to give a free scope to the public industry.

      I find this passage to be refreshing; here, Jefferson and his colleagues are rather forthright in admitting that universities essentially exist to produce skilled workers to be used by private interests. He still relies on the "self betterment" jargon that the university continues to use as a crutch in its advertisements, but it's nice that he takes the time to point out the industrial complex that colleges are typically built to support. Before anybody comments to this effect: I'm fully aware of how incredibly cynical a statement that is.

    37. This would generally be about the 15th year of their age when they might go with more safety and contentment to that distance from their parents. Untill this preparatory provision shall be made, either the university will be overwhelmed with the Grammar school or a separate establishment under one or more ushers for its lower classes will be advisable, at a mile or two distance from the general one: where too may be exercised the stricter government necessary for young boys, but unsuitable for youths arrived at years of discretion.

      It is fascinating to see how much college expectations have changed over the last two centuries. Originally only white adolescents were sent off to get a college degree; however, now both genders, young adults, and minorities are receiving higher-level education.

      In my current engagement about evolution, we learned not only about biological changes but also cultural ones. The change from only one specific group to a diverse group of students has two historical components. The first being the amount of females being enrolled. Since the majority of men were fighting overseas during WWII, women were needed to enter the workforce. Afterwards, they wanted to remain working. Because of this, more women began seeking better professions and getting a college degree would be the easiest way. As a result, females have surpassed total male enrollment. Secondly, with more immigrants coming into the United States, more talented and innovative individuals were coming in and those traits allowed them to get acceptance to universities; however, it wasn't until the Civil Rights movement had permitted African-Americans the right to equal schooling, that other minorities were able to attend. Since then, the percentage of minority students has increased substantially. With these two cultural changes, the shift from white adolescents was able to occur. Knowing this, I wonder if Thomas Jefferson and the other writers ever envisioned this societal change?

    38. Spanish is highly interesting to us, as the language spoken by so great a portion of the inhabitants of our Continents, with whom we shall possibly have great intercourse ere long; and is that also in which is written the greater part of the early history of America.

      I found it interesting that Thomas Jefferson saw the value in learning Spanish early on. It is significant to highlight that as President a decade before he had acquired the Midwest through the Louisiana Purchase. This territory included parts of what is now considered Texas. With this new land, it would have made sense to begin placing a large emphasis on Spanish in order to have the ability to communicate effectively with the newly found Mexican State. In addition, since more settlers began to move out west, the need to speak Spanish would have been more prominent; consequently, we see the importance of learning Spanish during the Gadsden purchase. Where we were able to get parts of what is now Arizona and New Mexico while Mexico was able to get money to fund their army, https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/gadsden-purchase .

    39. To expound the principles & structure of government, the laws which regulate the intercourse of nations, those formed municipally for our own government, and a sound spirit of legislation, which banishing all arbitrary & unnecessary restraint on individual action shall leave us free to do whatever does not violate the equal rights of another.

      Thomas Jefferson valued the government and when sculpting a university, Thomas Jefferson though it was a great opportunity to teach the youth important elements of the government. If people have a solid base understanding of government, they will be able to be successful in government and run a successful government. Thomas Jefferson wrote "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their own government." http://tjrs.monticello.org/letter/118 Jefferson knew that by teaching aspects of government at the University of Virginia would ensure that the government of our nation is not only strong, but sustainable.

    40. Ideology is the doctrine of thought

      This class was very important to Thomas Jefferson because Jefferson cherished strong thinking and the innovation of thought. In a letter to Charles McPherson, Thomas Jefferson says, "the glow of one warm thought is to me worth more than money." http://tjrs.monticello.org/letter/2255 This shows the importance that Thomas Jefferson places on ideology and why he included it as a class to be taught at the University of Virginia.

    41. French is the language of general intercourse among nations, and as a depository of human Science is unsurpassed by any other language living or dead:

      I found it interesting yet entirely unsurprising that French was the first and most important language to be addressed in this explanation of the curriculum. It is explained that it is so valued by the University because it was used so much by other nations throughout the world. While this may certainly be true, I think the emphasis placed on French may stem a least a little bit from Jefferson's widely-known personal love of France and French culture, and thus his belief that Americans should replicate more of the French ways of living.

    42. To these should be added the arts, which embellish life, dancing music & drawing; the last more especially, as an important part of military education.

      I thought this sentence was interesting both in the idea that so much emphasis was placed on education in the arts, given that this is something that many schools struggle with today, and in the explanation of reasoning for this emphasis. He mentions that drawing is especially is important because it has practical implication in the military. This, especially in the context of the preceding content of the paragraph, highlights the fact that much of this curriculum was built around raising men to be useful and tactful in future military careers. At such an integral time in America's history, it was important that they establish a strong military, and Jefferson's strategy for doing so was to begin training and academic teaching early in one's education.

    43. As well might it be urged that the wild & uncultivated tree, hitherto yielding sour & bitter fruit only, can never be made to yield better: yet we know that the grafting art implants a new tree on the savage stock, producing what is most estimable both in kind & degree

      I love this sentence because of how it's formed and narrated. At the same time, there's reflection for the incidents caused by white supremacy in nowadays society. We may think that the discrimination between race is deeply rooted in the earth that we may never eradicate it, however, as it's said in this sentence, some trees are so uncultivated that people think there will never be sweet fruits being yielded, but we ignored that the most elegant and persevered spirit is generated from the most savage earth, because the spirit of fighting back. That's exactly how America was born, through the voice against tyranny and the gun toward invasion, by which a colony was transformed into a nation through nirvana.

    44. To understand his duties to his neighbours, & country, and to discharge with competence the functions confided to him by either.

      I like this part especially because I think that's the ultimate goal of my study and I think it should also be a very important part in all student's purpose of study. Especially as an international student, I sometimes find myself in an awkward position in the new college curriculum because most of the topics we discussed in my class are domestic issues. Sometimes I will think they're irrelevant to my purpose of study here because what I want to do is to utilize what I learn hear to make my community and country a better place. However after almost a semester of learning, I found that to engage in discussing and thinking about domestic issues in the U.S. and also help me reflect on and inspire me of the problems that my country is facing. They're not conflicting, instead they're inseparable. Integrity is also a concept that we talk about a lot, and I found out integrity not only means the globalization between different cultures and races, but also means a unification between ourselves and our country.

    45. of his own business

      This is one of my favorite parts of the report. This statement still stands true today. People come to UVA, because they know it is going to equip them with everything they need to succeed in whatever field they desire. I would argue that the ability to do this is a vital characteristic of a prime university. If a learning institution cannot fully prepare you to be successful in your future career it's not fulfilling a large component of its purpose. Although I do value the immense emphasis placed on being well rounded and knowledgable, ultimately a majority of college students today are furthering their education solely to be successful in the job field. I'm interested in when the idea of getting a degree just to make more money emerged or if it was always present but hidden behind the focus on improving one's morals and abilities.

    46. the whole of his Slaves

      The inclusion of enslaved persons in the section reserved for identifying property to be inherited is unsurprising, but interesting nonetheless. It provides insight not only into the social position of the enslaved, but also the role they played in the creation of UVA. As seen earlier in the document, they were not an afterthought. The location of minority populations was the main determinant of where to place the university. It's hard to read a document that advocates for the betterment and advancement of society while simultaneously dehumanizing an entire group of people. Although it is well written and innovative, I find this aspect of the report hard to ignore.

