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  1. Nov 2019
    1. As educational technologies, instructional design and online learning/content delivery platforms keep evolving, more learners with more needs and motives will be drawn to taking online courses – a growing demand that in turn will spur further improvements in technology and delivery.

      Educational Technology offers free articles with sources.

      Rating: 5/10

  2. Mar 2019
    1. First, since the quality of videos (found to be a top technical challenge) directly/indirectly impacts flipped learning, instructors should pay more attention to the quality of instructional videos (e.g., not too long and keep them interesting) while designing the flipped classroom. There is a need for studies that explore strategies and technologies to produce high quality videos when one has less technical ability and time. Second, it would be better if instructors could provide more interaction/communication tools (these are apparently not commonly used at present) to help students to obtain feedback/help when they are doing tasks/homework outside the class.
    2. Similar to the students, some teachers reported that this model might require more time (14%) and workload (7%). Pre-recording video lectures and preparing other flipped model materials is time consuming for teachers. Designing appropriate accompanying quiz questions and other out-of-class activities requires further time commitment (Howitt & Pegrum, 2015). The actual time needed to prepare flipped course materials can be nearly six times more than traditional course preparation (Wanner & Palmer, 2015).
    3. From the students' perspective, the flipped model requires more time (11%) and work (10%) compared to a traditionally structured course (see Table 2). One possible reason for this is the nature of this model, which prompts students to preview the learning materials for better in-class participation (Hung, 2015). On this point, a study by Smith (2013) found that students generally considered studying lectures outside the classroom to be an extra time burden. According to (Chen et al., 2014), another possible reason is that some of the students acquired passive learning habits from the traditional classroom, where learning requires less time and work.
    4. The most commonly reported problem is students' limited preparation before class time (13%). If a student does not take time to study at home, s/he may not perform well in the classroom activities, and this may diminish the advantages of the flipped classroom (Sayeski, Hamilton-Jones, & Oh, 2015). Hwang, Lai, and Wang (2015) also stated that engaging students in self-learning at home is one of the key factors of seamless flipped learning. Moreover, since students may not be accustomed to this model, they might lose their bearings (i.e., they won't know what to do) in the flipped model. In order to avoid this situation, they need clear guidelines (10%) regarding how they should use their pre-class time and course materials.
    5. We found a number of reported challenges and divided them into five inductive categories (pedagogical, students' and teachers' perspectives, technical & technological, and other). The majority of flipped classroom challenges are related to out-of-class activities, such as inadequate student preparation prior to class and the students' need for guidance at home.
    6. Collaborative learning broadly “is a situation in which learners interact in a collaborative way” (Dillenbourg, 1999, p. 8). Collaborative learning leads to deeper learning and shared understanding (Kreijns, Kirschner, & Jochems, 2003), and it provides opportunities for students to develop social skills (Johnson & Johnson, 1999). Flipped classrooms incorporate collaborative learning. Students are responsible for their own learning; they participate in small-group activities; they learn in an active mode; and the teacher maintains a facilitator role.
    7. According to Nederveld and Berge (2015), several opportunities for peer-assisted learning exist in flipped classrooms, in both class activities (e.g., collaboratively solving problems, cooperating to complete projects) and out-of-class activities by means of technology (e.g., discussion boards, social network sites).
    8. Active learning can be simply defined as “any instructional method that engages students in the learning process” (Prince, 2004, p. 223). Active learning requires that students engage in meaningful learning activities (Sohrabi & Iraj, 2016) and that they be accountable for their own learning (Blaschke, 2012). In flipped classrooms, students experience active learning (Lai & Hwang, 2016) and have opportunities to perform higher order thinking activities (Roehl, Reddy, & Shannon, 2013). As Davies, Dean, and Ball (2013) stated, in flipped classrooms students are transformed from passive listeners into active learners.
    9. For example, in the flipped model student learning achievement and satisfaction may be enhanced (Missildine, Fountain, Summers, & Gosselin, 2013); students may be more satisfied with the flipped method; and it can be more economical than traditional instruction (O'Flaherty & Phillips, 2015). However, challenges can include more required time to redesign the course as a flipped classroom (Schlairet, Green, & Benton, 2014), low self-regulated behaviors by some students (Sun, Wu, & Lee, 2017), and the resulting failure of some students to properly schedule their time to comprehend the out-of-class learning content (Lai & Hwang, 2016).
