1,242 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2017
    1. WhatwefindinLyotard—albeitinincipientform—isthatratherthanconceivingaseparateandindependentspace,thepointistorecognizethatpowerrelationsincontemporarysocietiesarebeingincreasinglymediatedandconstitutedthroughcomputernetworksthateventuallycametobeknownastheInternet.
    2. Sincethemeansofproduction,dissemination,andlegitimationofknowledgeprincipallyinvolveslanguage,Lyotardsawlanguageasthemainsiteofsocialstruggle.Itisnotsurprising,then,thatLyotardwasattractedtoLudwigWittgensteinandJ.L.Austintodevelopamethodofunderstandinglanguageasameansofsocialstruggle.
    3. WehavealreadycharacterizedcyberspaceasaspaceofrelationsbetweenandamongbodiesactingthroughtheInternet.Wenotedearlierthat1984wasthebirthoftheconceptofcyberspace.Yetduringtheverysameyear,amuchlessknownwork,orrather,aworkknownmuchmoreforitstitle,Jean-FrançoisLyotard’sThePostmodernCondition(1984),appeared.

      [...] We want to revisit both Lyotard’s substantive argument and his method because, writing before the concept of cyberspace, his starting point is not an ostensibly existing space but changing social relations through computerization.

    4. Wedisagreewiththisviewofcode.AlthoughwegatherfromLessigandotherscholarssuchasRonDeibertandJulieCohentheimportanceofcode,wecannotagreethatcodecanordoeshavesuchadetermininginfluence.[45]Wewill,however,explainthislaterinchapter3,wherewediscussinmoredetailtheimportanceoflanguageandtheirreducibledifferencesbetweenspeech,writing,andcode.Fornow,wewanttoemphasizethatifweareboundtousetheconcept‘cyberspace’andcompareittosomethingcalled‘real’space,we’dbetterunderstandthecomplexregistersinwhichcyberspaceexistsratherthanbeingopposedtoanostensible‘real’space.

      the irreducible differences between speech, writing, and code.

    5. TheanathemaforLessigisthelossofthisfreedomincyberspace.Inrealspace,governingpeoplerequiresinducingthemtoactincertainways,butinthelastinstance,peoplehadthechoicetoactthiswayorthatway.Bycontrast,incyberspaceconductisgovernedbycode,whichtakesawaythatchoice.Incyberspace,‘iftheregulatorwantstoinduceacertainbehavior,sheneednotthreaten,orcajole,toinspirethechange.Sheneedonlychangethecode—thesoftwarethatdefinesthetermsuponwhichtheindividualgainsaccesstothesystem,orusesassetsonthesystem.’[37]Thisisbecause‘codeisanefficientmeansofregulation.Butitsperfectionmakesitsomethingdifferent.Oneobeystheselawsascodenotbecauseoneshould;oneobeystheselawsascodebecauseonecandonothingelse.Thereisnochoiceaboutwhethertoyieldtothedemandforapassword;onecompliesifonewantstoenterthesystem.Inthewellimplementedsystem,thereisnocivildisobedience.’[38]WhatLessigsuggestsisthatcyberspaceisnotonlyseparateandindependentbutconstitutesanewmodeofpower.Youconstituteyourselfasasubjectofpowerbysubmittingtocode.

      En este caso particular la bifurcación es política a través del código, porque otros lugares del ciberespacio pueden ser creados ejerciendo este poder de bifurcar, si se entienden los códigos.

      En una charla de 2008, con Jose David Cuartas, le mencionaba cómo las libertades del software libre son teóricas, si no se entiende el código fuente de dicho software (las instrucciones con las que opera y se construye). Las prácticas alrededor del código, asi como los entornos físicos, comunitarios, simbólico y computacionales, donde dichas prácticas se dan, son importantes para alentar (o no) estas comprensiones y en últimas permitir que otros códigos den la posibilidad del disenso y de construir lugares distintos. De ahí que las infraestructuras de bolsillo sean importantes, pues estas disminuyen los costos de bifuración y construcción desde la diferencia.

    6. LeavingasidetheparadoxofusinganAmericanexperienceandlanguageforcreatingauniversal‘civilizationofthemind’,thedeclarationrevealsthatcyberspaceistobeconceivednotonlyasmetaphysical(nobodiesandnomatter)butalsoasanautonomousspace
    7. InthedocumentaryfilmNoMapsforTheseTerritoriesherecounts,‘[A]llIknewabouttheword“cyberspace”whenIcoinedit,wasthatitseemedlikeaneffectivebuzzword.Itseemedevocativeandessentiallymeaningless.’[31]ThisisreminiscentofNietzsche’sgenealogicalprinciplethatjustbecausesomethingcomesintobeingforonepurposedoesnotmeanthatitwillservethatpurposeforever.

      [K:] Revisar este documental.

    8. Cyberspaceisaspaceofsocialstrugglesandnolessormore‘real’than,say,socialspaceorculturalspace—conceptsthatalsodescriberelationsbetweenbodiesandthings.Yetthisseparationbetween‘real’spaceandcyberspaceissopervasiveandcarriesabaggagethatneedsquestioning.
    9. thefigureofthecitizencannotenterintodebatesabouttheInternetasasubjectwithouthistoryandwithoutgeography—andwithoutcontradictions.Rather,acriticalapproachtothefigureofthecitizenataminimumrecognizesthatitisbothasubjecttopowerandsubjectofpowerandthatthisfigureembodiesobedience,submission,andsubversionasitsdispositions
    10. Theimaginaryofcitizenshipincludesawholeseriesofstatementsandutterancesaboutwhatcitizenshipis,oughttobe,hasbeen,willhavetobe,andsoon.Theimaginaryofcitizenshipisobviouslymobilizedbyandparticipatesintheformationofthelegalityofcitizenshipanditsperformativity
    11. Wehaveidentifiedthisasthecontradictionbetweensubmissionandsubversionorconsentanddissent.JacquesRancièrecapturesthisasdissensus.[27]Wewillreturntodissensusinchapter7.Second,whilearticulatingaparticulardemand(forinclusion,recognition),performingcitizenshipenactsauniversalrighttoclaimrights.Thisisthecontradictionbetweentheuniversalismandparticularismofcitizenship.

      Estos reclamos por el reconocimiento han tomado diferentes formas en las prácticas del Data Week. ¿Quiénes son nuestros supuestos interlocutores? ¿Por quién queremos ser reconocidos desde nuestras prácticas alternas? Yo diría que se trata de algún tipo de configuración insitucional: empresa, academía y sobre todo gobierno, pues si bien no todos estamos en los dos primeros lugares, si es cierto que todos habitamos el territorio colombiano. Uno de los esfuerzos de la Gobernatón, por ejemplo, fue pensar una manera de reparto más equitativo de los recursos públicos entre comunidades de base diversas y no sólo en aquellas enagenadas por el discurso de la innovación.

    12. First,performingcitizenshipbothinvokesandbreaksconventions.Weshallcharacterizeconventionsbroadlyassociotechnicalarrangementsthatembodynorms,values,affects,laws,ideologies,andtechnologies.Associotechnicalarrangements,conventionsinvolveagreementorevenconsent—eitherdeliberateoroftenimplicit—thatconstitutesthelogicofanycustom,institution,opinion,ritual,andindeedlaworembodiesanyacceptedconduct.Sinceboththelogicandembodimentofconventionsareobjectsofagreement,performingtheseconventionsalsoproducesdisagreement.Anotherwayofsayingthisisthattheperformativityofconductsuchasmakingrightsclaimsoftenexceedsconventions
    13. ‘wemakerightsclaimstocriticizepracticeswefindobjectionable,toshedlightoninjustice,tolimitthepowerofgovernment,andtodemandstateaccountabilityandintervention.’

      Puede esta performatividad construir alternativas en las que no está el estado, en lugar de contraponerse a él o cuestionarlo? Qué otras configuraciones de gobernanza son posibles?

    14. Ifmakingrightsclaimsisperformative,itfollowsthattheserightsareneitherfixednorguaranteed:theyneedtoberepeatedlyperformed.Theircomingintobeingandremainingeffectiverequiresperformativity.Theperformativeforceofcitizenshipremindsusthatthefigureofthecitizenhastobebroughtintobeingrepeatedlythroughacts(repertoires,declarations,andproclamations)andconventions(rituals,customs,practices,traditions,laws,institutions,technologies,andprotocols).Withouttheperformanceofrights,thefigureofthecitizenwouldmerelyexistintheoryandwouldhavenomeaningindemocraticpolitics.
    15. Ifindeedweunderstandthisdynamicoftakinguppositionsassubjectivation,wethenidentifythreeforcesthroughwhichcitizensubjectscomeintobeing:legality,performativity,andimaginary.Theseareneithersequentialnorparallelbutsimultaneousandintertwinedforcesofsubjectivation
    16. Whoisthenthecitizen?Balibarsaysthatthecitizenisapersonwhoenjoysrightsincompletelyrealizingbeinghumanandisfreebecausebeinghumanisauniversalconditionforeveryone.[19]Wewouldsaythecitizenisasubjectwhoperformsrightsinrealizingbeingpoliticalbecausebecomingpoliticalisauniversalconditionforeveryone.

      [...] ‘Western concepts and political principles such as the rights of [hu]man[s] and the citizen, however progressive a role they played in history, may not provide an adequate basis of critique in our current, increasingly global condition.’[20] Poster says this is so, among other things, because Western concepts arise out of imperial and colonial histories and because situated differences are as important as universal principles.[21] This contradiction of the figure of the citizen can be expressed in another paradoxical phrase: universalism as particularism.

    17. Therightsthatthecitizenholdsarenottherightsofanalready-existingsovereignsubjectbuttherightsofafigurewhosubmitstoauthorityinthenameofthoserightsandactstocallintoquestionitsterms.Thisistheinescapableandinheritedcontradictionbetweensubmissionandsubversionofthefigureofthecitizenthatcanbeexpressedinaparadoxicalphrase:submissionasfreedom.

      submission as freedom.

      Ser sujeto de derechos en un estado (someterse al poder del mismo), implica también la posibilidad de sublevarse y pensar en otras formas de ciudadanía.

    18. IfwefocusonhowpeopleenactthemselvesassubjectsofpowerthroughtheInternet,itinvolvesinvestigatinghowpeopleuselanguagetodescribethemselvesandtheirrelationstoothersandhowlanguagesummonsthemasspeakingbeings.Toputitdifferently,itinvolvesinvestigatinghowpeopledothingswithwordsandwordswiththingstoenactthemselves.ItalsomeansaddressinghowpeopleunderstandthemselvesassubjectsofpowerwhenactingthroughtheInternet.
    19. Forus,thisalsomeansthatactsoftruthaffordpossibilitiesofsubversion.Beingasubjectofpowermeansrespondingtothecall‘howshouldone“governoneself”byperformingactionsinwhichoneisoneselftheobjectiveofthoseactions,thedomaininwhichtheyarebroughttobear,theinstrumenttheyemploy,andthesubjectthatacts?’[14]Indescribingthisashisapproach,Foucaultwasclearthatthe‘developmentofadomainofacts,practices,andthoughts’posesaproblemforpolitics.[15]ItisinthisrespectthatweconsidertheInternetinrelationtomyriadacts,practices,andthoughtsthatposeaproblemforthepoliticsofthesubjectincontemporarysocieties.
    20. Whatdistinguishesthecitizenfromthesubjectisthatthecitizenisthiscompositesubjectofobedience,submission,andsubversion.Thebirthofthecitizenasasubjectofpowerdoesnotmeanthedisappearanceofthesubjectasasubjecttopower.Thecitizensubjectembodiestheseformsofpowerinwhichsheisimplicated,whereobedience,submission,andsubversionarenotseparatedispositionsbutarealways-presentpotentialities.
    21. Butthesearenotpureforms;rather,thecitizensubjectembodiestheseaspotentialities.Beingasubjecttopowerismarkedbythecitizen’sdominationbythesovereign,andherrightsderivefromthatwhichisgiventoherbythe(patriarchal)sovereign.Beingasubjectofpowermeansbeinganagentofpower,evenifthisrequiressubmission.
    22. asubjectisacompositeofmultipleforces,identifications,affiliations,andassociations.Thesubjectisdividedbytheseelementsratherthanbytraditionandmodernity.Italsoassertsthatasubjectisasiteofmultipleformsofpower(sovereign,disciplinary,control)thatembodiescompositedispositions(obedience,submission,subversion).
    23. thatquestiontheassumptionthatcitizenshipismembershipinonlyanation-state

      [...] Rather, critical citizenship studies often begins with the citizen as a historical and geographic figure—a figure that emerged in particular historical and geographical configurations and a dynamic, changing, and above all contested figure of politics that comes into being by performing politics.[7]

    24. Thefieldbeginswithcitizenshipdefinedasrights,obligations,andbelongingtothenation-state.Threerights(civil,political,andsocial)andthreeobligations(conscription,taxation,andfranchise)governrelationshipsbetweencitizensandstates.Civilrightsincludetherighttofreespeech,toconscience,andtodignity;politicalrightsincludevotingandstandingforoffice;andsocialrightsincludeunemploymentinsurance,universalhealthcare,

      and welfare.