  4. Nov 2017
    1. we have proposed no professor of Divinity; and tho rather, as the proofs of the being of a god, the creator, preserver, & supreme ruler of the universe, the author of all the relations of morality, & of the laws & obligations these infer, will be within the province of the professor of ethics

      The university remained consistent with Jefferson's ideals of religious freedom and did not even have a professor of religion, instead having a professor of ethics. During this time period a majority of higher education schools were religious, so it is very interesting that the school wouldn't even end up building a church until 1885, whose funds were raised by member of the community, not UVA. http://www.virginia.edu/webmap/popPages/94-ChapelUniv2.html

    2. degree of centrality to the white population of the state which alone then constituted the important point of comparison between these places

      Since the university was only going to allow white males to attend, it is not surprising they planned to place it near the largest white population among the three proposed locations. However, it does serve as a reminder of the lack of rights that African Americans and other minority groups had at the time and of the school's darker past. The university wouldn't end up allowing African Americans to attend until the 1950s and women until 1970.

    3. to prescribe & control the duties & proceedings of all officers, servants & others with respect to the buildings, lands, appurtenances & other property & interests of the university

      The language here is interesting as it avoids using the word "slave". It instead describes the people who would work on the university as "officers, servants, and others". In other words, it tiptoes around the word in order to avoid the harsh reality of the situation. In fact, in this entire document, the word "slave" is only used once. And even here it is describing the property of someone else, rather than the university. I think that even though it was generally accepted at the time that slaves would be building this university, these writers still had to be careful with their language in order to get their proposal approved.

      https://www.whitehousehistory.org/questions/did-slaves-build-the-white-house

      This reminds me of the rhetoric used when building the White House. It was originally planned that Europeans would come to the U.S to build the White House, however this plan and talk quickly changed, and slaves were forced construct this landmark.

    4. his morals and faculties.

      This particular statement seems somewhat hypocritical. They wanted the students to improve "morally" but this very document describes how the university would be built in the heart of the white population, basically to promote segregation. It seems that improving morally did not include the ideologies of accepting others that were different. I would argue that it is difficult to improve in such a way without recognizing and learning about differences. I realize that this was a different time, but it still seems incorrect that someone could be considered in good "moral" standing while still believing they were superior to others. I believe the fact that the white students and slaves were often separated contributed to this ideology. Students were able to learn in an environment where they were separated from the realities of the world.

      http://www.vahistorical.org/collections-and-resources/garden-club-virginia/colleges-and-universities/university-virginia

      Here is an article that shows how the serpentine garden walls created a separate space. This space is where many slaves worked and kept students somewhat separated, contributing to the division that was students "growing morally" and still playing a part in a society where inequality thrived.

    5. Dormitories, sufficient each for the accommodation of two students only, this provision being deemed advantageous to morals, to order, & to uninterrupted study

      I find it interesting that it was is found "advantageous" for two people to be living together with regard to anything besides finances. I have always assumed that it was 2 or more to a room in order to minimize costs of living. I had never considered morals to have a role in the choosing of living situations among youth. I guess it may have to do with another person holding the other accountable for their actions and responsibilities, and further teaches young people to live with other people in mind. (http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/25/education/25roomscience-t.html). This NY times article explores both the positive and negative effects of having a roommate. However, it does touch on the positivity of having another to boost your mood and influence some of your decision making.

    6. They will be more advanced than we are, in science and in useful arts, and will know best what will suit the circumstances of their day.

      I find it very interesting and fascinating how open-ended this line is and how it allows the university to be subject to change rather than trying to preserve one particular image or idea. I believe this type of open-mindedness is still reflected in UVA today through the diverse opportunities here at the university. With the various and ever-growing programs throughout UVA, this ideal of change and prosperity is preserved as well as fostered over time. This line also does not restrict the university to any sort of boundaries, which further opens the door to as many opportunities as possible for both the students and the institution as a whole, creating a wonderful space for a liberal arts college.

    7. We have proposed no formal provision for the gymnastics of the school, altho a proper object of attention for every institution of youth

      This passage struck me as odd because I never imagined gymnastics to be a subject at a university. The mention that this was a principle part of the education of youth in ancient nations did not aid in my understanding. I feel that teaching gymnastics would be more important and effective in young children than in university students. Comparing two different age groups in different time periods and parts of the world does not seem to make sense in this situation. The explicit mention of there being "no formal provision for the gymnastics of the school" would better be omitted, especially in this time and day.

    8. Spanish is highly interesting to us

      I find it surprising how the reason that one language of so few chosen to be taught to students was determined based on sheer interest. The rest of this sentence further explains why Spanish is an important language and should be taught. This shows that there are already plenty of legitimate reasons for it to be chosen; why the need to mention seemingly personal fascination?

    9. The best mode of government for youth in large collections, is certainly a desideratum not yet attained with us.

      Today we have the Honor Committee, run by students only, to enforce UVA's strong sense of morality, for every student not to lie, cheat, or steal. I find it really interesting to point out that the men who wrote this document did not know what to say about the best mode of government for students, and that they acknowledged that they were unsure how to go about the issue. It wasn't until 1912 that a student named Churchill Humphrey proposed the student-led honor committee. Although I'm certainly glad that the Honor committee was created and that it exists now, this may have been a flaw in the document. Maybe if the men who wrote the Rockfish Gap Report had put more time into considering the best mode of government for the students, the murder of law professor James A. G. Davis by a student in 1840 could have been avoided. http://uvamagazine.org/articles/the_evolution_of_honor

    10. And it is at this stage only that they should be recieved at the university. Giving then a portion of their time to a finished knowledge of the latin and Greek, the rest might be appropriated to the modern languages

      The document says that all who entered the University had to be able to "read the easier authors, Latin and Greek," and then here it says that everyone would have to spend a portion of their time at the university finishing their knowledge of these ancient languages. This is especially interesting to me, because now most people at the University focus on a spoken language such as Spanish, and some people here have even fulfilled the language requirement from prior high school classes. Learning about the classics used to represent an education of morality and reason, and gave educated people a way to communicate across all spheres by referring back to the same well-known classical texts. The founders considered classics to be so important in an education because they considered the history lessons from Greece and Rome to be ever-important since the principles from the Roman Republic were so similar to the principles of the United States' new democracy. https://www.wilsonquarterly.com/quarterly/spring-2011-the-city-bounces-back-four-portraits/classical-education-in-america/ I think that it's especially interesting how our consideration of languages has changed, probably due to the advancement of technology and our necessity to be able to communicate with others around the world in present-day. It seems now that Spanish is the most useful language to learn in college, because it is so widely spoken, while Latin is mostly just taken by pre-med students because of the Latin base of many medical words.

    11. Education generates habits of application, order and the love of virtue; and controuls, by the force of habit, any innate obliquities in our moral organization.

      Thomas Jefferson believed education was necessary for self-government to exist, especially in the necessity to express opinion through voting (http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00131729709335239?journalCode=utef20). Knowledge does not only express opinions but also plays a role in forming a good citizen, one who is informed and moral. Education from youth teaches morals and ethics of a society that we grow up to maintain and develop. An educated society can create a more satisfied society as knowledge sates human's natural tendency of curiosity.