    1. A key finding from our data is that successful students interact with the online components of a flipped class in a timely manner as compared with students in a standard-format class. That is, the students in the flipped course prepare for class work and avoid the “cramming” style of study for summative assessments, complete the online work more accurately, and perform better on the summative assessments. An important question surrounding this improvement is the role of the flipped-course environment in these improvements. We think that two aspects of the flipped class lead to this improvement: the increase in active student exercises in the classroom coupled to online course content. There is no doubt that active-learning classrooms improve student outcomes, and it has been argued that, for a flipped course, it is active learning that drives improved student outcomes (Jensen et al., 2015; Stockwell et al., 2015). In our case, we believe that the active flipped classroom leads to a student’s expectation that attending class will require preparation. Additionally, the active classroom, with point-generating activities included in the class sessions, intrinsically encourages students to attend and participate in the activities. Because the flipped classroom offers a clear and reinforcing online experience in the form of recorded “lectures” aligned with online homework, students are encouraged to prepare before class and well before an exam deadline.
    2. Our findings demonstrate that there are substantial, positive differences in how students approach a flipped course as compared with a standard-format course. The flipped course encourages students to become more engaged with course material, persist in their learning through more timely and accurate preparation, and, ultimately, perform better. Specifically, this enhanced interaction induces better student preparation for class meetings in the flipped learning environment. More cycles of timely preparation in a flipped class likely improve in-class interactions, which position students to be more accurate in answering online homework problems. This increased accuracy extends to exams, for which grades improve substantially, particularly for lower-GPA students and female students.
    3. Overall, students did not feel that they learned more in the flipped-course version compared with the standard course (despite having better exam scores); however, flipped-format students did rank their course version better overall than did students in the standard-course version (Supplemental Figure S1A).
    4. The flipped-course format relied heavily on online material presented outside of class, including prerecorded lecture videos. Although there was a broad variation in students’ access of these videos, there was a significant correlation between average exam score and video access, r(235) = 0.22, p < 0.001 (Figure 5A). Students in the flipped-format course with higher exam scores viewed online lecture material more consistently than students with lower exam scores.
    5. First, use of the same online material differed substantially between the standard course and the flipped course. Students in the flipped class attempted online homework questions more often, F(1, 445) = 38.41, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.08 (Figure 2A). This difference was not evident for homework completed by the end of the semester (Supplemental Material Table S2). Second, although all students were most likely to attempt homework problems during the week of an exam (p values < 0.001) regardless of class mode, students in the flipped class worked through the online homework more steadily, that is, across the span of weeks, than did students in the standard class.
    6. Similar to results from other interventions involving a more active and engaged classroom experience (Freeman et al., 2014), when compared with the standard-course format for student cohorts in the flipped-course format we found significant improvements in exam scores for each of the three exams (p < 0.01).
    7. In this paper, we examine what college science students do differently or more intensely in preparing for the more active, flipped-course environment that can be directly linked to better exam performance. The flipped structure prompts students to review material earlier and more often than in the standard note-taking, lecture-based course. For example, the structure of the flipped environment may provide students impetus for less crammed, more uniform interaction with the course material throughout the semester. Long-standing cognitive psychology research highlights the benefits of spacing out learning activities over time in contrast to blocked learning, for example, short-term cramming in the lead-up to an exam (Bahrick et al., 1993; Son, 2004). In addition, the weekly preclass assignment, which is necessary to participate in a flipped environment, may provide needed structure to engage with course content more deliberately (Baepler et al., 2014). If so, this increased student persistence in a more timely and accurate manner could account for performance gains in the flipped environment (Preszler et al., 2007; Estrada et al., 2011; Graham et al., 2013).
    8. The flipped college science course provides the majority of standard lecture material online as assigned preclass homework, and thus allows for in-class instruction that is more active and engaging for students (Day and Foley, 2006). An active-learning environment provides benefits that are well-known in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education (President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2012; Graham et al., 2013; Freeman et al., 2014), including improved test performance for all students (Haak et al., 2011). For example, a recent meta-analysis of the effect of online instruction blended with in-class instruction suggests that the flipped-class format improves student outcomes by ∼13% in STEM classes (Bernard et al., 2014)
    1. Interdisciplinary flipped learning for engineering classrooms in higher education: Students’ motivational regulation and design achievement
    2. Bishop and Verleger 3 suggested the following two key learning theories to design a flipped engineering classroom that supports student‐centered classroom activities: peer‐assisted collaborative learning and problem‐based learning. First, in‐class activities must be designed to support students’ engagement through a peer‐assisted learning approach. While being involved in peer‐assisted collaborative learning with matched companions, each peer takes responsibility for conveying knowledge and skills to the other peer. As Biswas et al. 4 noted, the resulting sense of responsibility motivates participating peers to consider effective strategies to communicate the given classroom activities to others, set aside time to reflect upon their own learning progress, and find alternative ways of collaborating with peers based on different learning styles and individual differences.