    25. howmultipleactorswouldneedtoresistsurveillancestrategiesbutalsothequestionofhowInternetuserswilladjusttheireverydayconduct.ItisanopenquestionwhetherInternetusers‘willcontinuetoparticipateintheirownsurveillancethroughself-exposureordevelopnewformsofsubjectivitythatismorereflexiveabouttheconsequencesoftheirownactions’
    26. Givenitspervasivenessandomnipresence,avoidingorshunningcyberspaceisasdystopianasquittingsocialspace;itisalsocertainthatconductingourselvesincyberspacerequires,asmanyactivistsandscholarshavewarned,intensecriticalvigilance.Sincetherecannotbegenericoruniversalanswerstohowweconductourselves,moreorlesseveryincipientorexistingpoliticalsubjectneedstoaskinwhatwaysitisbeingcalleduponandsubjectifiedthroughcyberspace.Inotherwords,toreturnagaintotheconceptualapparatusofthisbook,thekindsofcitizensubjectscyberspacecultivatesarenothomogenousanduniversalbutfragmented,multiple,andagonistic.Atthesametime,thefigureofacitizenyettocomeisnotinevitable;whilecyberspaceisafragileandprecariousspace,italsoaffordsopenings,momentswhenthinking,speaking,andactingdifferentlybecomepossiblebychallengingandresignifyingitsconventions.Thesearethemomentsthatwehighlighttoarguethatdigitalrightsarenotonlyaprojectofinscriptionsbutalsoenactment.

      ¿A qué somos llamados y cómo respondemos a ello? Esta pregunta ha sido parte tácita de lo que hacemos en el Data Week.

    27. digitalactsresignifyfourpoliticalquestionsabouttheInternet

      anonymity, extensity, traceability, and velocity.

      El primero y el tercero ha estado permanentemente en el discurso de colectivos a los que he estado vinculado (RedPaTodos, HackBo, Grafoscopio, etc)

    28. Wearguethatmakingrightsclaimsinvolvesnotonlyperformativebutalsolegalandimaginaryforces.Wethenarguethatdigitalactsinvolveconventionsthatincludenotonlywordsbutalsoimagesandsoundsandvariousactionssuchasliking,coding,clicking,downloading,sorting,blocking,andquerying.
    29. WedevelopourapproachtobeingdigitalcitizensbydrawingonMichelFoucaulttoarguethatsubjectsbecomecitizensthroughvariousprocessesofsubjectivationthatinvolverelationsbetweenbodiesandthingsthatconstitutethemassubjectsofpower.WefocusonhowpeopleenactthemselvesassubjectsofpowerthroughtheInternetandatthesametimebringcyberspaceintobeing.Wepositionthisunderstandingofsubjectivationagainstthatofinterpellation,whichassumesthatsubjectsarealwaysandalreadyformedandinhabitedbyexternalforces.Rather,wearguethatcitizensubjectsaresummonedandcalledupontoactthroughtheInternetand,assubjectsofpower,respondbyenactingthemselvesnotonlywithobedienceandsubmissionbutalsosubversion.
    30. whenweconsiderTwitter,forinstance,wecanask:Howdoconventionssuchasmicrobloggingplatformsconfigureactionsandcreatepossibilitiesfordigitalcitizenstoact?

      Es curioso que los autores también se hayan enfocado en esta plataforma, como lo hemos hecho en los Data Week de manera reiterada.

    31. citizenshipasasiteofcontestationorsocialstruggleratherthanbundlesofgivenrightsandduties.[41]Itisanapproachthatunderstandsrightsasnotstaticoruniversalbuthistoricalandsituatedandarisingfromsocialstruggles.Thespaceofthisstruggleinvolvesthepoliticsofhowwebothshapeandareshapedbysociotechnicalarrangementsofwhichweareapart.Fromthisfollowsthatsubjectsembodyboththematerialandimmaterialaspectsofthesearrangementswheredistinctionsbetweenthetwobecomeuntenable.[42]Whowebecomeaspoliticalsubjects—orsubjectsofanykind,forthatmatter—isneithergivenordeterminedbutenactedbywhatwedoinrelationtoothersandthings.Ifso,beingdigitalandbeingcitizensaresimultaneouslytheobjectsandsubjectsofpoliticalstruggl
    32. Soratherthandefiningdigitalcitizensnarrowlyas‘thosewhohavetheabilitytoread,write,comprehend,andnavigatetextualinformationonlineandwhohaveaccesstoaffordablebroadband’or‘activecitizensonline’oreven‘Internetactivists’,weunderstanddigitalcitizensasthosewhomakedigitalrightsclaims,whichwewillelaborateinchapter2.

      Estas definiciones instrumentales de ciudadanía se presentaban en proyectos del gobierno orientados al desarrollo instrumental de competencias computacionales (particularmente en la ofimática) y no en clave de derechos. Un lenguaje desde los derechos, podría no estar vinculado a la idea de estado nación.

    33. Butthefigureofcyberspaceisalsoabsentincitizenship

      -> But the figure of cyberspace is also absent in citizenship studies as scholars have yet to find a way to conceive of the figure of the citizen beyond its modern configuration as a member of the nation-state. Consequently, when the acts of subjects traverse so many borders and involve a multiplicity of legal orders, identifying this political subject as a citizen becomes a fundamental challenge. So far, describing this traversing political subject as a global citizen or cosmopolitan citizen has proved difficult if not contentious.

      Ver: https://hyp.is/6bnriqSPEeeYN7sZXlOCNg

    34. Toputitdifferently,thefigureofthecitizenisaproblemofgovernment:howtoengage,cajole,coerce,incite,invite,orbroadlyencourageittoinhabitformsofconductthatarealreadydeemedtobeappropriatetobeingacitizen.WhatislosthereisthefigureofthecitizenasanembodiedsubjectofexperiencewhoactsthroughtheInternetformakingrightsclaims.Wewillfurtherelaborateonthissubjectofmakingrightsclaims,butthefigureofthecitizenthatweimagineisnotmerelyabearerorrecipientofrightsthatalreadyexistbutonewhoseactivisminvolvesmakingclaimstorightsthatmayormaynotexist.

      [...] This absence is evinced by the fact that the figure of the citizen is rarely, if ever, used to describe the acts of crypto- anarchists, cyberactivists, cypherpunks, hackers, hacktivists, whistle-blowers, and other political figures of cyberspace. It sounds almost outrageous if not perverse to call the political heroes of cyberspace as citizen subjects since the figure of the citizen seems to betray their originality, rebelliousness, and vanguardism, if not their cosmopolitanism. Yet the irony here is that this is exactly the figure of the citizen we inherit as a figure who makes rights claims. It is that figure that has been betrayed and shorn of all its radicality in the contemporary politics of the Internet. Instead, and more recently, the figure of the citizen is being lost to the figure of the human as recent developments in corporate and state data snooping and spying have exacerbated.

      La crítica hecha a la perspectiva hacker por estar definida en oposición a lo gubernamental, no considera estos espacios donde lo hacker se ha adelantado al estado (Ley De Software Libre), pensando derechos nuevos y nuevos escenarios de lo convivial en nuestra relación mediada por la tecnología. Por supuesto, no podemos deshacernos del contexto urbano en el que nos desemvolvemos y de la presencia totalizante del estado y las instituciones, por lo cual interactuamos con él, pero no estamos definidos exclusivamente como personas, en dicha interacción (por afirmación u oposición).

    35. MarkPoster,forexample,arguesthattheseinvolvementsaregivingrisetonewpoliticalmovementsincyberspacewhosepoliticalsubjectsarenotcitizens,understoodasmembersofnation-states,butinsteadnetizens.[34]Byusingtheterm‘digitalcitizenship’asaheuristicconcept,NickCouldryandhiscolleaguesalsoillustratehowdigitalinfrastructuresunderstoodassocialrelationsandpracticesarecontributingtotheemergenceofaciviccultureasaconditionofcitizenship
    36. WhatisimportanttorecognizeisthatalthoughtheInternetmaynothavechangedpoliticsradicallyinthefifteenyearsthatseparatethesetwostudies,ithasradicallychangedthemeaningandfunctionofbeingcitizenswiththeriseofbothcorporateandstatesurveillance
    37. Moresignificantly,digitalstudiesspansbothsocialsciencesandhumanitiesaswellasscienceandtechnologystudiesandasksquestionsconcerningtherelationofdigitaltechnologiestosocialandculturalchange.
    38. First,bybringingthepoliticalsubjecttothecentreofconcern,weinterferewithdeterministanalysesoftheInternetandhyperbolicassertionsaboutitsimpactthatimaginesubjectsaspassivedatasubjects.Instead,weattendtohowpoliticalsubjectivitiesarealwaysperformedinrelationtosociotechnicalarrangementstothenthinkabouthowtheyarebroughtintobeingthroughtheInternet.[13]WealsointerferewithlibertariananalysesoftheInternetandtheirhyperbolicassertionsofsovereignsubjects.Wecontendthatifweshiftouranalysisfromhowwearebeing‘controlled’(asbothdeterministandlibertarianviewsagree)tothecomplexitiesof‘acting’—byforegroundingcitizensubjectsnotinisolationbutinrelationtothearrangementsofwhichtheyareapart—wecanidentifywaysofbeingnotsimplyobedientandsubmissivebutalsosubversive.Whileusuallyreservedforhigh-profilehacktivistsandwhistle-blowers,weask,howdosubjectsactinwaysthattransgresstheexpectationsofandgobeyondspecificconventionsandindoingsomakerightsclaimsabouthowtoconductthemselvesasdigitalcitizens

      La idea de que estamos imbrincados en arreglos socio técnicos y que ellos son deconstriuidos, estirados y deconstruidos por los hackers a través de su quehacer material también implica que existe una conexión entre la forma en que los hackers deconstruyen la tecnología y la forma en que se configuran las ciudadanías mediadas por dichos arreglos sociotécnicos.

    39. Alongwiththesepoliticalsubjects,anewdesignationhasalsoemerged:digitalcitizens.Subjectssuchascitizenjournalists,citizenartists,citizenscientists,citizenphilanthropists,andcitizenprosecutorshavevariouslyaccompaniedit.[7]Goingbacktotheeuphoricyearsofthe1990s,JonKatzintroducedthetermtodescribegenerallythekindsofAmericanswhowereactiveontheInternet.[8]ForKatz,peoplewereinventingnewwaysofconductingthemselvespoliticallyontheInternetandweretranscendingthestraitjacketofatleastAmericanelectoralpoliticscaught
    40. Moreover,withthedevelopmentoftheInternetofthings—ourphones,watches,dishwashers,fridges,cars,andmanyotherdevicesbeingalwaysalreadyconnectedtotheInternet—wenotonlydothingswithwordsbutalsodowordswiththings.

      These connected devices generate enormous volumes of data about our movements, locations, activities, interests, encounters,and private and public relationships through which we become data subjects.