    12. They will be more advanced than we are, in science and in useful arts, and will know best what will suit the circumstances of their day.

      This statement allows us to ponder the questions brought up in: What's Next for UVA?(http://uvamagazine.org/articles/whats_next_for_u.va). It makes me wonder whether it would be in the founders' intent to allow the development of a cyberspace of online classes available for students? So much emphasis is placed upon the historical value of Charlottesville; however, I believe that the need to adapt the old foundations into a modern world of technology and engineering is so important. I think the founders' understood that technology would revolutionize the education world and specified the sciences to be most open to change for future educators in its nature of change. With today's rate of technology and knowledge development, to not integrate further technology to coursework and research facilities would be undermining the incoming generations' talents.

  5. Oct 2017
    1. Latin V Physics or Natural Philosophy Greek Chemistry Hebrew Mineralogy II Languages Modern French VI Botany Spanish Zoology Italian VII Anatomy German Medicine Anglo-Saxon

      When the students learned these languages, were they learned for an increase in vocabulary and being the student who knew all these languages or was it to enhance their knowledge on the cultures in which these languages belonged?

    2. These are the objects of that higher grade of education, the benefits & blessings of which the legislature now propose to provide for the good & ornament of their country

      Jefferson established the University of Virginia because he recognized the importance of higher education and its ability to provide economic prosperity. This also relates to Jefferson's concept of calling graduation Final Exercises. Jefferson implemented this ideal because he believed that one never graduates from education, for life is all about growth and accumulating knowledge about the world around us. The University is the basis for higher education, but that intellectual development by no means stops after students leave the University. In fact, the education received at the University is just the beginning. https://news.virginia.edu/content/history-final-exercises

    3. The objects of this primary education determine its character & limits. These objects would be, To give to every citizen the information he needs for the transaction of his own business. To enable him to calculate for himself, and to express & preserve his ideas, his contracts & accounts in writing. To improve by reading, his morals and faculties. To understand his duties to his neighbours, & country, and to discharge with competence the functions confided to him by either. To know his rights; to exercise with order & justice those he retains; to choose with discretion the fiduciaries of those he delegates; and to notice their conduct with diligence with candor & judgment. And, in general, to observe with intelligence & faithfulness all the social relations under which he shall be placed. To instruct the mass of our citizens in these their rights, interests and duties, as men and citizens, being then the objects of education in the primary schools, whether private or public, in them should be taught reading, writing & numerical arithmetic, the elements of mensuration (useful in so many callings) and the outlines of geography and history, and this brings us to the point at which are to commence the higher branches of education, of which the legislature require the development: those for example which are to form the statesmen, legislators & judges, on whom public prosperity, & individual happiness are so much to depend. To expound the principles & structure of government, the laws which regulate the intercourse of nations, those formed municipally for our own government, and a sound spirit of legislation, which banishing all arbitrary & unnecessary restraint on individual action shall leave us free to do whatever does not violate the equal rights of another. To harmonize & promote the interests of agriculture, manufactures & commerce and by well informed views of political economy to give a free scope to the public industry. To develope the reasoning faculties of our youth, enlarge their minds cultivate their morals, & instil into them the precepts of virtue & order. To enlighten them with mathematical and physical sciences which advance the arts & administer to the health, the subsistence & comforts of human life: And generally to form them to habits of reflection, and correct action, rendering them examples of virtue to others & of happiness within themselves.

      I think we can reflect a lot on these points. The education of thinking critically, understanding points of views from different perspectives and analyzing situation multilaterally is developed in class and under other academic atmosphere, but to accept people/opinions that are different from us is something people rarely accomplish. We tend to stay in our comfortable zone and keep the way we perceive the world as we were while there're diversities that waiting for us to uncover, but we failed to seize the opportunity because we don't think it's necessary to accept the difference. It's no something that can be changed through education or exercise, but something that is rooted deeply in the education system, under which the teaching of accepting racial differences and embracing different cultures is almost absent.

    4. To develope the reasoning faculties of our youth, enlarge their minds cultivate their morals, & instil into them the precepts of virtue & order.

      I think this is a very interesting point made in the document. The University was built on a basis of morals and virtue. As you look through time, the standards at which morals and virtues were held has changed drastically. During the time this was written, morals and virtues were to be a good husband, a good son, to be a man of the house, and to educate yourself to provide for a family. Now, the morals and virtues of the University are to respect other students and to strive to educate and provide for yourself, regardless of who you are. The primary concept here is that morals and values have always been important to the University, but these morals and values have changed over time.

    5. that these pavilions should be united by a range of Dormitories, sufficient each for the accommodation of two students only, this provision being deemed advantageous to morals, to order, & to uninterrupted study; and that a passage of some kind under cover from the weather should give a communication along the whole range.

      I think this part of the article gives us confidence back that University of Virginia is built in fully consideration of the safety of its students and is built for students to gain academic success. During this period that so many students protests and riots about race are taking place, the calling for more care and attention to students life and the condemnation of the lack of student's safety is getting more prevalent, however this part of the university legislature shed a light on regaining student's trust to this university, whose architecture was built on the emphasis of student's safety and academic progress.

    6. To develope the reasoning faculties of our youth, enlarge their minds cultivate their morals, & instil into them the precepts of virtue & order.

      I feel like the goal of many ideas (religious, political, historical) is to make sure the youth are involved in some way shape or form. I guess it is because of the cliche that the "youth are our future." Here, it is made sure that the minds of the youth are enlarged along with their morals. This reminds me of my Debating Islams engagement where we have discussed the 3 main radical ideologies, all in which push the participation of the youth and the passing of ideas to the youth.

      This also brings to mind the idea to "cultivate their morals." It kind bewilders me that their definition of morals made it okay to enslave a whole population of people because they felt they were inferior to them due to pigmentation of skin, or more of their lack of. You would think to have "morality" is to have compassion, to have some sense of "hmmm maybe this isn't right", "hmmm maybe they are human beings that do deserve rights."

    7. the degree of centrality to the white population of the state which alone then constituted the important point of comparison

      I don't find this statement to be particularly jarring at all. The trailblazer generation/the first black students to attend the University of Virginia faced extreme isolation. Gregory Swanson, the first African-American admitted to UVA, experienced extreme alienation. He wasn't allowed to live on Grounds, join fraternities, attend dances, or participate in other social events. As a result, he eventually withdrew due to the hostile climate (http://www.virginia.edu/woodson/projects/kenan/swanson/swanson.html). It doesn't surprise me that one of the main deciding factors when choosing UVA's location was the centrality of the white population. However, I do find it interesting and almost a little ironic that a large majority of the community immediately surrounding UVA is largely composed of minorities. Overall, this statement is not a revelation, but rather a disappointing reminder of what the school was founded on.

    8. Madison

      While conducting research for my public art proposal assignment for Aesthetic Engagement: Art: Inside/Out, I discovered that not only were Madison and Jefferson close colleagues, but they were also two United States Presidents that relied heavily on slave labor while in the White House [(https://www.whitehousehistory.org/press-room/press-fact-sheets/slavery-and-the-white-house). Thomas Jefferson was actually the first President to bring slaves into the White House and James Madison followed suit (https://www.democracynow.org/2009/1/20/jesse_holland_black_men_built_the).

