191 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
  2. Apr 2019
  3. Mar 2019
    1. How open science helps researchers succeed

      lavaylanda

      bioinformacion

      infovestigacion

      curso

      ciencia abierta

      DOI:10.7554/eLife.16800 PMCID: PMC4973366 PMID: 27387362 OA

  4. Feb 2019
  5. Jan 2019
  6. Dec 2018
    1. As the amount of scholarly communication increases, it is increasingly difficult for specific core scientific statements to be found, connected and curated. Additionally, the redundancy of these statements in multiple fora makes it difficult to determine attribution, quality, and provenance. To tackle these challenges, the Concept Web Alliance has promoted the notion of nanopublications (core scientific statements with associated context). In this document, we present a model of nanopublications along with a NamedGraph/RDF serialization of the model. Importantly, the serialization is defined completely using already existing community developed technologies. Finally, we discuss the importance of aggregating nano-publications and the role that the ConceptWiki plays in facilitating it.
    1. SKOS—Simple Knowledge Organization System—provides a model for expressing the basic structure and content of concept schemes such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading lists, taxonomies, folksonomies, and other similar types of controlled vocabulary. As an application of the Resource Description Framework (RDF), SKOS allows concepts to be composed and published on the World Wide Web, linked with data on the Web and integrated into other concept schemes. This document is a user guide for those who would like to represent their concept scheme using SKOS. In basic SKOS, conceptual resources (concepts) are identified with URIs, labeled with strings in one or more natural languages, documented with various types of note, semantically related to each other in informal hierarchies and association networks, and aggregated into concept schemes. In advanced SKOS, conceptual resources can be mapped across concept schemes and grouped into labeled or ordered collections. Relationships can be specified between concept labels. Finally, the SKOS vocabulary itself can be extended to suit the needs of particular communities of practice or combined with other modeling vocabularies. This document is a companion to the SKOS Reference, which provides the normative reference on SKOS.
    1. The success of distributed and semantic-enabled systems relies on the use of up-to-date ontologies and mappings between them. However, the size, quantity and dynamics of existing ontologies demand a huge maintenance effort pushing towards the development of automatic tools supporting this laborious task. This article proposes a novel method, investigating different types of similarity measures, to identify concepts’ attributes that served to define existing mappings. The obtained experimental results reveal that our proposed method allows to identify the relevant attributes for supporting mapping maintenance, since we found correlations between ontology changes affecting the identified attributes and mapping changes.
  7. Nov 2018
    1. One way to think about "core" biodiversity data is as a network of connected entities, such as taxa, taxonomic names, publications, people, species, sequences, images, and collections that form the "biodiversity knowledge graph". Many questions in biodiversity informatics can be framed as paths in this graph. This article explores this futher, and sketches a set of services and tools we would need in order to construct the graph. New information In order to build a usable biodiversity knowledge graph we should adopt JSON-LD for biodiversity data, develop reconciliation services to match entities to identifiers, and a use a mixture of document and graph databases to store and query the data. To bootstrap this project we can create wrappers around each major biodiversity data provider, and a central cache that is both a document store and a simple graph database. This power of this approach should be showcased by applications that use the central cache to tackle specific problems, such as augmenting existing data.
  8. Oct 2018
    1. This document specifies version 1.0 of the Token Binding protocol. The Token Binding protocol allows client/server applications to create long-lived, uniquely identifiable TLS bindings spanning multiple TLS sessions and connections. Applications are then enabled to cryptographically bind security tokens to the TLS layer, preventing token export and replay attacks. To protect privacy, the Token Binding identifiers are only conveyed over TLS and can be reset by the user at any time.
    1. This document defines two new HTTP headers that enable User Agents and hosts to indicate and negotiate the profile used to represent a specific resource. In this context, a profile is a document describing the structural and/or semantic constraints of a group of documents in addition to the syntactical interpretation provided by a MIME type. Examples of profiles include Dublin Core Application Profiles, XML Schemata and RDF Shape Expressions. Further, it defines and registers the profile parameter for the HTTP Link header and suggests a best practice for the use of the new headers together with the Link header to perform content negotiation and point clients to alternate representations.
    1. The Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP) is a protocol for controlling, monitoring and diagnosing coffee pots over a network. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a general-purpose language for representing information in the Web. This document defines HTCPCP Vocabulary in RDF in order to allow HTCPCP headers that have been exchanged between a client (in other words, a coffee addict) and a server (a networked device that can brew, store and deliver heated coffee beverages) to be recorded in RDF format. The objective of this vocabulary is to support quality assurance testing, and to serve as a machine-readable component in conformance claims and in reporting languages such as the Evaluation and Report Language (EARL) [EARL Schema].
    1. The HTTP-based Memento framework bridges the present and past Web. It facilitates obtaining representations of prior states of a given resource by introducing datetime negotiation and TimeMaps. Datetime negotiation is a variation on content negotiation that leverages the given resource's URI and a user agent's preferred datetime. TimeMaps are lists that enumerate URIs of resources that encapsulate prior states of the given resource. The framework also facilitates recognizing a resource that encapsulates a frozen prior state of another resource.
  9. Sep 2018
    1. felicity

      Felicity- That which causes or promotes happiness; a source of happiness, a blessing. The use of this word in this context is interesting as in it promotes a feeling or atmosphere of bliss.