    3. Previous studies showed that students participating in flipped classrooms were better prepared when working on subsequent in‐class activities 27. Studies also reported positive outcomes in students’ engagement and satisfaction 7, 25. Tune et al. 37 found that students who participated in a flipped classroom showed higher achievement than students in a traditional classroom.
    1. Consider the find-ings of Lord (1997), who conducted one of the first studies examiningthe impact of student-centered, constructive approaches in the introduc-tory biology classroom. Lord found that students who learned via col-laborative activities exhibited significantly greater gains in their ability tointerpret data and apply scientific concepts to novel situations. This find-ing is echoed by other studies in which students exhibited greater gains intheir ability to solve problems and design experiments when learning withina student-centered biology classroom (Burrowes 2003; Cortright, Collins,and DiCarlo 2005; Giuliodori, Lujan, and DiCarlo 2006; Wilke and Straits2001).
    2. A variety of studies(both in flipped classrooms and traditional classrooms) indicate that lecturewebcasts are a highly effective method for delivering course content, and insome cases, are more effective than face-to-face lectures for enhancing stu-dent learning (McKinney, Dyck, and Luber 2009; Parslow 2009; Shaw andMolnar 2011).
    3. The recognition of learning gains associ-ated with the implementation of more active learning strategies—as wellas the reluctance of many STEM faculty to adopt such strategies—has ledseveral education advisory bodies, including the National Science Foun-dation (NSF 1996), the National Research Council (NRC 2003), and theAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 2009), to is-sue calls for significant reform in undergraduate science and mathemat-ics education.
    1. During class time academics function more as a learning coach than as a teacher, using F2F class time for both individual inquiry and collaborative activities that clarify concepts and contextualise knowledge through application, analyse, planning and producing solutions (Anderson, Krathwohl, & Airasian, 2001). The results of the scoping review suggest instructors need to redesign their curriculum so that the pre-class activities are integrated better into their F2F classes with active learning pedagogies so students understand the model and are motivated to prepare for class; how these resources are integrated into the overall approach is what matters (Tucker, 2012).
    2. In addition, the flipped classroom fosters student ownership of learning through the completion of preparatory work and being more interactive during actual class time. Proponents of flipped class suggest that this pedagogical approach is advantageous for a number of reasons; it allows students to learn at their own pace and that they may have flexibility of when they engage with electronic resources, it frees up actual class time for robust discussion and associated problem solving activities related to the aforementioned resources, and that these discussions could be initiated by the students, not the staff member.
    1. Fourthly, students understand that they are expected to apply their acquired knowledge in classroom activities so that they are more motivated to learn prior to attending classes (Baepler, Walker, & Driessen, 2014). Students tackle real world problems requiring active participation and collaborative learning in the classroom (Crouch & Mazur, 2001). Collaborative learning means all “team members tackle the problems together in a coordinated effort” (Ng, 2008, p. 726), and it is regarded as a successful strategy for building rapport among team members and maximizing learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1999; Johnson, Johnson, & Stanne, 2000). Moreover, peer interaction is positively related to academic achievement and college satisfaction (Astin, 1984, 1993).
    2. Thirdly, the flipped classroom provides multiple opportunities for students to interact with digital materials and with peers in class, so that they learn actively, rather than passively as in a teacher-centered approach. Frequent interactions with faculty members have increased student learning satisfaction (Astin, 1984).
    3. Indeed, pre-recorded lecture videos are particularly useful for slower students because they can watch the online videos multiple times until they have mastered the subject content (Mok, 2014). Students were much better prepared in class (McCallum, Schultz, Sellke, & Spartz, 2015) when they were given video lectures rather than textbook readings (De Grazia, Falconer, Nicodemus, & Medlin, 2012).
    4. Instead of relying on textbook materials, educators select and evaluate learning materials with reference to students' prior knowledge and learning outcomes so that students are able to learn more effectively, in their own space, and at their own pace, than in traditional classes (Chen, Wang, Kinshuk, & Chen, 2014). When designing and facilitating online and class activities, educators embrace the value of assessment for learning, that is to say, assessments are embedded in the learning process to provide formative feedback to students and educators (Biggs, 1996; Black, Harrison, & Lee, 2003; Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall, & Wiliam, 2004) rather than being assessments of learning, that is to say, summative assessments.
    5. The rationale of flipped classroom is to facilitate students in becoming self-regulated learners. Self-regulation entails an active monitoring and regulation of various learning processes that involve setting learning goals, aligning learning approaches and resources, and actively responding to feedback to improve final outcomes
  3. Nov 2018
    1. The Flipped Classroom:An OpportunityTo Engage MillennialStudents Through ActiveLearning Strategies