    9. as men and citizens,

      The parenthesis "as men and citizens" underscores the identity of student body back in the 1800s, which is echoed by the responsibilities and learning goals espoused in later content. The reception of elite education, after all, is deemed to be a means of transforming young people into social, cultural as well as political leaders in society. Jefferson made it clear, whether or not intentional, and dealt with the tension between the obligations of citizenship and the obligations of humanity by referring to the phrase.

    10. the Virginia General Assembly

      The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World, established on July 30, 1619. This indicates that Jefferson is writing on behalf of the Commissioners to pledge a promising and well-planned future of the University of Virginia whose audience is possibly to playing a vital part in determining and aiding the healthy development of the university, which is why the language is formal, the information detailed, and the tone impersonal yet persuasive.

    11. In conformity with the principles of our constitution, which places all sects of religion on an equal footing, with the jealousies of the different sects in guarding that equality from encroachment & surprise, and with the sentiments of the legislature in favor of freedom of religion manifested on former occasions, we have proposed no professor of Divinity; and tho rather, as the proofs of the being of a god, the creator, preserver, & supreme ruler of the universe, the author of all the relations of morality, & of the laws & obligations these infer, will be within the province of the professor of ethics; to which adding the developements of these moral obligations, of those in which all sects agree with a knolege of the languages, Hebrew, Greek and Latin,4 a basis will be formed common to all sects. Proceeding thus far without offence to the constitution, we have thought it proper at this point, to leave every sect to provide as they think fittest, the means of further instruction in their own peculiar tenets.

      This excerpt stood out to me because it is one of the main principles that TJ believed in that he saw as the foundation of the University. He so strongly believed in Freedom of Religion and separation of church and state that he located the Rotunda at the center of the university to serve as a symbol in a "strictly secular nature". The Rotunda was essentially a scale model of the Pantheon in Rome, but instead of being a temple of religious worship, the Rotunda stood for a temple of knowledge. This being the main symbol of the university demonstrates how strongly TJ was trying to promote a religious freedom ideology on the students that would attend this institution. This ideology of religious freedom on top of the emphasis on law and politics makes me think that TJ's hope was to educate these students on various questions of the world, but bring it back to making a difference in society through the teachings on liberties and law.

      https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-americas/british-colonies/early-republic/a/jefferson-rotunda-uva

    12. opinion that the central point of the white population of the state is nearer to the central college,

      Our definition of white now is very different from what it was back in Jefferson's day. In my COLA, White: A Racial Category, we've been learning about the progression of what "White" actually is and who was considered "white" in America throughout its history. "White", during the time frame of the founding of UVA, was considered to be of Anglo- Saxon descent, according to Thomas Jefferson. Being white was very exclusive. Just being from Europe was not enough, because being an immigrant from Germany, Ireland, Italy, did not make you white. The acceptance of these people to be considered white did not take place until later in American history. One also had to be of a certain economic status so that you can afford the education.

      So the placement of this school wasn't quite just based on the "white population" but economic status, and directly who you descended from.

    13. and the outlines of geography and history, and this brings us to the point at which are to commence the higher branches of education, of which the legislature require the development: those for example which are to form the statesmen, legislators & judges, on whom public prosperity, & individual happiness are so much to depend.

      I can sense Thomas Jefferson's influence in this paragraph. Although TJ was a very knowledgeable individual in a variety of fields of study, I remember learning that he tended to show bias towards his passion for law. This can be seen by the decision to have Pavilion 3, the space where classes of law were held, be the only pavilion with the highest order of columns, the Corinthian, as if it were superior to the other pavilions. This demonstrates what the University was trying to promote in its students' minds about the field of law and its importance in society.

      http://www.virginia.edu/webmap/popPages/pavilion3.html

    14. This doctrine is the genuine fruit of the alliance between church and State, the tenants of which, finding themselves but too well in their present position, oppose all advances which might unmask their usurpations, and monopolies of honors, wealth and power, and fear every change, as endangering the comforts they now hold.

      Jefferson firmly believed in the separation of church and state, and it is interesting that he calls this doctrine "the genuine fruit of the alliance between church and State." The word State is capitalized while church isn't, which suggests that the state is more important. He continues to criticize the church, so it is is possible that his description of the doctrine being an alliance is used sarcastically. However, Jefferson did believe in a high being, so it is also possible that he believed the perfect balance of belief in the state and in God was what was in him.

    15. We should be far too from the discouraging persuasion, that man is fixed, by the law of his nature, at a given point: that his improvement is a chimæra

      There is an emphasis placed throughout the document that the University is not just a place for men to study academics, they grow in their personal lives as well. I believe this is a very important aspect of college, as most of what we learn does not come out of a textbook, they are life lessons learnt by interacting with different people in different situations, away from a comfortable environment (our homes).

    16. It was the degree of centrality to the white population of the state which alone then constituted the important point of comparison between these places

      The fact that the population if the white people is mentioned as the first thing that helped determine the location of the university speaks a lot about the values this institution was founded on -racism. Throughout the history we have seen the aspect of racism shift for the better, today, the college is admitting people of color more than it has ever before. But the question still remains...Has UVA enabled to completely drop its association racism, especially since it was founded on such grounds(pun not intended)?

    17. To know his rights; to exercise with order & justice those he retains; to choose with discretion the fiduciaries of those he delegates; and to notice their conduct with diligence with candor & judgement.

      This objective is striking because it stresses the importance for individuals to know of their rights and to exercise them accordingly. Because of its placement within the top five, the objective has major significance. Although individual rights are a principal component of the University, enslaved African-Americans worked on grounds during the time. The University makes the claim that individual rights are of upmost importance and yet, slavery was implemented at the University. This shows a clear contradiction within the University's said beliefs and its actions. The fact that slaves were not viewed as fully human is the probable cause as to why the University could not see the fault within denying slaves individual rights. It is important to note this history and the University's foundational principles, in order to further progression. https://vpdiversity.virginia.edu/sites/vpdiversity.virginia.edu/files/documents/SlaveryatUVaBrochure_FINAL.pdf**

    18. To improve by reading, his morals and faculties.

      The notion that a higher education is designed to improve one's morality is something that has stuck with the University throughout its history. This can be seen through the commitment to honor that the University and its student body exhibits everyday (http://honor.virginia.edu/overview). This also builds off of the idea that the American system of public education was designed to cultivate proper, intelligent citizens that could function in beneficial ways to liberal democracy. A vital aspect of a successful democracy is an informed polity. Morals have significantly changed across time, but the infusion of morals within education is a common theme for the University no matter the time period.

    19. the dieting of the students should be left to private boarding houses, of their own choice

      I find it interesting that students would have to find a boarding house of their choice to dine. I always thought that was the purpose of the Hotels on the Range. Maybe the inefficiency of the Boarding House system led to the Hotels, which were to my knowledge were built much later than the lawn rooms and the pavilions.