    41. IftheInternet—or,moreprecisely,howweareincreasinglyactingthroughtheInternet—ischangingourpoliticalsubjectivity,whatdowethinkaboutthewayinwhichweunderstandourselvesaspoliticalsubjects,subjectswhohaverightstospeech,access,andprivacy,rightsthatconstituteusaspolitical,asbeingswithresponsibilitiesandobligations?
    42. AsRonaldDeibertrecentlysuggested,whiletheInternetusedtobecharacterizedasanetworkofnetworksitisperhapsmoreappropriatenowtoseeitasanetworkoffiltersandchokepoints.[4]ThestruggleoverthethingswesayanddothroughtheInternetisnowapoliticalstruggleofourtimes,andsoistheInternetitself.
    43. EvgenyMorozov’sTheNetDelusion(2011),Turkle’sownAloneTogether(2011),orJamieBartlett’sTheDarkNet(2014)strikemuchmoresombre,ifnotworried,moods.WhileMorozovdrawsattentiontotheconsequencesofgivingupdatainreturnforso-calledfreeservices,Turkledrawsattentiontohowpeoplearegettinglostintheirdevices.BartlettdrawsattentiontowhatishappeningincertainareasoftheInternetwhenpushedunderground(removedfromaccessviasearchengines)andthusgivingrisetonewformsofvigilantismandextremism.PerhapsthespyingandsnoopingbycorporationsandstatesintowhatpeoplesayanddothroughtheInternethasbecomeawatershedevent.
    44. ThatformanypeopleAaronSwartz,Anonymous,DDoS,EdwardSnowden,GCHQ,JulianAssange,LulzSec,NSA,PirateBay,PRISM,orWikiLeakshardlyrequireintroductionisyetfurtherevidence.Thatpresidentsandfootballerstweet,hackersleaknudephotos,andmurderersandadvertisersuseFacebookorthatpeopleposttheirsexactsarenotsocontroversialasjustrecognizableeventsofourtimes.ThatAirbnbdisruptsthehospitalityindustryorUberthetaxiindustryistakenforgranted.ItcertainlyfeelslikesayinganddoingthingsthroughtheInternethasbecomeaneverydayexperiencewithdangerouspossibilities.
    1. Theoretically informed sociological analyses of digital life can challenge the often implicit assumptions of those approaches which reinscribe divisions between humans and technologies, online and offline lives, agency and structure, and freedom and control. While these may be old dichotomies for some, they continue to have force and need to be challenged.
    2. While much attention is reserved for whistleblowers and hactivists as the vanguards of Internet rights, there are many more anonymous political subjects of the Internet who are not only making rights claims by saying things but also by doing things through the Internet.
    3. Like other social spaces that sociologists study, cyberspace is not designed and arranged and then experienced by passive subjects. Like the physical spaces of cities that geographers have long studied, it is a space that is bought into being by citizen subjects who act in ways that submit to but also at the same time go beyond and transgress the conventions of the Internet. In doing so they are not simply obedient and submissive but also subversive and participate in the making of and rights claims to cyberspace through their digital acts.

      Interesante la idea de construir mapas de esas cibergeografías. Esta podría ser la cita para el capítulo de visualizaciones.

    4. Such a conception moves us away from how we are being ‘liberated’ or ‘controlled’ to the complexities of ‘acting’ through the Internet where much of what makes it up is seemingly beyond the knowledge and consent of citizen subjects. To be sure, one cannot act in isolation but only in relation to the mediations, regulations and monitoring of the platforms, devices, and algorithms or more generally the conventions that format, organize and order what we do, how we relate, act, interact, and transact through the Internet. But it is here between and among these distributed relations that we can identify a space of possibility—a cyberspace perhaps—that is being brought into being by the acts of myriad subjects.
    5. The problem is that popular critics have become too concerned about the Internet creating obedient subjects to power rather than understanding that it is also creating submissive subjects of power who are potentially and demonstrably capable of subversion. I believe that addressing the question I posed at the beginning requires revisiting the question of the (political) subject. By reading Michel Foucault, Etienne Balibar conceived of the citizen as not merely a subject to power or subject of power but as embodying both. Balibar argued that being a subject to power involves domination by and obedience to a sovereign whereas being a subject of power involves being an agent of power even if this requires participating in one’s own submission. However, it is this participation that opens up the possibility of subversion and this is what distinguishes the citizen from the subject: she is a composite subject of obedience, submission, and subversion where all three are always-present dynamic potentialities.
    1. . Fellows particularly advocate for improved transparency and improved effectiveness of local government services through open government data (Maruyama, Douglas, and Robertson 2013). After finishing the year fellows pursue a range of non- and for-profit career paths
    2. Altering the infrastructure for governance marks CfA as different from other progressive organizations focused on, for example, electoral politics or youth mobilization. Participation entails personalized involvement where individuals create or alter digital infrastructures to support community need

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    1. The benefit of these spaces is best summed up as flexibility. Members are supported as they join the space, become peripheral participants, and potentially, become longstanding members engaged in ongoing projects. Hacking, like art, becomes not the domain of the elite or reified objects but intimately tied with everyday experiences throughout one's life (Dewey, 1934). The pragmatic devotion of HMSs to recursive problem-solving attracts members who see HMSs bringing informal education and collaborative sociality to their city. In interviews GeekSpace members freely offered beliefs about why they saw HMSs as vital to reforming their city at large. Flexibility, exercised through the constant churn of hands-on work on projects, was coupled with optimism for making a better future. Kligler-Vilenchik et al. (2012) describe a similar desire in civically-minded youth organizations as a "wish to help" (para. 1.5), a form of engagement more familiar to volunteerism than hackers that exert their collective power through protest or software (Coleman, 2012; Sauters, 2013). Above all else, this optimism drives HMS members as they seek to reframe what hacking and making can accomplish.
    2. democratization of hacking itself. This claim, however, threatens to unrealistically situate hackerspaces as paragons of learning and overly central to hacker culture at large, and democracy as a panacea. As discussed, GeekSpace was not without exclusion that operated in spite of its official ideology. Further, GeekSpace was constantly being re-built around individual conflicts, organizational collaborations, and cultural shifts. Returning to revisit the question of collectivity itself, the emphasis of the collective is on maximizing perceptions of individual agency through material and social encounters. This harkens back to Thomas' (2011) observation that "collectives provide tools for the unique and individual expression of identity within the collective itself'' (p. 2) and is why "community," which works quite oppositely, is likely the wrong form of social structure at work. HMSs provide a context for a negotiated sociality -sometimes warm conversations, frequently simply co-working. This provides a physical example of Turkle's (1985) observation that, online, "hacker culture is a culture of loners who are never alone" (p. 196). The failure of the first incarnation of GeekSpace was, in the eyes of members, an abundance of socialization.

      Esta preferencia por la soledad también se ha visto en HackBo, así como la tensión entre lo individual y lo colectivo. Los proyectos hacen que el hackerspace funcione, pero no está claro como lo proyectan más allá de su estado actual, particularmente en lo que se refiere a ayudar a su sostenibilidad en el tiempo.

      La existencia de un hackerspace no democratiza la noción de hacking, a pesar de hacerla cotidiana. La democracia, de hecho no es cotidiana, si se piensa que cristaliza sólo cada 4 años con las votaciones y de resto consiste en la queja generalizada sobre lo que hacen los gobernantes, sin vigilancia, ni control por parte de los ciudadanos. Nuevas formas de ciudadanía podrían ser articuladas en espacios como estos, desde el cotidiano.

    3. Hacker and maker represented not so much discrete categories as fluid identities that emerged by on mode of work, personal history, and comfort with cultural alignment. This cozy relationship troubles easy stereotypes of hacking as related to scientific rationality and making to felt experience. For example, as Lingel and Regan (2014) observe, the experiences of software developers can be both highly rational and deeply embodied, resulting in their thinking about coding as process, embodiment, and community. The thrill or pleasure of hacking being linked simply to transgression or satisfaction of completing a difficult job seems lacking (Taylor, 1999; Turkle, 1984). From the side of craft, Daniella Rosner (2012) draws a historic connection to the humble bookbindery as a material-workspace collaboration and site of personalized routines and encounters with tools that lead to complex collaborations. These ethnographies take into account passions and relative definitions of technology that are often neglected in organizational studies. Thus, these inroads to informal learning could be mutually informed by Leonardi's (2011) notion of imbrication, where material and individual agencies are negotiated through routines over time.
    4. Third, the space acted as a recruitment tool for participants and served as a source of solidarity as members rallied around the space. This emphasis on actively inviting new members drew attention to the group's latent desire for open-access, a radical shift from the often insular nature of hacker culture.

      En HackBo, el espacio que atrae más miembros externos a la comunidad es el Data Week. Unos pocos de los cuales se convierten en miembros permanentes. Algunos miembros optan por mantener la membresía cerrada, si bien tenemos permanentes crisis respecto a pagar las mensualidades que permiten cubrir el arriendo y los servicios y es un espacio muy frágil económicamente, que requiere de la solidaridad constante de los miembros.

    5. Hacker and maker spaces are nearly universally defined within relatively affluent western cultures, raising obvious questions of economic privilege as well as more difficult ones of how spaces are defined by various cultural imaginaries. Mirroring previous work on collective organizations, HMS members' desire for an idealized space appears driven both by their exposure to a participatory democracy (Turner, 2013) and shortcomings they see in that model. Participatory culture, as an ideal, may be a utopian goal (Jenkins & Carpentier, 2013, p. 2; Turner, 2008), imagined here through material engagement.

      La crítica sobre la ausencia de referentes locales y un diálogo más fuerte con ellos ha sido expresada localmente: ¿Cómo el hackerspace se charla con ideas ancestrales como las del buen vivir? Algunos esfuerzos, como la iniciativa ecuatoriana iniciaron dichos diálogos, pero no han sido amplianete retomados o extendidos.

    6. For example, in the old space, visitors needed to obtain two signatures from two members to be approved for membership. This was seen by the directorship as a small barrier to entry and by female visitors as an unnerving time to be "judged" by uncertain criteria and leadership. In other words, what the two founders saw as a "weak" culture was interpreted as a "strong" one by women visitors. Querying the power dynamics of interactions takes us further towards unpacking when a cultural style can be inhibiting of participation, particularly geeks among who may embrace alternative masculinities (Kendall, 2002; McRobbie & Garber, 1976; Wilkins, 2008).

      Los dos votos para ingresar fueron implementados posteriormente, luego de una política laxa de filiación (podía entrar cualquiera que pagara la cuota) y que puso a un miembro con actitudes que incomodaban abiertamente a otros.

    7. ad-hoc groups that form and just disband. They form again and disband. Then the individual ties between units in the group become stronger as part of this experience."
    8. Projects were vital to linking personal interests to sharing and collaboration, with one member, echoing the overall pragmatism of the space, describing them as "education in disguise."

      [...] Materiality took center stage as projects acted as an assemblage around which participation occurred.

      Para el caso del Manual de Periodismo de datos, la naturaleza basada en proyectos y con una fecha límite fue importante en articular comunida alrededor de los mismos. Otros, como los data selfies de Twitter, fueron largamente iterados, entregando resultados visibles, pero sin fechas límite tan cerradas. Las dos formas de participación eran necesarias y complementarias y se adeuaban a distintos ritmos de los participantes, quienes agradecían el "call to action" de los primeros proyectos y otros que preferían la naturaleza estratégica y de largo alcance e iterativa de los segundos. Las dos materialidades y dinámicas estaban en un continuo y se presentaban más en un tipo de proyectos que en otros, sin ser exclusivo de ellos.

    9. The "doing it together" instinct in HMSs may be one precipitated out around projects. Cognitive, classroom-based definitions of project-based learning tend to be formulaic (Blumenfeld et al., 1991). By comparison, the colloquial definition of project can be handily ambiguous about what is under construction. A project can be artistic, technical, or culinary (in the case of "food hacking"). It can be related to one's occupation, entirely recreational, or part of a movement from one to the other.

      En el caso de HackBo, la meritocracia establecía jerarquías transitorias respecto a los proyectos que se realizaban y dependiendo de ello las personas con más experiencia en el campo guiaban el quehacer de los otros. La transición de un proyecto a otro se daba, pero también una vez se exploraban dichos proyectos, se podía establecerse en uno principalmente, como fue el caso de Grafoscopio y la visualización de datos.

    10. A physical workshop, then, helped reconcile often highly individualistic and introverted personalities to pursue collaborative learning together. The community nature of the space meant that it was easy to drop by, and relationships often developed between members. However, GeekSpace was initially populated by members often in technical professions and used as a "social club" to blow off steam, play foosball, and drink. The learning that occurred there was mainly self-education and listening to the occasional guest speaker. In retrospect, members, particularly those not coming from technical backgrounds, saw the failure of this space as the lack of collaborative work in the form of projects.

      Esto también ocurrió en HackBo. Al comienzo hubo una ausencia de proyectos y la mayoría tardaron en "cuajar". Algunas personas buscaban realizar proyectos productivos para asegurar la existencia del espacio, de maneras directas o colaterales (por ejemplo si una campaña de microfinanciación para otro proyecto era exitosa), pero esto implicaba entrar en lógicas de gestión de proyectos y demandas de tiempo que no todos los miembros querían asumir. Otros visitantes buscaban obtener soporte técnico y mentoría del espacio, pero no se pudieron organizar dichas sesiones de soporte de forma consistente. En varias ocasiones se habló de hacer una Casa Abierta, para que nuevas personas se familiarizaran con el espacio, pero esto tampoco ocurrió.

      Al comienzo se trataba principalmente de un espacio social, con encuentros sociales recurrentes donde el grueso de la comunidad se reunía para hablar o cenar, más que para realizar proyectos y estos involucraban sólo a subgrupos en la comunidad.