    1. // Download a json but don't reveal who is downloading it fetch("sneaky.json", {referrerPolicy: "no-referrer"}) .then(function(response) { /* consume the response */ }); // Download a json but pretend another page is downloading it fetch("sneaky.json", {referrer: "https://example.site/fake.html"}) .then(function(response) { /* consume the response */ }); // You can only set same-origin referrers. fetch("sneaky.json", {referrer: "https://cross.origin/page.html"}) .catch(function(exc) { // exc.name == "TypeError" // exc.message == "Referrer URL https://cross.origin/page.html cannot be cross-origin to the entry settings object (https://example.site)." }); // Download a potentially cross-origin json and don't reveal // the full referrer URL across origins fetch(jsonURL, {referrerPolicy: "origin-when-cross-origin"}) .then(function(response) { /* consume the response */ }); // Download a potentially cross-origin json and reveal a // fake referrer URL on your own origin only. fetch(jsonURL, {referrer: "https://example.site/fake.html", referrerPolicy: "origin-when-cross-origin"}) .then(function(response) { /* consume the response */ });
    1. This document outlines Cross-Origin Read Blocking (CORB), an algorithm by which dubious cross-origin resource loads may be identified and blocked by web browsers before they reach the web page. CORB reduces the risk of leaking sensitive data by keeping it further from cross-origin web pages. In most browsers, it keeps such data out of untrusted script execution contexts. In browsers with Site Isolation, it can keep such data out of untrusted renderer processes entirely, helping even against side channel attacks.
    1. Cross-Origin Read Blocking (CORB) is a new web platform security feature that helps mitigate the threat of side-channel attacks (including Spectre).  It is designed to prevent the browser from delivering certain cross-origin network responses to a web page, when they might contain sensitive information and are not needed for existing web features.  For example, it will block a cross-origin text/html response requested from a <script> or <img> tag, replacing it with an empty response instead.  This is an important part of the protections included with Site Isolation.
  10. Aug 2018
    1. 有时候,上面四个 Accept 字段并不够用,例如要针对特定浏览器如 IE6 输出不一样的内容,就需要用到请求头中的 User-Agent 字段。类似的,请求头中的 Cookie 也可能被服务端用做输出差异化内容的依据。 由于客户端和服务端之间可能存在一个或多个中间实体(如缓存服务器),而缓存服务最基本的要求是给用户返回正确的文档。如果服务端根据不同 User-Agent 返回不同内容,而缓存服务器把 IE6 用户的响应缓存下来,并返回给使用其他浏览器的用户,肯定会出问题 。 所以 HTTP 协议规定,如果服务端提供的内容取决于 User-Agent 这样「常规 Accept 协商字段之外」的请求头字段,那么响应头中必须包含 Vary 字段,且 Vary 的内容必须包含 User-Agent。同理,如果服务端同时使用请求头中 User-Agent 和 Cookie 这两个字段来生成内容,那么响应中的 Vary 字段看上去应该是这样的: Vary: User-Agent, Cookie 也就是说 Vary 字段用于列出一个响应字段列表,告诉缓存服务器遇到同一个 URL 对应着不同版本文档的情况时,如何缓存和筛选合适的版本。

      也就是说,Vary 字段是给缓存服务器用的。

      比如说,如果没有 Vary 字段中的 User-Agent,

      缓存服务器就会不加区分地转发服务器的数据给客户端,

      这可能导致不同 User-Agent 的客户端收到不与之相对应的数据。

    1. Cookie存储在浏览器中,对客户端是可见的,客户端的一些程序可能会窥探、复制以至修正Cookie中的内容。而Session存储在服务器上,对客户端是透明的,不存在敏感信息泄露的风险。

      cookie 是整个会话对象都放在客户端,很容易看到(base64 只是压缩,并不是加密)。 session 是整个会话对象都放在服务端,只有一个 session id 副本放在客户端的 cookie 里,所以就算有人偷到了 session id 冒充,也看不到会话信息。

  11. May 2018
    1. more design-driven.

      As someone who loves design (especially to do with books and texts (e.g. Coralie Bickford-Smith's work with Penguin Publishing)), this is very interesting to me. This may not have to do with digital humanities per say, but the interplay of physical books (especially publishing companies and their need to $compete$ with digital texts) with digital modes of communication has led to the design of more aesthetically pleasing book designs. This idea makes me think that maybe books are viewed as elitist forms, and digital texts are viewed as 'lower' forms.

  12. Apr 2018
  13. Mar 2018
  14. Feb 2018
    1. Trojan

      in reference to the story of how the Greeks used a wooden horse to win a ten-year long war against the Trojans.

    2. Cn. Octavius

      The firs consul of Octavii. Octavii like many other plebian families, became known during the first Punic Wars.

  15. Dec 2017
    1. Proclamation of 1763

      The encroachment of the English upon their land became a source of great hostility among the indigenous peoples of North America. In an effort to resolve this issue, King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763 – which drew an imaginary line along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains from Nova Scotia to Georgia. Subjects in the colonies were forbidden from settling west of this line unless purchased by the Crown. Settlers could only legally obtain land through negotiations with the indigenous peoples. As one historian explained, “Notwithstanding the Royal Proclamation’s stated intent and purpose, George Washington characterized it as a temporary pacifier to ‘quiet’ the natives”1. George Washington was indeed right as the boundary was pushed even further just five years after the Royal Proclamation. In 1768, the Indian Boundary line was established as the new boundary line. Located further westward than the original Proclamation line, this new boundary gave the natives significantly less territory2.

      Since the Proclamation required lengthy negotiations, it slowed the English settlers’ movement west. Thomas Jefferson stated this to be one of the main causes of the Revolutionary War. It was initially “…drafted to deal with the aftermath of the Seven Years’ War and the transfer of extensive French and Spanish colonial territories to Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris, 1763”1. The Proclamation is a complex document with four parts; some relate to newly ceded territories, while others discuss the existing colonies. The first part of the Proclamation of 1763 states that portions of the newly acquired French and Spanish territories were to be made into British territories. These newly established colonies were Quebec, East Florida, West Florida, and Grenada, with other parts being left to existing colonies or the state. After establishing these new colonies, the Proclamation announced the expansion of old ones. The second part focuses on the constitutions of the newly established colonies; these constitutions follow the Law of England. The areas lying beyond the boundaries of Quebec contained the Indigenous peoples who were able to make their own laws. The third part differs from the first two, as it does not refer to land ownership and the way things are run. It offered free land grants to the officers and soldiers that served in the Seven Years’ War. Finally, the fourth and longest part of the Proclamation of 1763 contains detailed measures pertaining to Aboriginal people and their lands1.

      Though Colin Calloway, a British historian, refers to the Proclamation as “…the Indian ‘Bill of Rights,’” scholars argue whether it supported or undermined the indigenous peoples3. Repeated references to the Crown’s sovereignty and dominion throughout the document make it clear that the Proclamation of 1763 gave Indians a scarce measure of control when it came to native matters. Unfortunately, this pattern continues throughout history; Berger notes that the Proclamation’s “...procedure for the purchase of Indian land was the basis for the treaties of the 19th and 20th centuries"4. Since it was issued in 1763, courts in both the United States and Canada have modeled their treaties after the Royal Proclamation.

      Image: http://data2.archives.ca/e/e097/e002418682.jpg Caption: British colonies in North America.