    20. And generally to form them to habits of reflection

      I believe this is one of the best qualities of an informed individual. A person must reflect on the information presented to him to truly understand it. He must sit on it, be critical of it, and create his own interpretation of it. Throughout high school, we were constantly forced to write reflections, which I always thought was some new age, irrelevant thing to keep us busy. But as I began to understand the benefits of reflecting and allowing myself to be introspective and the thoughts that come from this process, it now makes complete sense why we were forced to make reflections and why Thomas Jefferson would want the students in his university to be reflective. It causes critical thought, a quality process that every person should use. I relish in the fact that being reflective is not some new age teaching philosophy; that even in the early 19th century, people were pushing for critical thought.

    21. Hebrew

      I believe that Hebrew is included in the corse provided to show 'the equal footing' provided for all sects. In the 19th century Jewish people were discriminated against in Europe. Hebrew is central to Jewish society and their religion. By teaching Hebrew, the university shows its inclusiveness towards the Jewish community. And the notion of equal footing is a result of the permeating belief of equality. Another reason is that Hebrew can be used to study the connection between Judaism, Christianity and Abrahamic Religions.

    22. nd that on the death or resignation of a member, or on his removal by the President & Directors of the Literary fund, or the executive or such other authority as the legislature shall think best, such President & Directors or the Executive, or other authority should appoint a successor.

      The appointment of members to the Board of Visitors was left very vague. I feel like that sort of power should be more specified or it could lead to division between the various people put in power and confusion over appointments. Today, Virginia's governor appointments the members (as seen in the news article below), which provides a balance in power, similar to the appointment of Supreme Court justices. I would be interested to learn more about the history of refining the power of appointment. https://news.virginia.edu/content/governor-appoints-blue-hardie-jones-board-visitors-griffin-reappointed

    23. Education generates habits of application, order and the love of virtue; and controuls, by the force of habit, any innate obliquities in our moral organization. We should be far too from the discouraging persuasion, that man is fixed, by the law of his nature, at a given point: that his improvement is a chimæra, and the hope delusive of rendering ourselves wiser, happier or better than our forefathers were.

      These sentences really reminds me of the beginning of the book II of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, where Aristotle states that moral virtues are acquired by repetition of the coresponding acts. And the second sentence, I believe, is used to combat the belief that a man is fixed, that a good deed is done because there is a good man, and that there is just man first and then just deeds second. It is through the formation of habits, the habits that brings good and utils to people, that people start to do good deeds and just deeds. And through doing good deeds and just deeds, people become good and just, but not the other way round. So in a sort-of Aristotle way, UVA is devoted to the development of moral virtues and finally human happiness that originates from moral virtues.

    24. This doctrine is the genuine fruit of the alliance between church and State, the tenants of which, finding themselves but too well in their present position, oppose all advances which might unmask their usurpations, and monopolies of honors, wealth and power, and fear every change, as endangering the comforts they now hold.

      Contrary to what others have posted regarding this statement, I believe here Jefferson and the other writers are actually calling out those who support an alliance between church and State, not advocating for one. Jefferson was a strong proponent of the separation between Church and State, like others have mentioned, so here he criticizes the view that man cannot be continuously improved morally and intellectually. He correlates this "desponding" view to the alliance between church and State in its obsolescence and lack of faith in the growth of man. Jefferson then further denounces those who promote this view by linking this static mindset to a fear of losing undeserved privileges. Instead, people should support the developments of secular science and the possibilities of education, which he will emphasize at his university, even if they themselves may not directly benefit.

    25. Education, in like manner engrafts a new man on the native stock, & improves what in his nature was vicious & perverse, into qualities of virtue and social worth; and it cannot be but that each generation succeeding to the knowledge acquired by all those who preceded it, adding to it their own acquisitions & discoveries, and handing the mass down for successive & constant accumulation, must advance the knowledge & well-being of mankind: not infinitely, as some have said, but indefinitely, and to a term which no one can fix or foresee.

      This quotation shows that the authors believed that the goal of higher education was to nurture and improve every aspect of intellectual potential in an individual.This acquired knowledge would then be passed down to the next generations which creates a cyclical process of building on past knowledge and innovations. The idea that the only way to secure the intellectual capabilities of the future is to improve the ones of the present is the central theme in this passage.

    26. To instruct the mass of our citizens in these their rights, interests and duties, as men and citizens, being then the objects of education in the primary schools, whether private or public, in them should be taught reading, writing & numerical arithmetic, the elements of mensuration (useful in so many callings) and the outlines of geography and history, and this brings us to the point at which are to commence the higher branches of education, of which the legislature require the development: those for example which are to form the statesmen, legislators & judges, on whom public prosperity, & individual happiness are so much to depend.

      This paragraph shows that the authors believed in the power of education to shape an individual into the ideal citizen of our democratic society. Not only did they want students to excel in academic subjects such as mathematics, reading and writing, they hoped to create a student body of politically engaged citizens who embraced every aspect of freedom and civil responsibilities and duties, thus creating the next generation of leaders who will carry on these ideals that are vital to the survival of our democracy.

    27. To improve by reading, his morals and faculties.

      Here's a great example of the class warfare inherent in the text, as well as a hopeful sign of progress that hadn't yet reached fruition. By claiming that you can improve somebody's "morals and faculties" through education, the founders of the university were essentially offering a justification for the class system of the day; in essence, this statement implies that the ruling class (meaning wealthy and white) were better suited for their positions than their underlings because they had received an education, and thus possessed better intellectual "faculties" and a higher ethical podium from which they could act, thereby justifying their social positions and offering a means and justification for their children to take their place once they'd passed. Personally, I reject the notion that the well educated have a higher moral understanding, since I've never heard of anybody with only a G.E.D to their name declaring war on another country, but I think it's interesting how in the 1800s, people began to reject the notion that the ruling class was inherently better and were thus better suited to their positions; education began to socially supersede divine providence. This may not have catalyzed change at first, but it significantly expanded peoples' notions of who should and should not be in power. It's a meager edition to a document that most others might find horrifying with its blithe acceptance of the idea of class structures and slavery, but it provides a small hopeful note.

    28. To give to every citizen the information he needs for the transaction of his own business.

      I've always found it immensely ironic as to how universities always make a big show of acting in the public interest, despite the fact that more often than not they exist to keep education firmly within reach of the rich while far away from the poor. UVA, for instance, has a "watch-list" of people who are given a fast track to admission thanks to connections to wealthy university donors (Summary: https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/at-u-va-a-watch-list-flags-vip-applicants-for-special-handling/2017/04/01/9482b256-106e-11e7-9d5a-a83e627dc120_story.html?utm_term=.e0347fa7134b, Backing Documents: http://apps.washingtonpost.com/g/documents/local/u-va-watch-list/2396/). That's certainly far away from the ideal of giving education to "every citizen", even by the backwards definition of citizen used in the 1820s (meaning to be both white and landowning). It's especially interesting that while the university and country as a whole has made immense progress socially since then, we still haven't even come close to coming within reach of the ideals the university was founded on.

    29. This would generally be about the 15th year of their age when they might go with more safety and contentment to that distance from their parents.

      In present day, fifteen years of age is the time when one goes to high school, however in the 1800s it was deemed the right time for children to leave home an go to university. It seems strange, but in the 1800s there was not as many levels of education as there are now. The first public high school was not formed until 1820, therefore there must have just been primary school and university, no intermediate level. It is also strange that fifteen seems an appropriate age to leave home yet citizens could not vote until twenty one. In present day most students leave home at eighteen, the same time as they can vote. If fifteen year olds were assumed responsible enough to leave home then why were they not responsible enough to vote? https://www.raceforward.org/research/reports/historical-timeline-public-education-us http://classroom.synonym.com/people-gained-right-vote-early-1800s-16200.html

    30. And generally to form them to habits of reflection, and correct action, rendering them examples of virtue to others & of happiness within themselves.