    11. Quite to the contrary, members were self-regulating and saw tools and space as providing deterministic solutions (Jordan, 2008). The materialities of the space and tools allowed them to operate a democratic-meritocratic system focused on shared work with a minimum of hierarchy or rules. This spatio-materialistic perspective echoed a hacker reliance on "rough consensus and running code" that moved projects forward (Davies, Clark, & Legare, 1992, p. 543).
    12. The most important shift in learning during this period was members' relationship to knowledge. GeekSpace attempted to democratize hacking and move towards a more inclusive model. This stands in contrast to Jean Burgess' observation that hacking "as an ideal, permits rational mastery ... but in reality, it is only the technical avant-garde (like computer scientists or hacker subcultures) who achieve this mastery" (Burgess, 2012, p. 30). Individualized encounters with software gave way to making and hardware tinkering where users learned by doing (Rosenberg, 1982). Collaborative work in the space took place in small groups clustered around a project, or the projects were passed from person to person to solve specific problems. The frustrations members had with the first phase of the space organically shifted to a set of practices based in materials, routines, and projects. "Collaboration on ideas and [their] physical manifestations," in the words of a GeekSpace director, is "how you tell somebody's part of the community."

      Un cambio similar se dio en HackBo, al menos en lo referido al Data Week y las Data Rodas como experiencias y rituales de aprendizaje intensional y semi-estructurado, en lugar de ir a ver gente haciendo cosas en solitario.

    13. Somewhat paradoxically, the group took advantage of their backgrounds in software even as they were careful to denote they weren't ''those kinds" of hackers. In correcting misunderstandings they both negotiated the stigma around hacking while retaining the term as central to their operations, albeit less so than before. Wayne, a director, would use the term in public because he knew people might question it. He saw this as a chance for redefinition, to get people to "realize that we're not just guys who read 2600 and try and make free long distance calls." Nancy similarly described it as a "word we 're trying to take back" from the media. Even as outwardly the organization shifted to being a maker space the word hacker continued to be a potent way they could mark the difference of their space as compared with other types of shared workshops.

      Algo similar pasó con HackBo ante la filtración de información sobre el proceso de paz en Colombia y la atención en los medios a las conotaciones inadecuadas del término hacker. Aún así el término se ha mantenido, así como la inteción de tomarlo de vuelta de los medios.

    14. Mike, the most involved director, described a conscious move towards maker culture and away from "being like a closed little nerd group that requires a prerequisite of being able to program in C." Software production was frequently used as a point of contrast to the current space. Making captured a notion of productivity and openness that the previous iteration lacked. Mark described the current version of GeekSpace as "more of a makerspace ... there's a lot of physical fabrication happening." The original members, by comparison, were "more software [oriented]... specifically, hardcore infosec [information security]," harkening back to the group's roots in local 2600 meetings and professional occupations.

      Una discusión similar la hemos tenidos en HackBo. La práctica, sin embargo ha sido preservar el nombre y lididar con la ignorancia y la cultura popular frente a la connotación de hacker. Otros espacios, como La Galería, en Armenia, se han alineado desde el comienzo a esa tradición artesanal referida al trabajo con maderas en la región y han elegido la connotación más abierta de maker, desde le comienzo.

    15. Interviews were transcribed and color-coded using Microsoft Word, then categorized using Excel according to the central research questions of this study.

      Acá también podría usarse hypothesis. Bastaría que las anotaciones ofrecieran un código de color extra para las categorías que van surgiendo. Sin embargo, con sólo tener etiquetas ya dicha funcionalidad se va logrando (aunque falta la convención de color para las mismas). Se podría agregar, usando el API de Hypothesis.

    16. Recruitment was conducted in-person or over email. Interviews were conducted in-person, or if that option was not available, over Skype. The 13 interviews ranged from 25 to 63 minutes in length. No compensation was offered.

      Esto contrasta ampliamente con la postura de Millan, cuando se entrevista un activista, por ejemplo.

    17. Henry Jenkins similarly noted that "do it yourself' is a diffuse notion that can be conflated to an individualistic perspective on creative and technical work, and thus he advocates for moving towards more "collective enterprises within networked publics" (Knobel & Lankshear, 2010, p. 232). Compared with hacking, making is more involved with creating objects within a lineage of craft or art. Rather than hacking's strategic to bring about differences (an outcome), making is more

      concerned with an ongoing process and the satisfaction that comes from it. These distinctions, however tentative given the fluid nature of the cultures under study, are conceptually useful because they capture ways members discuss how space should be used for informal learning.

      Estoy en desacuerdo con la distinción hecha sobre el proceso y el producto y el vínculo con lo artesanal (si bien el autor habla de lo tentativo de esta distinción). Al menos en HackBo ,la idea software as a craft es una práctica importante, así como el proceso y la idea de que iterar sobre este es lo que deja algunos cambios estructurales, que, sin embargo, pueden ser iterados permanentemente.

    18. Maker culture has been criticized for simply being a de-politicized version of hacker culture, naively unable to reconcile its own promises of a revolution (Morozov, 2014). While maker culture's connection with socio-economic change and hacker culture at larger is debatable, it seems more certain it comes with an attendant set of nested practices and attitudes. Lindtner and Li (2012) describe maker culture as ''technological and social practices of creative play, peer production, a commitment to open source principles, and a curiosity about the inner workings of technology" (p. 18). Chris Anderson (2012) claims that the maker movement has three characteristics: the use of digital tools for creating products, cultural norms of collaboration, and design file standards (p. 21 ). Hughes (2012) notes maker culture's emphasis on being open-source and posited that it ''ties together physical manufacturing skills with the higher end technical skills of hardware construction and software programming" (p. 3884).
    19. Members of HMSs, driven by hacker and maker culture, infrastructure their own space and populate it with tools, effectively de-virtualizing materialities. Buildings and tools in HMSs are treated very much as code: malleable, changeable, and durable.
    20. Compared with the contentious history of hacker culture, the history of making is comparatively unmapped. It can be most accurately described as a new craft movement (Rosner & Ryokai, 2009) that recalls relationships with materials through craft (Sennett, 2008) and hobbies (Gelber, 1999).
    21. Jordan stipulates that the commonality of various perspectives on hacking (Himanen, 2001; Wark, 2004) is the hack, or the "ability to create new things, to make alterations, to produce differences" (Jordan, 2008, p. 7). These differences are linked with what Steven Levy (1984) called a "hands-on imperative" (p. 28) and enjoyment from deep concentration. By this line of thinking, the prerogative of hacking is that people should encounter technology not just to gain experience but for the enjoyment of pushing boundaries of what it was meant to do. Taylor (1999) describes the "kick" of hacking as "satisfying the technological urge of curiosity" (p. 17). This transgressing of the internal logic of systems lends a thrill that is difficult to pin down but is understood by those who have experienced it (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997). Tim Jordan's (2008) assertion that "hacking both demands and refutes technological determinism" (p. 133) gestures at a blending of material and social agencies in specific contexts. In other words, hackers see systems as malleable even as they rely on them to accomplish goals. Jordan saw this as paradoxical perhaps because technological determinism tends to be only viewed in the negative (Peters, 2011 ). Viewing his statements as a reflection on enabling and constraining (Giddens, 1986) engagements with materialities, rather than "determinism" per se, brings us towards a more productive theoretical framework for thinking about the connection of HMSs to informal learning.

      Esto podría resolver el tema de si todo es hackear? Una materialidad que, a pesar de hacerse en lo ordinario, también tiene que ver con retar los límites y luchar desde la tecnología con el determinismo tecnológico, parece una adecuada aproximación al término, sin convertirlo en totalizante.

    22. For example, Leonardi's (2011) theory of imbrication, drawing on Latour, posits that individuals and technologies both have agency. Investigating the interplay between the two requires micro-interactionist investigations of everyday routines. The most prominent example of imbrication in HMSs comes from an influential presentation at the 2007 Chaos Computer Congress (CCC) where Haas, Ohlig & Weiler presented "design patterns" to create a hackerspace. This PowerPoint turned into a widely-circulated PDF describing socio-material "patterns" to bring about changes to routines for better sustainability, independence, regularity and conflict resolution (Haas, Ohlig & Weiler, 2007). Their invoking of design patterns recalls similar efforts in software (Gamma, Helm, Johnson & Vlissides, 1995) and architecture (Alexander, 1979) to combine social and material agencies to bring about a beneficial goal. The presenters were eager to stress that these were not blueprints, only practices that could be reflexively modified as needed. They were no determinists, but were utterly pragmatic in the sense of relying on implementation, failure, and modification to solve problems in a given system.
    23. Depending on when you happened to drop by, you might conclude that it was a raucous party spot, infosec operations center, or hat manufacturer. The LOpht did not host a single group or set of activities. Rather, it served multiple purposes for the hacker community. The permanence of HMSs similarly serves as a magnet to attract interested members, enabling and constraining the wide variety of activities that occur therein.

      En HackBo también habitan estas diversas identidades.

    24. served as third places (Oldenburg, 1997), or spaces for informal gathering and bonding outside of home and work. Touchstones for hacker and maker space members emerge time and again, such as German models imported to the United States via Noisebridge and Resistor NYC (Haas, Ohlig & Weiler, 2007). However their "true" origins will likely be always be subject to debate because, in addition to a lack of documentation, these spaces are both quotidian and encourage a plurality of uses.
    25. The public nature of these gatherings was an advantage but also a source of frustration for "elite" members who grumbled about having to deal with "newbies." The publicness of these meetings ensured interplay between pseudo-anonymous bulletin-board systems (BBSs), longstanding members and genuinely interested newcomers.

      Recuerdo que algunas de las primeras reuniones de Linux Col tenían mesas que separaban los "gurús" de los "novatos" y eran en lugares costosos, para molestia de muchos. Ese elitismo, fue dando paso a relaciones más horizontales y amigables.

    26. Coleman (2010) asserts that previous literature such as Taylor's "fails to substantially address (and sometimes even barely acknowledge) is the existence and growing importance of face-to-face interactions" (p. 48). For example, Vichot (2009) notes how communities of hackers that coalesce online use "real space" to gain visibility needed to accomplish their collective political goals.

      En Colombia tenemos ejemplos como la SLUD, JSL, el FLISoL y el Data Week.

    27. However, hacker and maker spaces are not synonymous with hacker culture at large. As previously discussed, since at least the mid-1990s, hackers have encompassed too wide an array of concerns and histories to safely be referred to as a unified group. Hacker and maker spaces, while a significant movement and informed by a more popular definition of "hacker," hardly define everyone who calls themselves a hacker.
    28. Doug Thomas (2002) concluded that "hacker culture, in shifting away from the traditional norms of subculture formation, forces us to rethink the basic relationships between parent culture and subculture" (p. 171). Similarly, such a splintering of meanings draws into question how conveniently a lineage by generations can be identified (Coleman, 2012; Taylor, 2005). Hacker and maker space members draw on the "shared background of cultural references, values, and ideas" (Soderberg, 2013, p. 3) of a more accessible hacker culture that is social, everyday, and lived (Williams, 1995). The culture of HMSs is made visible through interactions as members draw on hacker and maker culture at large as an explanation for what it is that goes on there

      Esto tiene que ver con la idea de popularización de la cultura hacker (me recuerda la noción de lo popular como un lugar donde se perpetúa y reta la cultura). Una cultura hacker, informada por tradiciones anteriores, pero que encarna de maneras particulares en los contextos en los que se da.

    29. This popularization is well captured by Brian Alleyne's (2011) observation that "we are all hackers now," a far cry from the insularity of the late 1980s (Meyer, 1989). The term hacker is freely applied to contexts as diverse as data-driven journalism (Lewis & Usher, 2013), urban exploration (Garrett, 2012), and creative use of IKEA products (Rosner & Bean, 2009). I frame hacking as "popular" to underscore its accessible, immediate, and participatory aspects (Jenkins, 2006), even if it is not popular in the same way as "fan cultures" (Jenkins, McPherson & Shattuc, 2002). Rather than media, the popular tum in hacking is linked to interactions with objects, platforms, and practices that invite participation and thereby increase the scope of who have typically considered themselves hackers in new and unforeseen ways.

      Sin embargo puede pasar que con la popularización se pierda la noción de hacker. La idea de un quehacer artesanal parece más apropiada en este contexto.

    30. By comparison, HMSs are collective organizations centered around maintaining a specific space. The current study's site of investigation is a single relatively bounded group (GeekSpace). Members are circumscribed by the built environment of the shared workshop and a shared repertoire of online communication tools (website, mailing lists, wikis).

      Esto hace parte del repertorio material y simbólico compartido de una comunidad de práctica.

      Al comienzo la tesis quería indagar y alentar las relaciones entre las comunidades y sus hábitats digitales y físicos, pero luego se fue enfocando más en cosas como Grafoscopio y en comunidades más pequeñas.