      This article discussing using the flipped classroom using accessible technology and expand learning activities. The authors point out that the use of technology must be based on training provided to teachers to implement the technology in the classroom.

      RATING: 8/10

    1. Definition of Flipped Learning

      This site provides a wealth of information on creating a "Flipped Classroom". This could be used in both a K-12 setting as well as an Adult Learning environment. The site itself is a wealth of knowledge on this particular topic, including podcasts, newsletters and articles on best practices on how to use a flipped classroom in today's technologically advanced classrooms. This would be great for professional development in both K-12 and Adult Learning environments.

      Content Depth: 4/5

      Content Breadth: 2/5

      Ease of Access: 3/5

  4. Mar 2018
  5. Dec 2017
    1. The most powerful tool the med school has to win faculty mem-bers over is that they are “scien-tists at heart” and “understand the evidence” suggesting students in flipped classrooms perform better than students in lecture courses, Jeffries said. At Touro, for example, the pass rate on an important licens-ing exam has climbed to above 95 percent -- higher than the national average -- since the college flipped its curriculum

      faculty respond to data. impressive pass rate.

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  6. Mar 2017
    1. just because I "free" someone, doesn't mean that he/she will know what to do next, nor how to do it effectively

      Good point. What's the way to bring students to use technology effectively?

  7. Jan 2016
  8. Nov 2015
  9. Sep 2015
    1. Este estudio presenta una síntesis de los temas abordados y las conclusiones de unos 20 meta-análisis y estudios sistemáticos, para ofrecer una perspectiva basada en evidencias sobre las prácticas conocidas como Blended Learning - una combinación de enseñanza cara a cara y contextos educativos basados en la web y mediados por la tecnología. Los estudios que investigan el BL han evolucionado, desde la práctica más básica, hasta convertirse en un campo de investigación maduro. Esto es bien evidente en las definiciones cambiantes, el aumento del número de tesis doctorales y la ampliación de las conversaciones que tienen lugar actualmente en la investigación primaria. Esta transformación del campo del BL ha sido impulsada por los rápidos avances en la tecnología, que ha facilitado la instrucción en línea que refleja las propiedades de los contextos cara a cara, lo que permite la rápida convergencia de estas modalidades de enseñanza.
  10. Aug 2015
    1. Flexibility

      Some connection with SAMR, unbundling, “open learning”… With diverse learners whose constraints may affect institutions, there’s a fair bit of talk about new(ish) tech-infused approaches to distance education. As with many other things, not much of it is new. But there might be some enabling phenomena. Not sure how gamification fits, here. Sure, open play could allow for a lot of flexibility. But gamification is pretty much the reverse: game mechanics without the open-ended playfulness.