      This objective appears to be the basis of the honor code. Although the honor code is not created until 1842, the authors still kept in mind the behavior and morals of the students. Key phrases such as "habits of reflection" and "correct action" indicate the authors' intent for the students to not only further their education at the university but also grow as responsible and ethical citizens. Reflection is necessary in order for someone to attain strong opinions, it is another form of attaining knowledge. Jefferson wished for the university to produce informed and engaging members of society who would apply their values to the new nation. http://honor.virginia.edu/history

    31. within the powers of a single professor.

      I found the variation in professors' workloads particularly interesting because it helps to illuminate both the importance and complexity of different subjects. For example, professors VI and VII only have to teach two classes each; VI focuses on farming and VII focuses on medicine. These classes led to very specific and important careers at the time (farming and medicine), but the classes that align with the liberal arts education that UVA strives for today are allocated fewer professors. It shows how some of the education goals of the University has changed since its founding. To learn more about UVA's liberal arts goals, read this statement of their purposes and goals: http://www.virginia.edu/sacs/references/UVaPurp&Goals.PDF

    32. To improve by reading, his morals and faculties.

      In my Engagements class, Thinking Like a Scientist, one of the main topics we discuss is how people make judgements of the information they read and how they decide what is valid. As were read over time, we aim to become better at distinguishing valid and invalid information. It seems that this goal of the university, “to improve by reading, his morals and faculties,” falls into alignment with this debate. I think that when we read, we are both absorbing the information presented and also formulating our own judgements and interpretations of it. This in turn helps us develop personal views about the world, thus cultivating some of our morals and faculties. By carefully evaluating a reading’s information and determining its validity, we are making judgements that align with certain morals and ways of thinking that we already have and are improving upon them. I like how even at the time of the university’s founding these ideas are present within the school’s academics, and now they are still present in a class in our new curriculum.

    33. Encouraged therefore by the sentiments of the Legislature, manifested in this statute, we present the following tabular statement of the branches of learning which we think should be taught in the University, forming them into groups, each of which are within the powers of a single professor.

      In Thomas Jefferson's "Notes on the State of Virginia", Query 15, "Colleges, buildings, and roads," discusses some of his views and observations of what kinds of these things existed at the time. He starts off by giving an overview of the College of William and Mary, which once was "the only public seminary of learning in this state" (276). T.J. describes the structure of W&M's first schools of learning at the time, which consisted of only six schools or "professorships" (Law, medicine, mathematics, moral philosophy, modern languages, and Indian conversion to Christianity). He comments that it would be proper for the college to soon add more professorships, specifically more of those of science and the ancient languages and literature of the North. I would say that these observations of W&M served as some inspiration to Jefferson's ideas for UVA that he describes in the Rockfish report. The commissioners provide an outline of the desired branches of learning which consist of ten branches, covering significantly more material than the six offered by W&M at the time. Also, Jefferson sticks to his notion of the importance of the Ancient Languages and the Sciences which he suggested for W&M, which can be seen through the prevalence of these languages and a vast variety of scientific topics within the proposed branches. Jefferson used his observations of the only Virginian college of the time and expanded on its structure when designing his own university. http://web.archive.org/web/20110221131407/http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=JefVirg.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=15&division=div1

    34. nd the board, after full enquiry & impartial & mature consideration, are of opinion that the central point of the white population of the state is nearer to the central college, than to either Lexington or Staunton by great & important differences, and all other circumstances of the place in general being favorable to it as a position for an University,

      We have learned that UVA was originally a location to educate whites, specifically those who came from plantations and places of slavery (according to UVA professor Kirt Von Daacke). Thomas Jefferson had the idea to create a fence around the slave gardens to protect students from seeing the institution of slavery, when in reality most the students grew up as a major part embracing this institution. Therefore, it makes sense that the creators of the Rockfish Gap Report would want the university close to its main demographic- being white students- especially because later they claim that they want parents to be within a day's travel from their students.

      http://uvamagazine.org/articles/unearthing_slavery_at_the_university_of_virginia

      This separation of students from slavery as an institution (while fairly unsuccessful) is evidenced by Thomas Jefferson's ban on students bringing their own slaves from home. The link above leads to an article from the UVA magazine where it explains, "Jefferson would not allow slaves to come with students.."

    35. and that a passage of some kind under cover from the weather should give a communication along the whole range

      I find it extremely interesting that Jefferson and the board would make special note to cover the walkway around the lawn. This is honestly my favorite part about the lawn--I am a runner and I try to jog ten laps around the lawn every day. It's beautiful, peaceful, and makes for a perfect five mile run, and the best part is that I'm protected from the rain on rainy days! I recently toured Monticello for the first time and was fascinated with the numerous architectural advancements that Thomas Jefferson had installed in his home. He had pulleys everywhere--he could open his bedroom door and pull the curtain over his window across the room from the comfort of his bed, and had a system that sent wine bottles up to the dining room from the cellar. He also had a revolving kitchen door that would make the passage of food from the kitchen to the dining room easier, and had strategically placed windows, mirrors, and skyights around rooms in order to maximize daylight. Since I learned all of this about Monticello, I have been absolutely fascinated with the architecture at UVA, and with Jefferson's wit and attention to detail. Of course he would think to cover the path along the lawn and to have justifications for all of the other basic structures such as the two-student dormitories and pavilions for professors and lectures with a lawn of "proper breadth." It's become apparent to me that Jefferson loved simple beauty, symmetry, and convenience. I'm fascinated that I'm able to read a description of the lawn before it even existed, as its easy to take those little details for granted and this reading allows me to really appreciate the thought that went into them.

      https://www.monticello.org/site/house-and-gardens/rooms-and-furnishings

    36. Staunton in the County of Augusta

      Staunton is my home. I have lived there my entire life, considered UVA to be my dream school my entire life, and never knew that it was one of the three cities considered for placing the University. This fact really makes me think about the qualities of my hometown. Although the "degree of centrality to the white population of the state" was upsettingly the reason why Albemarle County was chosen as the site, I can imagine how similar the three cities of Charlottesville, Lexington, and Staunton must have been at the time, with the wealthy population density being one of the only separating factors. This really makes me wonder what my hometown would have grown to be had it been chosen for the site of the University. Today, the population of Staunton is a little over half that of Charlottesville, is 272% less dense than Charlottesville, and has a white population of 82.03% to Charlottesville's 66.4% white population.

      I find that last fact especially interesting and almost ironic--the board chose Charlottesville because of its minimal minority population, yet today Charlottesville has much more diversity than Staunton. This leaves me wondering what my town would have been like had UVA been placed there. Staunton is a small college town today, home of Mary Balwin College, one of the first all-girls' colleges in the country founded in 1842.

      It is a funny fact to think that such a progressive institution was founded in Staunton, and that my town was once too diverse for UVA, as now my tiny town of Staunton seems so backwards compared to the forward-thinking city of Charlottesville. It's almost as if the University is the reason for Charlottesville's diversity, which is ironic considering the original goals of the board.