    31. this pragmatic attitude enable collaborations across ideological boundaries, it also facilitates partnerships" (p. 5), echoing William James' (1975) observation that pragmatism serves as a "method for settling metaphysical disputes that might otherwise be interminable" (p. 27). A pragmatic attitude from various iterations of

      hacker culture similarly permit HMS members to construct "social laboratories or workshops that people join in order to learn and share knowledge" (Hunsinger, 2011, p. 1) even if they differ in ideology or worldview.

    32. I retain hacker because hackers pace members draw upon hacker culture, broadly considered, even though the sites that identify as HMSs vary widely.

      Estos términos son auto-denotativos. Es una manera en que los miembros de la comunidad se refieren a sí mismos.

    33. The grassroots nature of HMSs provides a contrast to the less popular FabLabs (Gershenfeld, 2005), which operate as franchises that require expensive tools, and Computer Clubhouses (Kaf ai, Peppler, & Chapman, 2009), which are extensions of schools. Hacker and maker space backers such as Mitch Altman claim that hands-on interactions with technology enable a more flexible and personalized learning experience than an institutionalized curriculum (Baichtal, 2011 ).

      Esto lo hemos visto también en el caso de HackBo. Los Data Weeks son esfuerzos por formalizar parte de ese aprendizaje informal a través de la idea de talleres.

    34. Scholars drawing on a constructivist line of scholarship (Papert, 1993) draw attention to the self-discovery that comes from encounters with objects (Cetina, 1997). This argument has been extended to technical learning, as free encounters with technical objects and systems are argued to encourage epistemological pluralism (Turkle & Papert, 1990). Experiential learning originates from Lewin, Piaget, and Dewey, and focuses on a continuous process of learning grounded in experiences that arise from an interplay between individual and environment (Kolb, 1984). The spatial nature of HMSs can be seen as a way to negotiate different learning styles
    35. Matt Ratto (2011) defines "critical making" as a combination of critical thinking and material production. His contribution for the current discussion is: if critical makers can "reintegrate technical and social work and thereby innovate both" (p. 258). Design appears a fertile inroad for thinking about empowerment and politics, as particular genres of technology are created through complex social, economic, and cultural processes, leading to literacies that can be drawn on and reconfigured (Balsamo, 2011 ). DiSalvo's (2009) notion of critical making involves users in the design process through practices such as tracing and projection, resulting in the creation of new publics. This was later developed into "adversarial design" (DiSalvo, 2012), which confronts the politics of technologies of objects with an intent to encourage participation. Rafi Santo's (2011, 2013) "hacker literacies" similarly positions hacking as enabling critical thinking within a framework of media literacies.

      Rafi Santo's (2011, 2013) "hacker literacies" similarly positions hacking as enabling critical thinking within a framework of media literacies.

    36. Hacker and maker spaces arise from grassroots networks through a shared interest in maintaining a semi-permanent space for solo and collaborative work. They generally employ democratic and meritocratic conventions rather than ''top-down" organizational practices. These conventions evolve over time as they are reflexively modified by members through communication (McPhee & Zaug, 2009) and practices (Cox, 2005; Wenger, 1998) in and around physical space. This loose organizational structure and plurality of participant identities results in a tremendous variety of spaces that are best thought of as having a family resemblance (Wittgenstein, 1953) of organizational conventions and shared histories rather than consistency in interests or ideology. Some are firmly entrenched in information security (infosec) while others maintain a focus on artistic endeavors involving welding and woodwork. Several have arisen with an overtly feminist orientation and push back against the often male-dominant nature of these spaces.
    37. Specifically, members encouraged learning and collaboration predominantly through a belief in materialities, particularly as GeekSpace's collective identity shifted from hacker to maker. Members altered the space to serve individual and collective goals rather than employing deliberation or strong organizational methods.
    38. Hacker and maker spaces (HMSs) are open-access workshops devoted to creative and technical work. Their growing numbers (over 500 worldwide) make them a significant grassroots movement supporting informal learning. Scholars have found pedagogical benefits of tinkering and hacking, but the cultural contexts from which these practices arise remain under-studied.

      Nótese que también se habla de espacios creativos y no sólo técnicos.

    1. hile hackers create these new worlds, we donot possess them. That which we create is mortgaged to others, and to the interests of others,to states and corporations who control the means for making worlds we alone discover. We donot own what we produce - it owns us.
    1. And most people genetically need adults, because, again, this is cultural learning. You learn from other people, so it’s odd to learn by reading. Once you start interacting with a computer, you start wondering, what kind of initiative could the computer actually take? What kinds of the equivalent of knowledge could the computer actually deal with? [Computer scientist John] McCarthy got off on this before anybody. Papert was working with [Marvin] Minsky at MIT, so they had been already thinking about this when I started thinking about the Dynabook. My thought was, “Man, we have to have an AI inside of it,” because it’s the next logical step after a well-written essay.
    2. This is equivalent to what Montessori was saying: If you want to live in the 21st century, you’d better embody it. You can’t teach it in a classroom. And so, Papert was saying, “Hey, this is math. It’s not just learning math. It’s an environment. It has all these things.”
    3. So, in theory, you’re supposed to shake the iPhone and that means undo. Did you ever, did anybody ever tell you that? It’s not on the website. It turns out almost no app responds to a shake. And there’s no other provision. In fact, you can’t even find out how to use the iPhone on the iPhone. You ever notice that?

      [...] you can't even find out how to use the iPhone on the iPhone.

      "El artefacto es el currículo", una frase que usaba Alan Kay para explicar la idea de que Smalltalk debería explicarse a sí mismo y ser altamente explorable.

    4. FC: But there could have been another way? AK: It’s been an idea in the ARPA/PARC community—which hasn’t been funded since 1980 or so, but a lot of us are still alive—one of the ideas was that in personal computing, what you really need is some form of mentor that’s an integral part of the user interface. FC: Something like a digital assistant? AK: It’s something just like the GUI, which I had a lot to do with designing. I did that, more or less, as a somewhat disappointed reaction to realizing [AI] is just a hard problem. We had some of the best AI people in the whole world at PARC, but the computers were really small for what AI needs.

      En un ensayo del 2007, yo proponía una "ecología del intelecto" que estudiara de modos ecosistémicos la inteligencia: en los individuos, las comunidades, lo natural y lo artificial y las interconectara y proponía el uso de chatbots para ello. Hoy con Grafoscopio, estoy pensando en documentos con automatismos embebidos que faciliten la participación remota. Podrían estar asociados a chatbots en el futuro.

    5. I mean if you look at that first paper, besides the comment about touch-screen displays, there was a side comment saying that one of the first pieces of software that an individual will write on their personal computer will be something that will suppress advertising.

      Es curioso, está relacionado con la idea de los bloqueadores de anuncios que leí hoy y de hecho con las prácticas de lectura anotada que ando haciendo, convirtiendo de HTML a PDF para quitar la pulicidad y escribir de manera más placentera.

    1. I mean if you look at that first paper, besides the comment abouttouch-screen displays, there was a side comment saying that one of the firstpieces of software that an individual will write on their personal computer will besomething that will suppress advertising

      Es curioso, está relacionado con la idea de los bloqueadores de anuncios que leí hoy y de hecho con las prácticas de lectura anotada que ando haciendo, convirtiendo de HTML a PDF para quitar la pulicidad y escribir de manera más placentera.

    2. FC:But there could have been another way?AK:It’s been an idea in the ARPA/PARC community—which hasn’t beenfunded since 1980 or so, but a lot of us are still alive—one of the ideas was thatin personal computing, what you really need is some form of mentor that’s anintegral part of the user interface.FC: Something like a digital assistant?AK:It’s something just like the GUI, which I had a lot to do with designing. Idid that, more or less, as a somewhat disappointed reaction to realizing [AI] isjust a hard problem. We had some of the best AI people in the whole world atPARC, but the computers were really small for what AI needs.

      En un ensayo del 2007, yo proponía una "ecología del intelecto" que estudiara de modos ecosistémicos la inteligencia: en los individuos, las comunidades, lo natural y lo artificial y las interconectara y proponía el uso de chatbots para ello. Hoy con Grafoscopio, estoy pensando en documentos con automatismos embebidos que faciliten la participación remota. Podrían estar asociados a chatbots en el futuro.

    3. And most people genetically need adults, because, again,this is cultural learning. You learn from other people, so it’s odd to learn byreading.Once you start interacting with a computer, you start wondering, what kind ofinitiative could the computer actually take? What kinds of the equivalent ofknowledge could the computer actually deal with? [Computer scientist John]McCarthy got off on this before anybody. Papert was working with [Marvin]Minsky at MIT, so they had been already thinking about this when I startedthinking about the Dynabook. My thought was, “Man, we have to have an AIinside of it,” because it’s the next logical step after a well-written essay.
    4. So, in theory, you’re supposed to shake the iPhone and that means undo.Did you ever, did anybody ever tell you that? It’s not on the website. It turnsout almost no app responds to a shake. And there’s no other provision. In fact,you can’t even find out how to use the iPhone on the iPhone. You ever noticethat?

      [...] you can't even find out how to use the iPhone on the iPhone.

      El artefacto es el currículo.

    1. No hay ningún enlace al sistema de control de código, ni al CMS (Drupal), ni a la versión de los contenidos del portal.

    2. Los proyectos listados en todas las categorías sólo se muestran en formato HTML, no hay un formato amigable para máquinas (JSON, CVS, etc) que permta descargar datos del sitio y hacerle preguntas al mismo sobre los proyectos publicados.

    1. X closer examination of these myths nil1 reveal several interesting paradoxes. On the one hand, it is clear that we are in the midst of a cultural shift on a par with the great paradigm shifts in the history of science-our understandings of basic philosophical issues are changing. Tl'e can track shifts in our thinking about the nature of reality, the nature of knowledge and even the nature of the human being. On the other hand, there is e~idencc to suggest that not enough has changed in our thinking about certain philosophical issues, especially as these relate to the concept of 'information' and ideas about originality, privacy: citizen empowerment, democracy and community. I conclude with a list of questions that emerge from the transformation of one 'age' to another.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. How might civic hackathons be improved? Balsamo does not deny contradictory influences exist in these spaces nor avoid engaging because they are “neoliberalist.” Rather, she suggests that sites of messy innovation are also potential sites of learning. Accordingly, my hope is that civic hackathons might be treated more seriously as moments for education and public engagement around the politics of technology. This can be a radical notion because culture, narratives, myths, rituals, expressions, and knowledge might still be reworked.

      Desde acá se puede pensar la presencia nuestra en Hackatones organizadas por el Gobierno y los privados, para aportar desde la diversidad y en ocasiones desde la contestación. Podríamos llevar materiales preparados (interminados y variables) para novatos, así como nuestra perspectiva particular a estos espacios, extendiendo y potenciando prácticas similares a cuando participamos en la Hackatón Salud con Silvia.

    2. Civic hackathons are undeniably fraught. Our projections about civic futures are entangled with collective fantasies abouttechnology. This is a story at least as old as science fiction, yet never ultimately removed from our social realities. In some cases small tasks stimulated the civic imagination on larger public problems. In others, cultural reproduction led people to imagine technology that was already racialized, reflecting collective fears that rise to the top. Yet, I resist dismissing civic hackathons. Donna Haraway would certainly see the fallacy in demanding we return to the deliberation of Tocqueville’s town hall meetings. Plus, as anyone who has participated in local government can tell you, city council meetings are hardly a gold standard for civic participation. Mills reminds us that our rationalities are bounded and exist within a particular historic context. We might never get technology out of politics, or the politics out of technology. In a sense, civic technology may itself be a cyborg formed from our collective hopes and fears, one that we might better learn to live with.

      Se puede colocar como introducción al Data Week y las Data Rodas.

    3. This was their space, not ours. Later thatafternoon I found a cluster of neighborhood kids clustering around a young woman who was teaching them basics of programming. They were intently leaning on her shoulder to get a better view of her laptop. To my mind this image captures the gamble of civic innovation: participants sneaking community voices in and rallying around their concerns, hoping they won’t be just another wave of gentrification driven by technology rather than rising rents.
    4. Put slightly differently, if we want civic hackathons to produce ideas that improve society, we need to more deeply and sincerely shape choices, thought processes, and activities that might make technology civic.

      De acá la importancia de crear capacidad en las bases para que ellos digan sus propias voces medidos por la tecnología.

    5. As a communication scholar I have been drawn to Winner’s thesis that confronting, working on, and talking about technology can make ethics visible and allow us to make different choices. It is a constant struggle of modernity to confront the idea that technology might be a quick fix. Civic hackathons are just such a site where technology is co-designed and choices made visible. Quite contrary to the idea that participants were unaware, awful ideas didn’t go unnoticed– in many cases they werevocally disputed.