      Citations:

      1. Jim Aldridge, Keeping Promises: The Royal Proclamation of 1763, Aboriginal Rights, and Treaties in Canada, ed. T. Fenge. Mcgill-Queen’s Native and Northern Series, 78. (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015), 4-17.
      2. Eugene M. Del Papa, "The Royal Proclamation of 1763: Its Effect upon Virginia Land Companies," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 83, no. 4 (1975): 406-407.
      3. Colin G. Calloway, The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. Pivotal Moments in American History. (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2006), 96-97.
      4. Thomas Berger, “Native Claims,” in Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1988), 165.
    2. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act

      The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (ISDEAA) was passed in 1975 by the Congress of the United States and increased the amount of self-governance of the native peoples1. If any Native American tribe requests a “self-determination” contract from the federal government, the government is obligated to give them one. This contract gives the tribe funding for programs and gives it the responsibility of running services administered by the federal government. The federal government is also required to provide “contract support costs” – the additional transaction costs of the Act. These costs are only enacted when the tribe decides to plan its own programs without the government’s help. The Act gives the native peoples a lot of freedom and leeway, as they are able to create something they can call their own through these government-provided funds. Funding for the ISDEAA comes from the Indian Self-Determination Fund, which has its limitations: the Availability Clause and the Reduction Clause. The Availability Clause provides that funds are subject to availability of appropriations, and the Reduction Clause states that funding to one tribe cannot be reduced to gain more funding for another2.         This Act has been one of the most important legislative acts for Indians because it greatly affects them in a positive way. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act “…has been a key driver in improving communities throughout Indian country”3. One example of this would be the lives of the Navajos in Arizona. The Director of the Rough Rock Demonstration School told the Inquiry that under this new legislation they have established their own school system. The director describes the benefits of this, “Navaho people…are running a sophisticated school, unabashedly oriented to Navaho children”1. All of the staff comes from the community – giving the Navajos more jobs and income. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act not only improves the education of Native Americans, but their quality of life as well. This principle of native self-determination in education was already accepted in Canada in 1972. The National Indian Brotherhood wrote a policy paper called the Indian Control of Indian Education, which was accepted the following year1. The acceptance of native people’s self-governance was clearly growing in the 1970s. Because of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, Native Americans were and are able to control more aspects of their lives, especially education.

      A Navajo woman, Kathryn Manuelito, conducted research to emphasize the importance of education to the Indians. After studying the Navajo peoples she stated that “Since the passage of the Indian Self-Determination Act, which provides for tribal- and community based schools, many Indian peoples have considered formal education to be a primary force in the survival of their languages and cultures"4. The indigenous also believe that the act preserves their rights. Manuelito concluded that the traditional Navajo education that resulted from the Act has advanced and helped the Navajo to maintain their existing identities. By the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, Indian cultures, especially the Navajo, were able to be preserved4.

      Picture: http://data2.archives.ca/ap/a/a185534-v8.jpg Caption: Reverend Lachlan McLean counsels student soldier at Indian Residential School in the 1970s.

      Citations:

      1. Thomas Berger, “Native Claims,” in Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1988), 183.
      2. Elizabeth M. Glazer, “Comments – Appropriating Availability: Reconciling Purpose and Text Under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act,” The University of Chicago Law Review 71, no. 4 (2004):1637-1638.
      3. United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Indian Affairs (1993), Amending the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act to Provide Further Self-Governance by Indian Tribes, and for Other Purposes: Report (to Accompany S. 979). (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office, 2015), 1-2.
      4. Kathryn Manuelito, “The Role of education in American Indian Self-Determination: Lessons from the Ramah Navajo Community School,” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 36, no. 1 (2005): 73-75. http://doi:10.1525/aeq.2005.36.1.073.
    3. James Bay Agreement

      The James Bay Agreement was signed by the Cree and Inuit in November 1975 and is the only “comprehensive land claim” that covers an area where provincial governments control lands and resources1. The Crees had been living and trading furs east of James Bay since the early seventeenth century. Their economy was based off of hunting, trapping, and fishing, which was regulated by dividing the land into hunting territories. By the 1960s, provincial governments gained more of a presence in the Cree territories. The Cree continued to live in their homeland despite the fact that these “white” men made most of the decisions regarding politics and the way their communities were to be run. This takeover and disregard of Aboriginal rights caused a lot of unrest and frustration for the Crees.

      In April of 1971 the Québec Premier Robert Bourassa announced the James Bay project, a hydro-electric development project in northern Quebec, without the consent of the Crees or consideration of basic land rights2. Infuriated, Cree and Inuit leaders went to court and, after 71 days of testifying, successfully postponed the project. Justice Albert Malouf ruled that the hydro project posed a threat to the Cree and Inuit cultures and way of life. Unfortunately, this ruling only lasted ten days and the James Bay project proceeded. As a result of Malouf’s initial decision in favor of Aboriginal land rights, a negotiation was made to benefit the indigenous peoples. Bourassa submitted an offer in 1973 that was eventually signed in 1975 after much consideration from the indigenous. Berger explains that “Under the James Bay Agreement, the Cree and Inuit of Northern Quebec have agreed to surrender their aboriginal rights…in return for cash compensation and for a land regime that gives them specific interests in three categories of land"3. The Cree and Inuit decision to secede their land has been attributed to them having no other option or choice in the matter. It was figured that the project was going to continue whether they agreed to it or not. The indigenous peoples received some power in the Agreement but their rights were essentially “subordinate to other public priorities”1.

      Most of the region attained by the James Bay Agreement became category III lands – lands that were used for development. All of the lands and resources in category III belonged to Québec, but the indigenous were able to offer their opinion in the development of these lands. They also held exclusive rights to certain species of fish and animals and were able to continue harvesting. Category II lands allowed Native harvesters to hunt, trap, and fish with no outside competition from non-indigenous. However, the Cree and Inuit did not own any of the natural resources in these lands as they belonged to the Québecers. Lastly, Category I land was land that was essentially under Native control, though Québec still had ownership of mineral and development rights. Québec effectively asserted their dominance in what was previously known as Cree territories, and were able to prioritize hydroelectric and natural resource development1. While the structure of the James Bay Agreement allowed for input about land use from the Cree and Inuit, this input could be equated to mere consultation. The James Bay Agreement did not give the indigenous peoples as much influence as promised, which has become a common pattern throughout modern treaties4.