      (http://www.bestplaces.net/compare-cities/staunton_va/charlottesville_va/people)

      http://www.marybaldwin.edu/about-us/history/

  6. Sep 2017
    1. They will be more advanced than we are, in science and in useful arts, and will know best what will suit the circumstances of their day.

      I think this phrase really reflects Jefferson as an inventor. Being adept in the sciences for his time, he probably knew better than many others how much science and practical skills build on themselves over time, and how past discoveries directly lead to new advancements. His confidence and anticipation for the future is evident, which I think is one thing that pushed the university and its students forward.

    2. What, but education, has advanced us beyond the condition of our indigenous neighbours?

      This question clearly reflects the idea that education is power, and that the educated, "civilized" men at this time felt a level of primacy and superiority over their uneducated neighbors. Although this particular statement is more specifically directed towards what the writers likely viewed as barbaric incivility of the Native Americans, this attitude of superiority can be seen in other contexts throughout history. One example, more directly related to the power bestowed by education, is voting rights. In this time, only white male property owners were extended the right to vote. Because these were often the most highly educated people, this system (more or less directly) disallowed the less educated population from becoming politically active. This in turn enforced the power of the educated and worked to ensure that the interests of this select group of people would be favored in government. Whether or not this was the direct intent of the statements in this document is largely difficult to conclude, however it is interesting to note nonetheless. Source: The Challenge of Democracy: Government in America https://books.google.com/books?id=VQ_iZMofnl0C&pg=PA207&lpg=PA207#v=onepage&q&f=false

    3. Mineralogy, in addition to its peculiar subjects is here understood to embrace what is real in Geology.

      Before reading this document, I had never heard of Mineralogy as an independent discipline. According to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, it is a branch study which concerns "the physical, optical and chemical properties of natural crystalline structures". Back in the time when chemical structures were not known, crystalline structures certainly must have seemed "peculiar", despite being a crucial part of geology. Further, I found it interesting how in the document, it says mineralogy is to "embrace what is real in Geology", suggesting that the elements of geology outside of mineralogy are somehow not real. Today, geological development, dating, plate tectonics etc. would most likely be considered more important and practical than minerals. Thus, I take this phrasing as a signal of how little they knew about how the earth works back then, nor did they have quite the desire. https://www.cmnh.org/mineralogy

    4. history & explanations of all it’s successive theories from Hippocrates to the present day:

      History largely encompasses all the basics and foundations of current day science and society. However, we typically leave out history in the race to further human progress in the area of STEM. Science in a large part is about the technicalities, but I often find myself, especially progressing in the future, contemplating the philosophies of medical science. Learning the "history & explanations" is mighty important since science is made of theories but nothing is every 100% concrete, notably seen in how many different beliefs from previous science papers are struck down as wrong. Hippocrates, also known as the father of anatomy, wrote many writings that have become the foundations to everyday science, such as the co-affection theory or the four humours. However, belief in such things is dependent on personal viewpoint as everything can be argued from opposing sides and medical science has heated debates within it as to what procedures or theories are the most accurate or the best alternatives. I can believe that in the co-affection theory that everything in the body is linked and that any sickness or harm in one part of the body will flow and affect another area of the body, but others can argue the other side. The necessity of learning medical science history further pushes medical and pre-medical students into understanding the severity of their roles and philosophize the best approaches into their specialized field, especially in our current, continuously evolving medical field where it is easy to be caught up in the discoveries but not know what is truth and what is false in them. Hippocrates' theories of co-affection can be found in translations of Epidemics and the four humours in De Humoribus. Texts from historically important medical figures display an understanding of authors' thinking and pattern of understanding and analyzing of different medical conditions.

    5. men and citizens,

      Though the fight for coeducation at UVA started in the 1890s, women were not allowed to study at the university until 1969. UVA was an all male university until Virginia Anne Scott and three other women filed a lawsuit against the university for gender discrimination. When the issue first came up in 1895, the UVA administration denied entry to women, saying it would "physically unsex" women, leading to a "loss of power" in the home. When this idea was challenged again in 1967, the university said that allowing women into the university would "hurt the honor system." In May, 1969, Scott and three other omen filed their lawsuits when they were dined entry into the university. UVA tried to direct female applicants to a "sister school," but the women wanted to attend UVA for better education. The women won the case, and Scott became the first woman to enroll at UVA.

    6. Districts of such extent as that every parent should be within a days journey of his son at school, would be desirable in cases of sickness, and convenient for supplying their Ordinary wants and might be made to lessen sensibly the expense of this part of their education.

      UVA has evolved heavily from this previous stance that students should be close to their parents at all times. Now, college is a place where students go to learn and practice independence. UVA currently has an out of state program because students from all over the world should have the opportunity to study and learn on their own. It no longer makes sense for the university to limit themselves to the surrounding area of students who are eligible to attend just because their parents are within a day's travel to help them. The studiousness and reputation of the university has only grown with the extension of geographically eligible students and the encouragement of independence. https://vpsa.virginia.edu/communications/2017/important-message-parents-second-year-students Here is a link from the UVA website showing a letter written from President Teresa Sullivan to second year students where she states that the university (and specifically in the second year) is a place of "intellectual growth, social maturation, and independence".

    7. The objects of this primary education determine its character & limits

      The irony of this particular qualifier of the educational experience the University was to provide to its students and staff is almost laughable if it wasn't so unfortunate. Many people today consider one of the strongest Constitutional arguments for diversity in higher education as fulfilling the need for differing perspectives and background (https://oied.ncsu.edu/equity/affirmative-action-in-education/). UVa was founded upon the notion of exclusivity to white males. This would never provide the same diversity of thought that the more, albeit still flawed, inclusive university. So the idea that the commissioners and founders of this institution noted how the "objects" of education would shape both its moral "character" as well as "limits" for growth exposes the dehumanization of anyone outside of the category of white man.

    8. the French is the language of general intercourse among nations

      It is interesting to see how much international affairs and relations has changed over time with respect to language superiority and which languages prove most useful. It is hard to imagine French as being a dominant factor in dealing with the word today. Nowadays, most international business transactions are in english or mandarin chinese. The Harvard Business Review says that the world of business is largely translated into English now as it becomes an ever more prevalent language. In our world today, not many think of French as being a necessity in understanding the affairs of the world. https://hbr.org/2012/05/global-business-speaks-english

    9. We should be far too from the discouraging persuasion, that man is fixed, by the law of his nature, at a given point: that his improvement is a chimæra, and the hope delusive of rendering ourselves wiser, happier or better than our forefathers were

      This statement brings to mind the idea of growth vs. fixed mindset that man's mind should be developed into one that continues to grow and gain knowledge rather than staying within the human nature of staying static. The use of the metaphor of the chimaera brings a image of an amazing monsterous entity that represents the physicality of the mind to morph and change depending on how we learn and change from this gain of knowledge. The second part of this statement is even more interesting as it reminds me of passages of Latin text from Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium by Seneca. It states that true happiness lies in the completion of knowledge/wisdom. However, there is no way of learning everything and having complete knowledge by the end of one's lifetime. Thus, the text says that being in the process of completing that knowledge/fulfilling that wisdom also makes one happier than a person that does not try to gain wisdom. The last half of the sentence makes me believe that the searching for of knowledge within this institution will give basis to hope of a happier, wiser life than that of the previous generations.