      Un argumento más en favor del carácter no neutro de la tecnología y la necesidad de contestarla.

    6. A real-time crime tracking application is a prime example of cultural reproduction — how technological artifacts can be encoded in ways that reflect racist fears.

      We might broadly see the fantasy of real-time surveillance of crime in neighborhoods as emergingfrom “smart cities” rhetoric, practices with mobile media, and the perceived availability of data. [...] It would perpetuate systemic inequality that is already exacerbated through the media and the housing market.

    7. After we were done, pictures were taken of the group and distributed online to groups in other cities performing similar activities, contributing to the spectacle of the day.

      En los eventos locales se toman fotos durante el evento, al margen de los resultados. En el Data Week en cambio, las fotos con pocas en comparación (a veces nulas), particularmente en consideración a la privacidad. La lógica del espectáculo/impacto está más centrada en las visualizaciones mismas.

    8. The discussion of the rich social life of data behind the scenes stimulated a discussion for a spin-off project on aggregating geographic data about environmental issues in city. The apparently rote task of transcribing the presence of open data was an inroad to broader questions about how data was constructed behind the scenes and ways residents might add to it.

      Esta idea de juntar la discusión a la acción, si bien está mediada por el código, es permanente en el Data Week.

    9. We failed to assemble a pitch because the civic imagination could not simply float alone. It needed a technological metaphor to give practices traction. Many of the pitched projects had the opposite problem. They started with an existing technology and grafted the goals of the city to it, essentially transposing a model of informed citizenship onto it. These technologies were not so much re-drawing government as increasing its utility.

      Esto me recuerda la metodología de Leinonen, en la cual se puede empezar de cualquier lugar (lo conceptual o una tecnología) e ir, prácticamente a cualquier otro. Creo que lo que falta es una premisa política/ética sobre el mundo que se quiere compartir. Por el contrario, en el Data Week y la Gobernatón, dicha premisa es explícita, desde los bienes comunes.

    10. An audience member yelled out, “what skills does a hack require?” Abhi shook his head. “Not much,” he replied, “you could solve a problem through marketing.” When asked, only around a third of the room raised their hands to identify as software developers.

      Para el Data Week sería bueno hablar de la pregunta por si éramos los de las ideas o los de el código.

    11. In addition to moments of the expression of civic imagination, I am attentive to failure — times where conceptual roadblocks were encountered, spectacles failed, and cultural reproduction turned ugly. Being attentive to failure is necessary because civic hackathons tend to be universally celebrated as successes in popular literature. As Anne Balsamo noted in the case of Xerox PARC (p. 55), sites of technological production tend to also be involved in their own hype and myth-making (Also see: Balsamo, 1996). It is necessary to see what is entangled with the fiction.

      ¿Qué es lo que "falla" en el caso de Grafoscopio?¿Cuáles son las tensiones presentes?

      Uno podría pensar que tiene que ver con la velocidad con que la comunidad, en general, adquiere la experticia que le permite poner a diálogar lo simbólico, con lo icónico y lo enactivo. El hecho de que algunos asistentes vengan reiteradamente, pero no transiten caminos que les ayuden a adquirir esa experticia por sí mismos. Dichas tensiones ayudan a mantener el proyecto real, al mismo tiempo que dan cuenta de posibilidades futuras de las que la comunidad se encuentra sembrada. Creo que pueden ir en la tradición de revisar las fallas, como ocurren con los hackerspaces feministas y pueden hacerse más explícitos en futuras ediciones del Data Week.

      Chévere revisar los mitos y ficciones en Xerox PARC.

    12. Duncombe was frustrated by the liberal left’s insistence on using dry logic to make political arguments. He looked to the political right and far left as groups that fostered affective fantasies. To him, an “ethical spectacle” is participatory fantasy that is open-ended, transparent, and performative (Duncombe, 2007, p. 17). Duncombe saw ethical spectacles as directly democratic, breaking down hierarchies, fostering communities, and encouraging diversity. He held a strong form of participation, as participants in a spectacle “must also contribute to its construction” (Duncombe, 2007, p. 127). The civic

      imagination is activated and becomes visible through communication because it is intrinsically linked with spectacle, action, and performance

      Acá quizás lo que mejor podría funcionar sería el caracter celebratorio del encuentro, particularmente en Latinoamérica. Habría que contrastar la lógica de los grandes espectáculos con la idea de la celebración a pequeña escala.

    13. Material forms give coherence to the civic imagination. For example, Ross (2013) proposed that cultural practices of viewing the city “from above” in plans stimulated city planners’ civic imagination while they applied expertise in the planning process.
    14. To Mills, the imagination was activated according to the structure of society, conceptualization of “the mechanics by which it is changing” (p. 6), and prevailing “varieties” of individuals of the period. Individuals have personal troubles that can be connected with issues of a public matter. The civic imagination has the potential to be activated around deep societal problems, which may involve institutional crises. The civic imagination is closely connected with participation. Castoriadis (1987)diverged from Marx by believing that not all futures were determined by history.Castoriadis believed that society’s future was collectively created and given traction through the imagination. That is, it was only “through the collective agency of the social imaginary that a society is created, given coherence and identity, and also subjected to auto-alterations” (Gaonkar, 2002, p. 7). To Appadurai (1996), the imagination was also intimately related to action because it was only in the service of fulfilling an as-yet unproven goal that we are driven to act.

      La imaginación conecta presente con futuro, y por tanto transita verticalmente en el tiempo. ¿Cómo hacer que lo haga horizontalmente, en el espacio, conectando geografías? El prototipo parece jugar un lugar clave en ello, así como los efectos de red para que dichos prototipos circulen.

      Hay un factor estético que comunica esas dimensiones espacio-temporales.

    15. Dunne and Raby’s (2013) notion of speculative design helps outline how future-oriented thought works at civic hackathons. They suggest that speculative design on “wicked problems” creates “spaces for discussion and debate about alternative ways of being, and to inspire and encourage people’s imaginations to flow freely” (Dunne & Raby, 2013, p. 2). They find merit in dreaming, as the future is an “aid imaginative thought” (p. 3). Materialities assist development of ideas and approaches to collectively thinking about possible futures. For them, critique has a place in design, particularly humor. Designers can “pull new technological developments into imaginary but believable everyday situations so that we can explore possible consequences before they happen” (p. 57). Speculative design is a helpful bridge to the civic imagination.

      De nuevo, acá hay una tensión sobre cómo el puente entre el presente y dichos futuros se logra. Como he señalado en otras ocasiones, la brecha entre dichos futuros y el presente es llenada por alguna forma de distopia usualmente, como pasó para con la visión Dynabook y los paradigmas actuales de computación.<br> Sin embargo hay que abonar la inmensa diversidad de que esa visión no se lograra (pues era un sistema mono-lenguaje, mono-paradigma). Podrían estas miradas diversas pero de complejidad accidental, hablar con las de los sistemas monolenguaje con complejidades fundamentales? (COLA parece una idea al respecto).

      Grafoscopio transita y propone dichos puentes entre futuros posibles y presente buscando inspiraciones diversas y combinándolas en una materialidad particular.

    16. Balsamo's notion of technocultural innovation is quite appropriate for negotiating between critical and design positions on hackathons. First, she defines technologies asmessy combinations of practices, materialities, and affordances. They were never fully captured in artifacts to begin with, and she would simply not regard civic hackathons as their sole point of emergence. Second, although designers hold a particular role in technocultural innovation, Balsamo makes it clear that everyday people can interact with, talk about, act out, and pitch ideas, thereby co-constructing technologies. Many of the examples she provides, such as interactive museum exhibitions, are very hackathon-esque spectacles that bring people into contact with technologies in the process of being designed. Third, Balsamo provides concepts and vocabulary for describing moments of collective design. Cultural models of technology might be reproduced or made anew through the technocultural imagination. Balsamo does not treat the influence of corporations or mythologies of technology (Balsamo, 1996)as necessarily spoiling innovation. Individuals all draw on specific models of technology — practices, affordances, materialities — from everyday life, which must include those created by large companies. Participants can get space of their own, as in the case of Xerox PARC’s RED group, that provide autonomy. Yet, they do not exactly get outside of technology, a point that McKenzie Wark has similarly driven home (Wark, 2004).

      Interesante ver como el "Pitch" tiene un caracter democrático en la medida en que permite que otros pongan a rodar la imaginación (lo cual se opone a la idea de "any bitch can pitch" que critica la no producción de prototipos funcionales). Hay, sin embargo una tensión con los prototipos funcionales. ¿Podrían narrativas de datos multimediales dar agencia y visibilidad a distintas voces, aunque no todas se expresen en código? Imagino, por ejemplo libretas árboreas con trozos de videos multimedia, que pueden ser consultados en o fuera de línea, desde diversos dispositivos, con un particular énfasis en los (móviles).

      La idea del portafolio, que se ha expresado para el diplomado en activismo de datos, puede ser una primera manera de explorar prototipos en ese sentido que den visibilidad a voces, discursos y estéticas diversas.

      La pregunta de fondo es como cristalizar esa relación entre cosificación y participación y entre agencia y estructura a partir de estéticas como las de la hackatón.

    17. Innovation always occurs against a larger social and cultural backdrop because "all participants [in collective design] bring gendered, racial, and class-based assumptions to the designing process" (p. 37). Diversity in collective design may helpindividuals imagine better together, as we all bring different assumptions about technology.
    18. hackathons were also subjected to public parody, drawing attention to their elitism. The “Stupid Shit No One Needs & Terrible Ideas Hackathon” first ran in 2014.

      La gobernatón fue una forma de parodia también, la menos respecto al nombre, como ya ha sido documentado. Acá el sentido de humor, resaltado como parte de la tradición hacker, hace gala, al usarse para resaltar las contradicciones.

    19. At least since Doug Engelbart’s “mother of all demos” the introduction of new products has been accompanied by showmanship. Demonstrations are theater where possible uses for technology are presented (Smith, 2009). Hackathons have been argued to be the “front stage” for data and can be contrasted with the murky “back stage” of data production, munging, and interpretation (Gregg, 2014b). The difference with Balsamo might be that she does not put performance in scare quotes.

      Esto conecta las ideas de boostrapping vía infraestructura, de Engelbart, con la idea de demo como performance (espectáculo, obra viva) y la inversión infraestructural de Star, al traer al frente aquello que está al fondo (la producción de datos y su uso).

    20. I do not believe she was necessarily re-treading the intractable sociological debate between "structure and agency." Rather, she was suggesting a sensory-oriented theory of collaborative design rooted in feminism and media studies.

      Sin embargo esta dualidad estructura - agencia es tratable desde la perspectiva teórica asumida en la tesis.

    21. “performance of innovation” (Balsamo, 2011) described how individuals collaboratively design technology in public settings. According to Balsamo, technology design emerges from a collaborative and cultural process that she terms "technoculture." Innovations are not objects, but like technology they are, “assemblages of practices, materialities, and affordances” (Balsamo, 2011, p. 8). Through performance and embodied action, technocultural innovation has a “dual logic”: the expression of the technological imagination and cultural reproduction.
    22. A more diverse range of participants attended, as civic hackathons were more frequented by community organizers, activists, and students than seasoned software engineers. Those who turned up were also more diverse in ways other than occupation – racially, ethnically, and by gender. These events were largely run by Hack for LA with a wide range of partners. Rarely did sponsors emphasize working code

      Para el Data Week el código funcional existe, pues estamos trabajando con narrativas de datos, en lugar de con aplicaciones. Incluso un boceto de una libreta arbórea es ya un prototipo funcional. La incorporación temprana de sistemas de control de versiones (Fossil), una vez Grafoscopio se estabilizó, ayuda a compartir tales prototipos tempranamente y hacerlos trazables y disponibles a otros.

      La modularidad para la transmisión de narrativas y código en libreta por un lado y en paquetes por otro, ayuda a que dichos prototipos se compartan, con diferentes niveles de experticia.

    23. the civic hackathon violated the very conventions of hackathons. It had “no hacking” in the traditional sense of creating or modifying working software. This curious disappearing act of code in hackathons over the last several years was controversial among programmers. Thea Aldrich of Random Hacks of Kindness wondered aloud when I interviewed her in 2013, “don’t community organizers already have ways to engage politically?” To Thea “civic hacking” was a form of civic engagement particular to the technically adept.

      En el Data Week tratamos de crear capacidad a través de la técnica, y recibimos distintas clases de experticia, si bien el encuentro está todavía muy centrado en el código y lo escritural y en una manera particular de hacerlo (live coding) a través de una plataforma particular (Pharo/Grafoscopio).

      Si bien lo escritural amplia el espectro, el código lo acota. La combinación de los dos, produce nuevas prácticas, como ha mostrado el reciente esfuerzo frente al Manual de Periodismo de Datos.