      Image: http://data2.archives.ca/e/e431/e010767693-v6.jpg Caption: James Bay celebrating initial court victory with lawyers Max Lituack and James O’Reilly.  

      Citations:

      1. Paul Rynard, “Ally or Colonizer?: The Federal State, the Cree Nation and the James Bay Agreement,” Journal of Canadian Studies 36, no.2 (2001): 8-14. https://doi:10.3138/jcs.36.2.8.
      2. Evelyn Pinkerton, Co-Operative Management of Local Fisheries: New Directions for Improved Management and Community Development (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2014), 190.
      3. Thomas Berger, “Native Claims,” in Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1988), 177.
      4. Martin Papillon and André Juneau, eds. Aboriginal Multilevel governance. (Canada: The state of the Federation, 2013. Montreal: Institute of the Intergovernmental Relations, School of Policy Studies, Queen’s University, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015), 84.
  16. Nov 2017
    1. Lambda@Edge lets you run Lambda functions at AWS Regions and Amazon CloudFront edge locations in response to CloudFront events

      Extremely happy to see such an amazing opportunity which I think will help create fined grain API's which are fast and can leverage Caching strategies which will be cheap.

  17. Sep 2017
  18. Aug 2017
    1. faggots

      In this context this word means "a bundle of sticks or twigs bound together as fuel." Now, this word is used as a slur for gay men or calling someone an idiot. It's funny how a word's mean can change so much over a short period of history.

  19. books.googleusercontent.com books.googleusercontent.com
    1. -tYouhavenownoneedofatrade."

      Booker T. Washington was a big proponent for African Americans learning trades. When Booker T. Washington founded Tuskegee University, the student built the buildings themselves, harvested their own food, and provided for their basic necessities. He thought learning skills would lead to the advancement of African Americans.

  20. Jul 2017
  21. Jun 2017
    1. HTTP/1.1定义的 Cache-Control 头用来区分对缓存机制的支持情况, 请求头和响应头都支持这个属性。通过它提供的不同的值来定义缓存策略。

      Request Header与Response Header都支持这个属性 通过调整Cache-Control头可以做出很多缓存策略:

      1. 完全不支持
      2. 不缓存内容
      3. 私有缓存
      4. 公共缓存
      5. 缓存过期时间
    2. 通常定义Pragma以向后兼容基于HTTP/1.0的客户端

      效果同Cache-Control:no-Cache相同,区别在于HTTP响应头不支持这一个属性,不能完全取代Cache-Control属性..

    3. 在过期时间前,资源缓存是有效的,反之则缓存失效。通过不停抛弃过期的缓存资源以保证资源的实时性。注意,旧的缓存不会被抛弃或者忽略;当发起一个针对旧缓存资源的请求时,会在请求头里带上If-None-Match用来判断缓存是否还有效。如果有效,服务端返回304(Not Modified)和空的body以节省一部分带宽。

      为何要有时效性:

      1. 空间有限
      2. 服务器可能有更新文件

      在缓存有效期过期前,不会去询问服务器资源是否有效..如果缓存过期,就会在请求头上带上If-None-Match来判断缓存是否依旧有效

    4. 当 web 缓存发现请求的资源已经被存储,它会拦截请求,返回该资源的拷贝,而不会去源服务器重新下载。

      这样可以重用已经获取的资源,提升网站的性能

  22. Apr 2017
    1. this photo of a cat

      HTTP Status Cats is one of the most brilliant things the internet has done, IMHO.

    1. sift ye as wheat

      When you sift wheat you shake it hard to separate the kernels, so this is saying that the devil was trying to shake her emotions to separate her from Jesus.

    2. so that the blessed news had to circulate from individual to individual

      On plantations slaves were often not allowed to practice religion or anything of their choice because they were not looked at a people. They had to find other ways to do this, so instead of having things like churches or massing they usually told stories that passed down from person to person

    3. scanty

      Small or insufficient.

    4. Jesus of Nazareth

      Another name for Jesus Christ, Nazareth was the place where Jesus spent his childhood.

    5. he’s as peart as a cricket

      This saying means happy or alert.

    6. down in the mouth

      This saying means said or dejected.

    7. “The earth shall be dissolved like snow,  The sun shall cease to shine; But God, who called me here below,  Shall be forever mine. “And when this mortal life shall fail,  And flesh and sense shall cease, I shall possess within the veil  A life of joy and peace. “When we’ve been there ten thousand years,  Bright shining like the sun, We’ve no less days to sing God’s praise  Than when we first begun.”

      A common thing for slaves to do was to sing songs of hope and joy which spread the idea of better days and freedom around plantations.

  23. Mar 2017
  24. Feb 2017
    1. radiation

      Remember in class when we discussed the definition of radiation. It means more than something that is radioactive. All things what emit light or things in the electromagnetic spectrum radiate. Like this radiant cook top is radiating in the thermal range (and in the visible light range of the spectrum as well-- thus the red light we see).f

    2. entropyS

      We did not cover what entropy is in class. Entropy is discussed in Hakim's Newton at the Center book. Entropy is the tendency of the Universe to move toward more disorder. But, it will turn out in Physics and Chemistry that we can measure entropy, energy and a thing called enthalpy. It takes the 3 of them together to decide if a physical process or chemical reaction can happen in thermodynamics.

    3. a limiting case

      A limiting case is extremely useful in science. It is something that will usually give us an absolute max or min. So, Planck is saying here that we can use Wien's equation to form a boundary to at least check that we are in the right zone for the correct answer.

    4. Wien’s Equation

      So, what was this Wien's Equation that Planck was improving? Wien had come up with a formula that was really close to the one that Planck would describe. But, it didn't work for short wavelengths and high frequencies. Rayleigh and Jeans had earlier come up with a straight-line formula that worked for larger wavelengths and lower frequencies, but not the higher ones. Planck's was the first to work for both. To review the relationship between wavelength and frequency, see the phet simulation here.

  25. Jan 2017
    1. Such people have the same kind of mind as do those who deny the antipodes on the grounds that one cannot walk with his head down and his feet attached to the ceiling

    2. but as to the first, I think I could clear that up myself.

      He fell for it...