    10. Hotels of a single room for a Refectory,

      Through the structure and implementation of hotels, the University from the start was influenced by outside business, just like it is today. Just like we have Chick-Fil-a or The Corner today, the students who attended the University in the Jeffersonian era were able to purchase commodities, such as food or necessities for daily life, from outside vendors who rented spaces in what are now the dormitories on the outside of the gardens.

    11. Spanish is highly interesting to us, as the language spoken by so great a portion of the inhabitants of our Continents, with whom we shall possibly have great intercourse ere long; and is that also in which is written the greater part of the early history of America.

      This sentence sticks out, because it seems to put down the Spanish Language, compared to other modern languages that are offered. They label it as less learned than French, Italian, or German, by mentioning well studied types or works of art in those languages and not in the Spanish language. This document refers Italian, French, and German respectively as a "distinguished...[and]...valuable", "the language of general intercourse among nations", and a language spoken by "the most learned nations in richness". Contrastingly Spanish is just referred to as "interesting", being spoken by our neighboring countries. Today, comparatively, according to the University of Dusseldorf, Spanish is tied as the third most common studied language, after Chinese and French and tied with German. Spanish language and culture is commonly referred to as the majority minority of our country. It is interesting to note that the globalization that our world has gone through up until now has lead to the introduction of Far Eastern languages, such as Chinese, which is not offered as a modern language in this document but is widely studied today at UVA and around the country.

      https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/04/23/the-worlds-languages-in-7-maps-and-charts/?utm_term=.b0b136aa4654

    12. What, but education, has advanced us beyond the condition of our indigenous neighbours? and what chains them to their present state of barbarism & wretchedness

      Thomas Jefferson learned extensively from the Enlightenment thinkers of the 18th century (whose advancements he refers to throughout the report) and believed in a theory that emerged from the Enlightenment known as "environmentalism." Environmentalism stated that a human's environment "shaped human appearance, culture, and political organization," and Jefferson, in his book Notes on the State of Virginia, used this to claim that he actually believed Indians "to be in body and mind equal to the whiteman." Seemingly in contrast here, Jefferson calls Indians, the indigenous neighbors, wretched barbarians less advanced than the white man. However, Jefferson also articulated that in order for the indigenous man to become equal to the white man, he must relinquish his life of savagery and instead live in European-style towns with European-style agriculture, therefore receiving a European-style education. With this education and change of environment, Jefferson claimed white men and Indians would become equals. This deeply contrasts the opinions of many at the time that Indians (and, additionally, slaves) could not assimilate into the white culture due to their fundamental differences in mind, body, and nature. [(https://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/american-indians)]

    13. This would generally be about the 15th year of their age when they might go with more safety and contentment to that distance from their parents.

      Although It is surprising that the framers presumed fifteen year olds would have the capacity to be a student of this university, it has some sense given their educational beliefs. As they mentioned earlier in the text, "Education, in like manner engrafts a new man on the native stock, & improves what in his nature was vicious & perverse, into qualities of virtue and social worth."Since education would provide a more profound and virtuous individual, having someone younger with various flaws would be ideal to buttress this claim. In http://uvamagazine.org/articles/bad_boys they note that the early years of the University of Virginia was met with chaos; however, the students soon found themselves attempting to change their immoral ways.

    14. 1st. day of August of this present year 1818,

      In the period of 1800 to 1850, America was experiencing "college building boom" a period in which more than 200 institutions were formed. Could the forming of UVA be a result of pressure of forming an institution just because most of the states were doing the same? ...because at this period, attending college was not popular among the people and college funding was based on student tuition and local funds.

      http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2044/Higher-Education-in-United-States.html

    15. the admission of enlargement to any degree to which the institution may extend in future times.

      I find this segment to be fascinating in that even before the university was established, Jefferson already was envisioning a great future for the university and its prospering beyond what they have proposed. The document is certainly correct in that this location provided for greater expansion as time went on, yet the original foundation (the lawn and pavilions) still remain at the heart of the grounds. As a matter of fact, it was only three years later that Jefferson proposed the plans for the Rotunda, which mirrors his idea of "a building of somewhat more size". It is interesting to read first hand just how progressive and forward-thinking Jefferson was with regards to the university and how it reflects what we know as our grounds today. http://rotunda.virginia.edu/history

    16. James Madison

      It is important to note such a high standing figure in American history is on the board of the University of Virginia along with Thomas Jefferson. This is significant because James Madison valued many of the same things as Thomas Jefferson and the two were even "lifelong friends." James Madison worked with Thomas Jefferson in the government and even served as Secretary of State while Thomas Jefferson was president. The values of rhetoric and freedom that Thomas Jefferson held dearly were also shared with James Madison. The two were such close friends and colleges, that after Thomas Jefferson died, James Madison took over leadership of the University of Virginia.

      https://www.biography.com/people/james-madison-9394965

      (quotes above taken from this website)

    17. Projectiles, a leading branch of the Military art Military Architecture, includes Fortification, another branch of that art

      It is interesting here to note the emphasis placed on military education. In this time period, it was not incredibly common to have formalized military education, as many men who would become leading officers were self-educated. Reasoning for this inclusion of military subjects in the original UVA curriculum could include multiple things. First, history suggests Thomas Jefferson's interest in improving and expanding access to military education, as evidenced by his involvement with founding the United States Military Academy in West Point in 1802, several years prior to this report. Additionally, this curriculum was likely also in response to George Washington's efforts to formalize military education in the years following the Revolutionary War. Thus, the inclusion of military mathematics and architecture reflects the priorities of the time, and of Thomas Jefferson specifically, to better prepare young men for military involvement or careers. http://www.mountvernon.org/digital-encyclopedia/article/military-education/

    18. revenue of the literary fund

      Why are they removing literary funds? What were these funds allocated for previously that might be changing? "The House of Delegates at First Favored a small appropriation from the literary fund for the education of the poor, and the application of the rest of the fund to the payment of the debts of the State."(Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia, Herbert Baxter Adams, pg. 84; https://books.google.com/books?id=qkTPAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA2-PA59&lpg=RA2-PA59&dq=what+were+the+literary+funds+jefferson+invested+in&source=bl&ots=4g9CVlCFLX&sig=0sH2A4FyPyLFoPnHOi6ZAkf-c3c&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiihJOErcXWAhXB4iYKHWRzAlkQ6AEIMjAC#v=onepage&q=what%20were%20the%20literary%20funds%20jefferson%20invested%20in&f=false )

    19. General Grammar explains the construction of Language

      The use of language was very important to the founding of this country and in writing the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson was one of the main authors of the Declaration and the importance of language while writing the document can clearly be seen in the link below. I believe that Thomas Jefferson translated this need for a strong understanding for language into his university by offering this class on "the construction of language."

      https://www.grammarly.com/blog/declaration-independence-lesson-language-history/

    20. transaction of his own business.

      This is the beginning of student self governance. Although it is not explicitly stated, this idea of how students go about life here at UVA still applies to this day with self-governance. http://www.virginia.edu/life/selfgovernance Here is the link to the UVA website that explains what self-governance means here today.