      Enfocarnos en un lugar, permite ampliar otros e incluso brinda a comunidades técnicas, nuevos aprendizajes. En algunos ediciones del evento, se ha charlado de descentrar el encuentro sobre el código y traer otros problemas a la mesa

    24. that civic hackathons are highly fluid and contested spaces where power is negotiated. However, critical and design perspectives clearly differ on the theorized relationship between civic participation and technology. The imposed civic ideology perspective tells us high technology corporations force an essentially bogus ideology on the event. Participants

      encounter a version of civic life warped by the neoliberalist goals

    25. Simply diversifying participantion is no guarantee that outcomes benefit diverse communities, and declaring an event civically important does not make it so. After years of participating in and running civic hackathons I noticed a new turn. This new type of civic hackathon was intentionally run to foster performance, spectacle, and communicative activities around a loose shell of technology-oriented activities. Technology became more talked about than materially captured.
    26. Citizens were asked to take over responsibilities that were previously handled by the state, and participants would “recognize problems only insofar as technology can operationalize and solve them.”
    27. More staunch critics questioned if the White House was being duplicitous by inviting “civic hackers” under the guise of transparency while having the worst administrative record for prosecuting whistleblowers.

      Acá la crítica consistente ha sido la tardía invitación de la sociedad civil a participar de la construcción de la política pública. En ese sentido, el carácter performativo de la hackatón puede servir como una forma de brand washing sobre opacidades y ausencias de participación más profundas, por ejemplo frente a la ejecución de presupuestos públicos, cómo mostró la gobernatón.

    28. In Are Civic Hackathons Stupid? Emily Badger noted how government officials expected too much of civic hackathons, which rarely produced the expected technology that can be scaled to different sites. They required resources and labor to run, which could lead to burnout. Still, she was reluctant to entirely write them off. Some problems needed local solutions and civic hackathons could “bring officials and residents together in a context that has nothing to do with paying parking tickets or reporting potholes, and in a format that appeals to people who would never turn up for a public meeting.”

      Es interesante ver cómo funcionan como lugar de encuentro entre ciudadanos y estado. Sin embargo, en general fallan en darle voz y protagonismo al ciudadano, en la medida en que las problemáticas de dichas hackatones se encuentra predefinida de manera jerárquica por las instituciones y hay una notable ausencia de creación de capacidad en la base.

    29. Initially at least, civic hackathons were initially positioned as a form of public outreach for civic hackers, a loose-knit community interested in applying technology for social good. James Crabtree (2007) defined “civic hacking” as “the development of applications to allow mutual aid among citizens rather than through the state.” In particular, he suggested an extra-institutional definition, thatcivic hacking filled in where e-democracy had failed. The meaning of “civic” at this stage leaned towards a libertarian perspective, which remains a persistent critique of hacking among critical studies scholars (Golumbia, 2013).
    30. Civic hackathons are spaces where the technological imagination and civic imagination collide and jostle as people collectively envision future technologies. Finally, I suggest three lessons drawn from civic hackathons to demonstrate the contradictory and even treacherous ways civic innovation produces ideas. In the conclusion I consider how we might read civic hackathons alongside other modern political formations. After all, civic hackathons are just one part in a larger formation of “open government” that prioritizes direct participation and institutional collaboration as a pathway to reform.
    31. civic hackathons in Los Angeles were rich spaces for observing communication about technology throughspeeches, group collaboration, and pitches.

      Otros eventos terminan, por ejemplo en exposiciones, mientras que la Data Week tienen continuidad en las Data Rodas y en futuras ediciones, pero no se exponen ampliamente al público. La relación entre lo que ocurre en esos espacios más cerrados y un público más amplio está por explorarse.

    32. The two perspectives are also not mutually exclusive — a participant might be frustrated at the rushed, corporatized nature of a certain civic hackathon and come to explore ideas about improving civic life.
    33. Civic hackathons have been hotly debated in recent years. Critical studies scholars have lambasted civic hackathons for aligning with middle-class citizenship(Irani, 2015)and co-opting participant labor (Gregg, 2014a). Silicon Valley is often the fait accompliin these perspectives, bringing a flawed ideology that seduces organizers and participants into transposing technological language onto civic issues (Also see: Barbrook & Cameron, 1996; Morozov, 2013). In this paper I refer to this perspective as an “imposed civic ideology.” The second perspective comes from design scholars interested in material participation (Marres, 2012) as cohering publics to work on particular social issues. Lodato and DiSalvo (2016) suggested that civic hackathons served two purposes. First, they help people think through civic issues using props — “objects, services, and systems that engage with issues” (p. 16). Second, they cohere ephemeral proto-publics for short-term engagement on issues of public concern. As they summarized, "what is important is not the inventiveness of a particular prototype product or service, but rather, how the event fosters opportunities for collaborative or collective issue articulation" (p. 15). They drew attention to how outcomes of civic hackathons may more likely be social and cultural than functional material objects. I refer to this design perspective as an “emergent civic subjectivity.”

      La pregunta sería cómo los protopúblicos y activistas pueden encontrarse en este formato y cómo los "props" se convierten en prototipos durables e iterables, parecido a como lo hacemos con Grafoscopio.

      En particular me llama la atención entre las narrativas de datos y soluciones completas/integradas para ellas (tipo Grafoscopio) y las aplicaciones móviles más orientadas a la recolección de información, así como las redes sociales y canales de chat para articular ciudadanos. Los puentes sobre esas materialidades serían motivo de exploraciones futuras.

    1. For these women, the values and practices of everyday life intertwine with technical labor. In the 1970s, theorists like Dick Hebdige, Henri LeFebvre, and Michel DeCertau took up everyday life as a site for radically re-imagining social life. The potency of domesticity and the social status of quotidian craftwork became a key precursor to contemporary Feminist thought. Today, it has reemerged in the work of modern-day hackers.By designing hackerspaces to serve domestic and familial needs, and by surfacing a new emotional style through failure, members of women-operated hackerspaces are

      actively negotiating the terms by which they make themselves heard within computer engineering cultures (Fox, etal., 2015; c.f. Suchman, 1995). This “oppositional position-ing” (Haraway, 1988: 586) relieves them of expectations to hack in the same manner as men, women, or mothers. [...] Exposing a politics of difference — destabilizing the cate-gory of hacking — they not only build new material circumstance for the artists, makers, mothers and fathers within these spaces, but also position their work as relevant to the acts of “world-building” just beyond it.

      Potente idea de construcción de mundo en el cotidiano.

    2. HackerMoms built on the language of hacking, and its emerging discourse of digital production, to define and legitimate women as hackers and, accordingly, relevant actors in high-tech-nology markets. To accomplish this, members accorded feminized emotional and craft-based skills the same respect as accorded to computer engineering competencies within more “traditional” (predominantly male) hacker collectives.
    3. Showing and discussing their “hacks” became part of recognizing what Eva Illouz (2008: 20) would call a cultural resource, “a way for actors to devise strate-gies of action that help them implement certain definitions of the good life.”
    4. By framing the work of women-operated hackerspace members as vital forms of hacking, they embraced the counterculture, but not the one most prevalent on the playa at Burning Man, home of the San Francisco Bay Area digerati. They instead embraced a personal counterculture, one based on their own family narratives—resurrecting a phrase widely celebrated within the 1970s Feminist movement: “the personal is political.”

      Curiosamente esto me conecta a la labor artesanal de mi casa, mi hermana y mi mamá y me pregunto si podemos crear espacios que les den la bienvenida también a ellas.

    5. In these situations, the audience is familiar and vulnerable along with participants. An important aspect of this type of fail-ure is the opportunity of eventual success it presents. FC participants enjoy the journey, so to speak, while seeking out hopeful destination points. The imposed failure, on the other hand, is unsolicited and offered in brief comments from (faceless) people outside the group. There is no reciprocity and little opportunity for mutual vulnerability or growth, as with the club. In this case, the ideal destination point is prescribing to others’ notions of what constitutes success.
    6. a HackerMoms member remarked, “when you avoid using the word ‘hacker’ you lend credence to hack-ing being a negative thing; by using it, you begin claiming the word as your own and reworking it.” This logic of appropriation calls to mind Smith’s initial purpose for assum-ing the hacking category: underscoring connections between hacking and women’s work

      through their mutual recognition. HackerMoms members “hacked” their situation to suit their needs, not necessarily creating new social structures from scratch. In the spirit of Love and Smith, they acknowledged the importance of hacking culture, not (only) devices (Fox, etal., 2015).

    7. At HackerMoms, many members like Renz used craft techniques to create objects and “hack” physical craft materials. From the perspective of those who saw HackerMoms as “anti-hackerspace,” celebrating craft and art making without computation rendered the concept of hacking ambiguous and insig-nificant. This concern often resonated with engineers and scientists like Renz’s husband, a physicist, who confessed to her he did not consider her work hacking (Interview with Daniela Rosner, 18 April, 2013).

      [...] HackerMoms advocates used this ambiguity to draw attention to connections between hacking and histories of women’s work. Much like sewing, cooking, and interior decora-tion, which have historically occupied a women’s sphere, the work of childcare has long remained a locus of unpaid labor (Lippard, 2010 [1978])

    8. The Underachievers Manifesto by English author Neil Gaiman that hung on the FC wall: “I hope that in this year to come, you make mistakes. Because if you are making mistakes then you are making new things [...].”
    9. By embracing the kinds of failure performed at FC, emotional support and entre-prenuerial work became one and the same. When Renz was getting ready to open her store, HackerMoms members helped her paint the space, hang lamps, and make her first chalk mural. In exchange, she gave members the walls of the store as a gallery, offering them a 100% of their sales. Later that year, Renz held a “table building workshop” at her space to replace the newly purchased CB2 hackerspace furniture that members found “poorly made.” Renz built a prototype, coordinated the low-cost purchase of supplies, and showed members how to do the rest.

      Este tipo de actividades sociales eran frecuentes al comienzo de HackBo, cuando el espacio estaba más frecuentemente habitado. Ahora vamos a cosas muy puntuales y si bien la conversación se da, los habitantes del espacio andan enfocados en sus quehaceres particulares. Las reuniones de pizza de comienzo de año o los asados con la chimenea dejaron de ocurrir.

    10. These were the kinds of projects Smith wanted members to realize—projects that have an emotional component and seemed to need social support. If it’s something members could do on their own, “don’t bother coming,” Smith declared.

      Me recuerda a los visionarios de Bret Victor en "Inventing by Principle". Recuerdo tener conversaciones con uno de los nuevos miembros de HackBo respecto a proyectos que existiían sólo en nuestra cabeza. Algunos necesitanban de otros, pero no sabíamos de antemano qué tanto.

    11. The Hackermoms project examined here builds on the aforementioned feminist histories of craft to expose ideas of failure that contrast with productivist and masculine hacking pastimes. Specifically we examine the forms of hacking claimed by a group of mothers in the San Francisco Bay area to highlight the importance of personal failures and failures to rework hacker cultures.
    12. Executing code entailed more than ‘menial’ labor, much like wrote domestic handi-work; to compute, female factory workers wove the core memory by hand — carefully moving long wires around rings — in what some termed the “little old lady method” (Wolfinger, 1994). Histories of craftwork have even shaped the computer itself. As his-torians of computing (Ensmenger 2010, Light 1999, Maly 2013) have suggested, pro-gramming has always been “women’s work.” Evidence includes the punch card mechanism Marie Joseph used in her Jacquard loom and Charles Babbage later fit to his analytic engine, the machine celebrated as the precursor of modern-day computers.
    13. craftwork reappears in the technical imagination of the organization. Lucy Suchman and Randall Trigg (1993), for example, have equated the work of technology development with socially organized craftsmanship: “the craft-ing together of a complex machinery made of heterogeneous materials, mobilized in the service of developing a theory of mind” (p. 144). Here, they build on Latour’s (1986) concept of science as craftwork to describe the work of “crafting machines” that are capable of effectively engaging with humans and participating in social relations (Suchman and Trigg, 1993: 147). In particular, they identify “collaborative craftwork of hands, eyes, and signs” as the unit of analysis built into the organization of production and use.
    14. By the end of World War I, however, technophilia took hold of the (male) modernist imagination, framing women as instruments and men as makers. The skilled artist/craftman had mastery of machines and women (Oldenziel, 1999: 146).
    15. This rubric represents the legacy of two distinct gendered meanings built into the single word ‘craft’ by artisan communities (Adamson, 2010; Lippard, 2010 [1978]) and progressive era domestic DIY activity in the United States (Gelber, 1997). The first con-cerns feminized connotations positioning the quotidian as the place where power rela-tions can be voiced and contested. Feminist writing of the 1960s and 1970s exposed the historically gendered nature of craft and its ties to domesticity. According to art historian Glenn Adamson (2010), this scholarship reframed amateurism not as an acceptance of circumstance they needed to transcend but as a mechanism by which to judge the degree of gender prejudice. Feminist art historian Lucy Lippard (2010 [1978]) has argued that the category of craft even made possible the recognition of more female artists, expand-ing the realm of fine art to include quilts, textiles, and forms of material rehabilitation. Rehabilitation, Lippard claims, as a type of “inventive” patching (e.g. remaking clothes and recovering old furniture) becomes a mending of objects and public dignity.