    3. The first was that if it were true that the sun and other stars did not rise over the eastern horizon, but the eastern side of the earth sank beneath them while they remained motionless, then it would follow that after a short time the mountains, sinking downward with the rotation of the terrestrial globe, would get into such a position that whereas a little earlier one would have had to climb steeply to their peaks, a few hours later one would have to stoop and descend in order to get there.

      Oh, he got me! When I read this the first time, I thought Galileo was making a mistake here. But...

    4. The other was that if the diurnal motion belonged to the earth, it would have to be so rapid that anyone placed at the bottom of a well would not for a moment be able to see a star which was directly above him, being able to see it only during the very brief instant in which the earth traverses two or three yards, this being the width of the well. Yet experiment shows that the apparent passage of such a star in going over the well takes quite a while--a necessary argument that the mouth of the well does not move with that rapidity which is required for the diurnal movement. Hence the earth is motionless.

      Fun! New addition to our Aristotle Leads the Way class for the Eratosthenes Homework!

    5. You wonder that there are so few followers of the Pythagorean opinion, whereas I am astonished that there have been any up to this day who have embraced and followed it.

      Ha! He's so funny.

    6. So take a sheet of paper and the compasses; let this page be the enormous expanse of the universe, in which you have to distribute and arrange its parts as reason shall direct you. And first, since you are sure without my telling you that the earth is located in this universe, mark some point at your pleasure where you intend this to be located, and designate it by means of some letter.

      New homework assignment for Aristotle Class! Hurrah!

    7. They, as most reverent and most humble slaves of Aristotle, would deny all the experiences and observations in the world, and would even refuse to look at them in order not to have to admit them

      Aristotle famously fought with his teacher, Plato, that we should make observations. Galileo is making the point that the Peripatetics are just quoting Aristotle's writings. They have not understood what he said about how science should be conducted. Aristotle went out into the world to observe things for himself.

    8. fault of the computer

      No, they didn't have computers. :-) The word computer used to refer to the person who is doing the math-- like in the movie "Hidden Figures" that tells the story of the African American women who did the math for the early NASA missions. For quite a while, many in computer science and astronomy thought that only a woman's brain was suited for being a computer or a programmer. https://youtu.be/WnZRw8juTsQ

    9. In the long run my observations have convinced me that some men, reasoning preposterously, first establish some conclusion In their minds which, either because of its being their own or because of their having received it from some person who has their entire confidence, impresses them so deeply that one finds it impossible ever to get it out of their heads.

      Still a problem for us today! This is why credible scientific experiments must always be designed to compensate for the "Cognitive Biases" of the experimenters and-- when humans are also the subjects-- of the subjects.

    1. Nor in this case is there any use in Copenicus saying that this motion, because it is natural to the earth and not constrained, works contrary effects to those of forced motions; and that things which are given impetus are destined to disintegrate and cannot long subsist, whereas those made by nature maintain themselves in their optimum arrangement.

      Simplicio has a point here. Copernicus has proposed how things work outside the conditions we have on the Earth. Simplicio is saying-- "Hey, you want us to observe things? When we observe things, stuff doesn't move perpetually without someone moving it on purpose." It turns out that Copernicus was right-- in space, we don't have the issues of air-resistance and some of the other forces that slow moving objects down.

    2. Aristotle's arguments are drawn mostly from the things around us, and he leaves the others to the astronomers. Hence it will be good, if it seems so to you, to examine those taken from earthly experiments, and thereafter we shall see to the other sort.

      Galileo puts himself forward as the true Aristotelian in several places-- because they were both people who decided to observe first and then decide things.

    3. Then why are two circular motions not contrary? Being made upon the surface of the land or sea, which as you know is spherical, these motions become circular. Do you know what circular motions are not contrary to each other, Simplicio? They are those of two circles which touch from the outside; one being turned, the other naturally moves the opposite way. But if one circle should be inside the other, it Is I . impossible that their motions should be made in opposite directions without their resisting each other.

      Galileo will get some stuff wrong about curved motion being the natural motion, but this bit he gets very right. And, it is something that is really hard for people to remember. We somehow "get" that linear momentum is a thing, but angular momentum is still amazingly surprising. Check out this video for an example of that.

    4. And I question whether Aristotle entirely understood it when selecting it from some good school of thought, and whether he has not, by altering it in his Writings, made it a source of confusion among those who wish to maintain everything he said.

      Oh-- I need to find this in Aristotle!

    5. I should think that anyone who considered it more reasonable for the whole universe to move in order to let the earth remain Fixed would be more irrational than one who should climb to the top of your cupola just to get a view of the city and its environs, and then demand that the whole countryside should revolve around him so that he would not have to take the trouble to turn his head.

      Love this!

    6. For a motion which is perceived only, for example, in the moon, and which does not affect Venus or Jupiter or the other stars, cannot in any way be the earth's or anything but the moon's.

      This concept would resonate with Newton and help us get to his Law of Universal Gravitation.

    7. For a simple movable body there can be but a single motion, and no more, which suits it naturally; any others it can possess only incidentally and by participation. Thus when a man walks along the deck of a ship, his own motion is that of walking, while the motion which takes him to port is his by participation; for he could never arrive there by walking if the ship did not take him there by means of its motion.

      Thought Experiment on the Principle of Relativity, Part 2.

    8. it does not act, and is as if It did not exist. Thus the goods with which a ship is laden leaving Venice, pass by Corfu, by Crete, by Cyprus and go to Aleppo. Venice, Corfu, Crete, etc. stand still and do not move with the ship; but as to the sacks, boxes, and bundles with which the boat is laden and with respect to the ship itself, the motion from Verflice to Syria is as nothing, and in no way alters their relation among themselves. This is so because it is common to all of them and all share equally in it. If, from the cargo in the ship, a sack were shifted from a chest one single inch, this alone would be more of a movement for it than the two-thousand-mile journey made by all of them together.

      The Thought Experiment on the Principle of Relativity, Part 1.

    9. ?

      For my students who are reading this to find out about the Principle of Relativity (Newton and Einstein classes) and not theories of the Universe (Newton and Aristotle classes), you might want to skip down to my next comment.

    10. having divided the universe into two parts, one of which is necessarily movable and the other motionless

      What is truly motionless in the Universe? That's a hard one. Currently, we measure all relative movement in astronomy against the Cosmic Background Radiation or the Cosmic Microwave Background. But, we currently believe-- based on the work of Edwin Hubble-- that space itself is expanding. So, there seems to be no absolutely "still" spot in the Universe. Galileo wants to divide the Universe into the moving and the motionless here. But, we now think that there is nothing in the Universe that is motionless.

    11. it is operative only in the relation that they have with other bodies lacking that motion

      If Jane and Mary have a motion that is "common" to both of them, it doesn't matter to them that they are moving. But, if Bob has a different motion, both Jane and Mary think that Bob is moving. It's obvious. But, they might forget the the two of them are both moving. My laptop and I are moving at a breakneck speed as the earth spins on its axis and orbits around the sun all while the sun and the Milk Way Galaxy its in are also moving. But, I don't think about that most days. And, I would say that we are both sitting still in a coffee shop right now and the Mocha sitting next to me is not going to suddenly spill. It has a motion common to me and my laptop. But, if we came across something that was totally still-- we would notice! In fact, I would think, "Wow! That thing is moving FAST!"

    12. I should have thought it somewhat older.

      I love this! Galileo's attitude shines through. Aristotle? Really? Didn't any of those people who worked on ships figure this out for themselves? He's saying, "Hey-- your hero worship is showing."

    13. Peripatetic

      The Peripatetics were a group of philosophers who thought while walking. Sometimes it is used to refer to traveling philosophers or teachers-- kind of like "visiting professor" today. But, here, the speaker is saying that what SALV has said agrees with Aristotle. That is, " This is good, sound doctrine, and entirely Aristotelian." The Peripatetics were Aristotelian.

    14. Motion, in so far as It is and acts as motion, to that extent exists relatively to things that lack it

      This is where the discussion of Galileo's Principle of Relativity really gets going.

    1. I cannot without great astonishment -- I might say without great insult to my intelligence -- hear it attributed as a prime perfection and nobility of the natural and integral bodies of the universe that they are invariant, immutable, inalterable, etc., while on the other hand it is called a great imperfection to be alterable, generable, mutable, etc. For my part I consider the earth very noble and admirable precisely because of the diverse alterations, changes, generations, etc. that occur in it incessantly. If, not being subject to any changes, it were a vast desert of sand or a mountain of jasper, or if at the time of the flood the waters which covered it had frozen, and it had remained an enormous globe of ice where nothing was ever born or ever altered or changed, I should deem it a useless lump in the universe, devoid of activity and, in a word, superfluous and essentially nonexistent. This is exactly the difference between a living animal and a dead one; and I say the same of the moon, of Jupiter, and of all other world globes.

      This is my favorite passage in all of Galileo's writings.

    2. for an illusion of the telescope

      There are some optical aberrations that were illusions of the telescope. But, they really got conspiratorial in their theories about the telescope at this time. It was much like people today who think our images of the Earth are part of a NASA conspiracy.

    3. nor have I ever set much store by Tycho's verbosity

      Interesting! Galileo was a friend of Kepler-- Tycho's best student and the man who disproved his model of the Universe after his death.

    4. What you refer to is the method he uses in writing his doctrine, but I do not believe it to be that with which he investigated it. Rather, I think it certain that he first obtained it by means of the senses, experiments, and observations, to assure himself as much as possible of his conclusions. Afterward he sought means to make them demonstrable. That is what is done for the most part in the demonstrative sciences; this comes about because when the conclusion is true, one may by making use of analytical methods hit upon some proposition which is already demonstrated, or arrive at some axiomatic principle; but if the conclusion is false, one can go on forever without ever finding any known truth -- if indeed one does not encounter some impossibility or manifest absurdity. And you may be sure that Pythagoras, long before he discovered the proof for which he sacrificed a hecatomb, was sure that the square on the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle was equal to the squares on the other two sides. The certainty of a conclusion assists not a little in the discovery of its proof -- meaning always in the demonstrative sciences. But however Aristotle may have proceeded, whether the reason a priori came before the sense perception a posteriori or the other way round, it is enough that Aristotle, as he said many times, preferred sensible experience to any argument. Besides, the strength of the arguments a priori has already been examined.

      But, here, Galileo may give Aristotle too much credit. Science historians currently see the real lack of new experiments to test a conclusion drawn from observations as the principle difference between the science done by people before the Scientific Revolution and the science done during and after it.

    5. I declare that we do have in our age new events and observations such that if Aristotle were now alive, I have no doubt he would change his opinion.

      Aristotle isn't Galileo's enemy and he acknowledges it here.

    6. You say that alterations which may be seen near at hand on earth cannot be seen in America because of the great distance. Well, so much the less could they be seen in the moon, which is many hundreds of times more distant.

      Simplicio made the mistake of saying that there aren't any changes because he never saw any. But, he has no means of detecting them! How many of these assumptions are we making today because we haven't invented some new way of measuring our Universe and its many dimensions?

    7. But if you have to content yourself with these visible, or rather these seen experiences, you must consider China and America celestial bodies, since you surely have never seen in them these alterations which you see in Italy. Therefore, in your sense, they must be inalterable.

      Nerd-burn again! Ha, ha!

    8. nothing will do but circular motion or rest

      :-(

    9. And from this he infers it to be necessary and proper that all simple motions are confined to these three kinds; namely, toward the center, away from the center, and around the center.

      Aristotle might be more right about this than Galileo is-- that is that motion is made up of straight lines. Galileo will make a mistake about "curved motion" to be natural motion. He did not understand-- as we do-- how vector decomposition could explain the parabolic trajectory of a cannonball.

    10. in order to prevent the things they admired from being exposed to the slander and scorn of the common people, the Pythagoreans condemned as sacrilegious the publication of the most hidden properties of numbers or of the incommensurable and irrational quantities which they investigated. They taught that anyone who had revealed them was tormented in the other world.

      Wow! He is taking on Pythagoras and his secret society as well as Aristotle. His Dad took on Pythagoras and his music theories when Galileo was a child and his father was a famous composer.

    11. I do not even understand, let alone believe, that with respect to legs, for example, the number three is more perfect than four or two

      So funny! I wish I could have taken classes from him.

    12. a certain Peripatetic philosopher whose greatest obstacle in apprehending the truth seemed to be the reputation he had acquired by his interpretations of Aristotle

      This is a problem of scientists even today. If you go ahead to read Day 4, you might wonder if Galileo himself has this problem-- since his explanation of the tides is a bit off.

    13. These men indeed deserve not even that name, for they do not walk about; they are content to adore the shadows, philosophizing not with due circumspection but merely from having memorized a few ill-understood principles.

      Ha! Nerd-humor/Nerd-burn!

  26. Dec 2016
    1. energy is distributed over the vibrations of the resonator and overthe various of the radiation present in the medium, and what will be thetemperature of the total system

      This is just another ways of saying the problem they are looking at: "When I heat something to a certain temperature, how can I predict the color of the light that will come off of it?"

    2. bounded by reflecting walls.

      He wants you to think about a closed system. If you are doing Newton at the Center or you had me for that class, this is what Lavoisier is on about (and why we had the slide with the walls around Paris over and over again).

    3. ight velocity c

      So, in a perfect vacuum. Because in anything less than a perfect vacuum, the velocity of light is a bit slower. Like when we use a prism of glass or water to separate light out-- we are using the fact that the waves slow down differently in goopier stuff.

    4. diathermic medium

      And, these things are in some stuff that lets heat flow through freely. Like a perfect vacuum.

    5. Nof frequencyν(per second),N0of frequencyν0,N00of frequencyν00, ...,with allNlarge number

      He's just saying you have a bunch of them and they all have their own frequency.

    6. the solution of the problem

      But, he knows his results are the better than anyone else has gotten so far. So, he's saying-- "Hey, don't give up before you check out my awesome results at the end."

    7. arbitraryand complicated

      A Calculus solution would have been more elegant. He's being a bit defensive here, since his "quanta" won't look like a nice Calculus formula.

    8. one constant of nature only

      Constants of Nature are a big deal. For more on them, I recommend this book: The Constants of Nature

    9. without knowing anything

      This is a big deal. He is saying that his new theory is general. And, it's a relief to us. Because it means that we can plug in values when we see them and that they should always work.

    10. thereal core of the theory

      But, how much of the theory did he actually understand himself at this point?

    11. Mr. Boltzmann

      See Newton at the Center for Boltzman's Constant

    12. the same stationaryradiation field

      So, the M&M experiment will tell us that there is none. But, for the purpose of measurement for the experiment here, it acts as if there is a stationary reference frame. Remember our first homework where you built a reference frame to observe the retrograde motion of mars?

    13. time intervals long compared to the period of one vibration

      He's saying that you have to look at the experiment for a long time compared to the period of the vibration. The period of the vibration is the frequency. So, it's not hard to look at an experiment much longer than that. Basically, he's saying we would expect there to be a whole bunch of random wavelength/frequency thingies showing up over the time we take a measurement. But, that's not exactly what he found.

    14. monochromatic

      Monochromatic means one color. The color of light is determined by its wavelength.

    15. Max Planck's 1900 Paper Part B

    16. On the Theory of the Energy Distribution Law

      So, why is this so separated from the last part? In this part, he wants to make clear what is new.

    17. radiation
    18. E=Cλ−5ec/λT−1
      • E is Energy
      • C is not the speed of light here. It refers to a constant.
      • $$\lambda$$ is always the wavelength
      • the little e is a special irrational number called Euler's Number).
      • And, I'm not honestly sure if it is being raised to c the speed of light or C the constant in question. And, that's OK. Remember-- we don't need to totally digest any of the papers we are reading for this section. You can always go back when you have more information.
    19. probability

      This is not the last we have heard of probability. And, remember when we looked at the Bohr model of the atom? We said that those orbital tracks were useful, but not what the atom was really like. Turns out the electrons are in orbitals of probability clouds.

    20. Sas a logarith-mic function ofU

      For what a logarithm is see the optional "Dragon Finding with Logarithms" homework on our class page or this fantastic video by Vi Hart.

    21. ompletely arbitrary expressions

      They turn out not to be so arbitrary. But, I like how we can see how humble he is at this point. He is just plugging things in to the math that work without knowing why they work and without being able to solve the equation exactly and it's bugging him.

    22. Uitself must also be known for this

      If the continuous function thing were valid, then we could always get from S to U and U to S. But, it's not continuous, so we can't.

    23. nidentical processesoccur independently

      Remember, the n is important because it means that what he's talking about is in countable buckets and not continuous like Calculus wants.

    24. const

      Some constant goes here. So far, h is working around with Wien's Law and he's saying that "if you take a special case" you will get to the point where the second derivative (see the 2's in the left hand side of this equation?) of the entropy (he called that S earlier) compared to the vibrational energy (he called that U earlier) is equal to some number divided by the vibrational energy (the U on the right hand side of the equation).

    25. 2

      The 2 here and the one below look like we are squaring something, but it's more Calculus. The 2 in this case is the second derivative. The derivative is the slope of the line. If the line is curved, the second derivative is how fast the slope of the line changes.

    26. written to me

      Scientific correspondence is still a big deal.

    27. f(Un)

      f(something) is a special notation in math. It looks like it means fsomething. But, it doesn't. It means "an equation where the only thing you have to plug in is the something". And we say that "f is a function of something". So, f(x) means that "f is a function of x". Here is an f(x): xx*x + 3. To know what that is equal to, all you need to know is what x is equal. Here he is saying that there is some equation where you just needed to know U. U above was the vibrational energy. The little n next to the U means that it is the particular vibrational energy for the resonator he was talking about a minute ago. Don't worry about the math other than that. But, there are some \(\bigtriangleup\)'s here. Remember from our "don't look down" lessons that this means the change in something.

    28. a stationary radiation field

      Spoiler Alert! There is no Stationary Radiation Field. Michelson and Morley prove that and Einstein will talk about what that implies in his papers.

    29. n

      n is kind of a big deal here. In statistics, it relates to the number of things you are counting. And, what "n identical resonators" means is that there are a countable number-- so it isn't continuous like with Calculus.

    30. the evaluation of an infinitesimal increase

      Infinitesimal is talking about Calculus. Remember that in class we said that Calculus was giving them the wrong answers. When you add up the infinitesimal stuff he is looking at you get something like this: But, what Planck found out was that the energy comes in distinct buckets. So, it would look more like this in reality:

    31. vibrational energyU

      Remember in class when we talked about the wave on the string simulation? The beads on the string stayed in place and just move up and down. The vibrational energy he is talking about here is the energy the person who holds the end of the string would feel when the wave got to their hand.

    32. linear resonator

      To understand more about resonance, take a look at this phet.colorado.edu simulation.

    33. Spectrum

      Remember-- Planck is thinking about the Ultraviolet Catastrophe. Physics Girl and PBS Space Time both have great videos on this.

    1. You gotta go for what you knowMake everybody see, in order to fight the powers that beLemme hear you sayFight the Power

      This shows how Public enemy started a physical movement among the people. Many took to the streets to participate in non-violent protests for the cause. Many were forced to hear what they had to say and there was a push for change. Public Enemy never wanted the protest to be violent, they just wanted change.

  27. Nov 2016
  28. Oct 2016
    1. Reid, Clinton supporters hit Trump over Nevada pronunciation Published October 06, 2016 FoxNews.com Facebook0 Twitter0 livefyre9791 Email Print Now Playing What's Trump doing to prepare for 2nd presidential debate? Never autoplay videos Supporters for Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton and Sen. Harry Reid attacked Donald Trump after the Republican presidential nominee told his supporters about the “correct” way to pronounce Nevada. Trump, during a rally Wednesday in Reno, insisted the correct way to pronounce the name of the Silver State was “Neh-VAH-da.” He declared that “nobody says it the other way.” Clinton supporters and Reid, a Democrat from Nevada, both used the moment to assail Trump. American Bridge immediately put up a video declaring that Trump was “looking like an idiot” for getting the name wrong. A statement from Reid declared that Trump’s stop in Reno was “disastrous.” "If Donald Trump wants to come down from the penthouse his daddy bought him to lecture us on how to say Nevada, he could at least pronounce it correctly,” Reid said in a statement. "Instead, Trump told us we pronounce the name of our state wrong minutes before he refused to take a position on Yucca Mountain. Predictions Map See the Fox News 2016 battleground prediction map and make your own election projections. See Predictions Map → “I have news for Donald: it's pronounced Nev-AD-a and Yucca Mountain is dead.” Trump made a stop at the International Church of Las Vegas and the International Christian Academy before his rally in Reno. He said the Pledge of Allegiance with schoolchildren at the school. He also visited with Hispanic business leaders at a Mexican restaurant before departing for northern Nevada. Fox News’ Chad Pergram and the Associated Press contributed to this report.

      This article is actually written about Trump's pronunciation of Nevada as it is short and to the point. It almost seems like Fox had to just throw an article out there to cover the topic. Basically this article talks about Clinton supporter's attacks on Trump for the way he says their State's name. While the CNN article went deep into Trump's political and economic strategies, this one was a quick review of why people were mad at trump for the way he talks.

    1. First Read's Morning Clips: It's Nev-ADDD-ah, not Nev-AHHHH-dah Share Share Tweet Share Email Print Comment advertisement OFF TO THE RACES: It's Nev-ADDD-ah, not Nev-AHHHH-dah Donald Trump's attempt to pronounce "Nevada" in the Silver State last night didn't go well. Tim Kaine praised his own Tuesday night debate performance. Trump says he's "getting a lot of credit" after Mike Pence's widely-praised debate. Pence is taking heat from Latinos after his "Mexican thing" remark. From the Washington Post: "Sen. Tim Kaine may have awakened Wednesday to poor reviews after the first and only vice-presidential debate, but his acerbic performance in Farmville, Va., revealed that the Clinton campaign's strategy for these debates extends far beyond the stage. Armed with pre-planned Web videos, television ads and tweets, the campaign has used key debate moments this week and last as a cudgel against the Republican ticket, showing a level of discipline and organization largely absent from Donald Trump and Indiana Gov. Mike Pence's campaign." Trump said yesterday: "They say Donald Trump loves Putin. I don't love, I don't hate. We'll see how it works." And here's Trump on the issue of Yucca Mountain: "Number one is safety and it is a little too close to major population, so I will take a look at it and I will have an opinion." The New York Times does a deep dive into Trump's business ventures. "Of the roughly 60 endeavors started or promoted by Mr. Trump during the period analyzed, The Times found few that went off without a hitch. One-third of them either never got off the ground or soon petered out. Another third delivered a measure of what was promised — buildings were built, courses taught, a product introduced — but they also encountered substantial problems, like lawsuits, government investigations, partnership woes or market downturns." Here's how Pennsylvania boosted its swing-state status, according to the Washington Post. An interesting data point from PRRI/The Atlantic: "White likely voters who still live in their hometown strongly prefer Donald Trump over Hillary Clinton (57 percent vs. 31 percent), while nearly half (46 percent) of those who live more than a two-hour drive away from their hometown are supporting Clinton compared to 40 percent who are supporting Trump." The Atlantic endorsed Hillary Clinton, only the third time it has weighed in on a presidential election since 1857. Via POLITICO: With hopes in Pennsylvania fading, Trump is hoping to make gains in the Mountain West. From the AP: "Donald Trump once called data "overrated" in politics. But with Election Day swiftly approaching, the Republican presidential nominee is spending millions of dollars on data and digital services in an effort to land donations and win over voters. Ushering Trump toward a more analytical approach are Jared Kushner, Trump's son-in-law and adviser, and Brad Parscale, the campaign's digital director and a veteran Trump Organization consultant." Sean Hannity is accusing Megyn Kelly of supporting Hillary Clinton. "Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump has throughout his career given campaign contributions to state attorneys general while they weighed decisions affecting his business, a review of his political donations shows," notes the Wall Street Journal. From the New York Times yesterday: "The F.B.I. secretly arrested a former National Security Agency contractor in August and, according to law enforcement officials, is investigating whether he stole and disclosed highly classified computer code developed by the agency to hack into the networks of foreign governments. The arrest raises the embarrassing prospect that for the second time in three years, a contractor for the consulting company Booz Allen Hamilton managed to steal highly damaging secret information while working for the N.S.A." What will happen to Merrick Garland's nomination in December? The

      The first thing i noticed when i got to the NBC website was that all of the political articles are about Trump. That really says something about the style of politics that are alive in the U.S. today. Although the article title talks about "Nevada" and how Trump says the State's name, it actually takes a deeper look into Trump's past business dealings and political affiliations. As opposed to the Fox news article that actually did focus on his pronunciation of Nevada. On top of that the author in this article goes after Trump's VP candidate as well as others that are in Trump's campaign committee. This article seemed more like an attack on trump rather than a criticism.