      Interesante ver la noción de artesanía asociada al trabajo doméstico y desde la perspectiva de género y contestación.

    16. But we soon saw that they applied the label ‘craft’ differently. Their definitions came out of a fervent interest in independent craft, or “indicraft,” signaling an effort to “preserve feminine heritage”

      [...] They had taken up the practice of hacking within a rich conceptual framework grounded in concerns for histories of women’s labor.

    17. Craft figures strongly in these histories, which stress the role of homemaker as laborer (Adamson, 2010; Cowan, 1983; Strasser, 2000). By claiming this labor as part of hacking cultures, the hackerspace mem-bers we discuss locate women’s work at the center of new media industries.
    18. Participants in these groups celebrate technical exper-tise over skills that resonate with mainstream practices and ideals (like advocacy). Drawing out similar relations, Ellen Ullman (2012) uses her personal account of writing assembly language to argue that work closer to the machine helps (often male) programmers main-tain a higher status in computing cultures. In her examination of the largely male free/libre open-source software (FLOSS) community, Dawn Nafus (2012) extends this argument to hacking discourse in what she terms a “pushyocracy.” FLOSS members’ open scrutiny and “highly masculinized, aggressive online talking” shaped the perceived worth of individual contributions to expose “both the material aspects of computing and the social identities that people create for themselves through engaging with programming [...as] cultures made by and for men” (p. 671).

      Como he dicho en otra nota, esto también lo sentí antes de programar con solvencia dentro del espacio y en alguna medida la validación desde un saber particular en el que estaba adquiriendo experiencia progresiva y reconocimiento externo. Quehaceres específicos eran validados, mientras otros eran invisibilidados, particularmente cuando se referían a acciones políticas, logísticas y otros saberes más "blandos". Una crítica similar ha sido hecha por Perez-Bustos para el caso de la comunidad de software libre de Colombia, en la que HackBo se encuentra inmersa.

      Si bien el llamado es pensar otras categorías de tecnología y género que abrirían la participación a las mujeres, desde sus saberes particulares y las pondría en el centro del discurso desde sus quehaceres permanentes:

      This work invites critique of conventional technology and gender studies in which scholars have treated technology as “open to interpretation” but gender as a stable category (Mellström, 2009). In this, women’s substantive contributions to technology development go under-acknowledged and “the question of whether women can be considered insiders or outsiders of IT design also has to do with how ‘IT design’ is defined” (Sefyrin, 2010: p. 709).

    19. While technology has loomed large in these accounts, several scholars argue that this shift toward participation extends important possibilities for posi-tively influencing daily life (Jenkins, 1992, 2006; Shirky, 2010). Others question the ability for a universal “participation” within new media cultures, suggesting people require adequate social and psychological resources, including time, for engagement (Irani, 2015; Turner, 2009).
    20. we show how the work of failure began to destabilize an established ontology of hacking, making room for feminist legacies of craft.
    21. “everyone who has been involved in organizing the space is a social justice activist, and that is often social justice outside of tech, so that is a little bit dif-ferent” (Wu, 2014: Interview with Sarah Fox and Rachel Rose Ulgado, 20 February). Organizers’ interests lay in serving their community, which was localized to the neighborhood.

      Como dije en otra nota, nuestro impacto local ha estado limitado.

    22. “Co-working is about your living, your money-making life,” Smith explained. “And HackerMoms is about the rest of your life. Like all the other parts that get neglected when you’re trying to make money. And, for us, as mothers, the differentiation is not so clear anymore” (Smith and Cook, 2012).
    23. During our visits, members paid US$60 for monthly dues, and the composition of the group tended toward White members (although active members included nonwhites; Smith, a first-generation Chinese-American, for example).3 The HackerMoms space sat at the border of Oakland and Berkeley where storage units and liquor stores once stood. Bakeries and gift stores now lined nearby streets, catering to a growing number of upper-middle-class residents, subtlety reproducing class posi-tions and exclusions.

      tarifas, espacio, localización, miembros.

    24. The icebreaker for meetings became what they called craft aperitifs, small projects that kept their hands moving. These events invoked a particular idea of “craft” that we elaborate later, one that drew connec-tions between women’s contemporary milestones and feminist histories of handwork.

      Interesante ver cómo unas materialidades particulares, alientan otros diálogos.

      En el caso de Grafoscopio, éste nos permite hablar del bricolage que lo constituye: historia, informática, activismo, visualización, entre otros.

    25. She knew she wasn’t going to join Noisebridge, finding it both messy (“completely offensive to all my design sensibilities,” she once remarked) and unapproachable (“I was into all the soft stuff and [Noisebridge] was into the hard stuff,” she explained).

      En HackBo nos ha pasado igual. Hay sensibilidades estéticas que el espacio no cumple, en buena medida por la falta de presupuesto. La presencia de miembros femeninos ha mejorado sustancialmente la estética del lugar y mejorado colores, mobiliario y reglas de convivencia.

      La distinción entre blando y duro es una tarea por deconstruir. En mi caso, siempre pensé que me ocupaba de temas demasiado blandos (filosofía, cognición) para las preocupaciones de la comunidad (software, hardware).

    26. Recent research has focused on hackerspaces as grassroots organizations for producing ad hoc, self-made tools (Toombs etal., 2014) and as homes for emerging technical entrepreneur-ship (Lindtner etal., 2014).Founder Sho Sho Smith built HackerMoms to identify with this ethos, what she called “true creativity”: making without a purpose or necessity, without people trying to elevate themselves or their career.2 Although she has admitted that she first associated hacking with criminal activity, she soon found it essential to the kind of life she desired

      Interesante la idea de hacer sin propósito o necesidad. No sé hasta que punto sea compatible con la idea de artesanía, en la medida en que esta es en sí misma un propósito y una necesidad, pero puede tener que ver precisamente con el caracter expresivo de la creación y no con el económico del mismo.

    27. Finally, Rosner became an

      “angel” member of Mothership HackerMoms from January through July 2013 (a cate-gory of membership awarded to non-moms, including men).

    28. Craft, according to Adamson, became “a strain of activity that responds to and conditions the putatively normative experience of modernity, in many and unpredictable ways” (Adamson, 2010: 5). It was not outside modernity “but a modern way of thinking otherwise.” In the writing that follows, we show how a logic of failure became a means for “thinking otherwise” about the hacking ethos.

      Materialidades distintas afectan la manera en que pensamos sobre el acto mismo de hackear.

    29. Since the rise of early sites of computer hacking like the Chaos Computer Club, a German technology collective founded in the 1980s promoting open information infrastructure, the term hacking has fit aspirational ideals of technical cleverness and creativity perpetuated by engineer-ing cultures. Women-operated hackerspaces have opened an alternate view: enliven-ing connections between hacking and histories of women’s craftwork rooted in a feminist politics of fracture (Barad 2007; Haraway 1988).
    30. Critiquing such claims as sensationalist, recent work identifies a problem of demarcation by which people control access to technical agency and who counts as innovative (Irani, 2015; Lindtner, 2015), illuminating differ-ent and multiple hacking histories. Gabriella Coleman (2011), for example, compares the protest movement Anonymous and the whistle-blowing project WikiLeaks to clarify the varying political sensibilities and practices from which hacking develops
    31. Organizers promote cultural change using the tools of industry — taking up the masters’ tools to defeat the master. While organizers of repair events reject estab-lished modes of mass consumption, they posit device-level electronics repair as mecha-nisms for envisioning new people and societies.

      Esto me recuerda la idea de Paulo Freire sobre decir con las tecnologías del colono, la voz del colonizado.

    32. Accounts of hacker cultures often highlight bug fixes (Coleman, 2011; Nafus, 2012), portraying failures as integral to the inventive, creative process of design and engineering (Petroski, 2006). Mothership HackerMoms began to address failure differently from these productivist tendencies. In addition to viewing failure as central to achievement, members identified personal failures and failures to transform hacker cultures, formulating failure as a moment for reflection. To make this argument, we examine two empirical contexts of failure: first, failure as members conceptualize it in the Failure Club project of narrativizing the self; and, second, failure as expressed from the outside through online “hate mail.” By tracing how members redefine failure we show how HackerMoms became a site of resistance: hacking the very ontology of hacking.
    33. Unlike that of other hacker-spaces, members’ focus was not primarily hobbyist engineers. They built HackerMoms to serve mothers. Although as hobbyist engineers, writers, illustrators and artists these moth-ers could ostensibly join any other “traditional” hackerspace, members of HackerMoms claimed those sites became unaffordable or unmanageable without opportunities for childcare. The HackerMoms environment promised not only childcare but also a safer space to breastfeed and express milk, a sliding scale for membership dues, and access to a community of restless and curious moms.

      Si bien algunas mamás han llevado sus hijas a espacios como HackBo y La Galería. La oferta a madres ha sido no intensionada, ni ampliada por estos espacios. Incluso, eventos que incrementan la diversidad de los participantes, como el Data Week, riñen con el hecho de permitir a madres y padres participar activamente de los mismos.

    34. By integrating feminist legacies of craftwork with the centrality of failure — exposing personal failures and failures to transform hacker cultures — members not only energize new modes of hacking activity but also hack the very ontology of hacking.
    1. This model suggests three important research directions to analyze the role of appro-priation in technology evolution. The first would explore conditions that permit and encourage appropriation, ranging from technology architecture (e.g. technology openness) to legal and policy regimes governing how users are allowed to modify and apply technol-ogy in ways not intended by producers. The second direction would further examine appro-priation practices. Particularly fruitful would be further articulation of user/producer power negotiations that unfold during the appropriation stage and of the resulting innovation modalities. A third research direction would investigate how innovations that emerge from appropriation are later incorporated or blocked by producers through the repossession stage. Together, these three axes will further articulate the user/producer dynamics at work through appropriation, leading to a better understanding of the innovation process.

      Este análisis podría darse a la luz de los bienes comunes, sin considerar una relación binaria entre usuario y productor, pero sí la exclusión practiva de quienes no están interesados en la expansión o el cuidado de los bienes comunes, como propone la licencia P2P.

    2. Teenagers in Sao Paolo’s favelas, who cannot afford airtime, use their device as a “media locker,” passing them on to friends after once loaded with recorded songs and video (Bar etal., 2011). Similarly in India, Bluetooth is used to load and exchange music, completely avoiding download expenses (Kumar and Parikh, 2013).
    3. The emergence of text messaging abbreviations and languages is another form of creolization—in this case the literal creation of a creole (Castells etal., 2009).
    4. Open source smartphone operating systems (including Android, Tizen, or Firefox OS) open up greater potential for creolization practices.

      Lo cual puede ser extendido para todas las código abierto.

    5. Creolization, however, does not seek or avoid conflict but aims to transform tech-nology or come up with new practices so that the technical systems better serves user needs. Creolization draws on bricolage practices (Lévi-Strauss, 1966), identifying the components of the technology that can be re-used, modified, or recombined to create something new. Creolization finds users more deeply involved in transforming technol-ogy than baroquization.

      En el caso de Grafoscopio, el bricolage combina partes de Leo, con Jupyter, con Pharo, del lado técnico y el objeto activista, la investigación reproducible, las narrativas, la visualización ágil y el activismo de datos, la escritura estructurada. Dichas combinaciones crean algo nuevo, tanto en el caso de los artefactos tecnológicos, como de las prácticas que se entrecruzan alrededor de ellos.

    6. In these and many other examples, users appropriate technology by personalizing mobile phones as allowed by providers, using their mobile “as intended.” Their actions do not conflict with the interests of technology providers but generate revenue for device manufacturers, service providers, and third parties. User actions do, however, go beyond mere adoption and constitute active modification of devices or services. Taken together, these actions add up to a rich layering of modifications using customizable spaces cre-ated by the supplier in a process reminiscent of “baroque infiltration.”
    7. Today for US$25 a month, a smartphone user can acquire a realistic “invisible boyfriend” whose messages are crowdsourced from hundreds of thousands micro-task workers, who customize their responses to the users’ preferences (Dewey, 2015). More substantive examples include the multiple mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) that customize the generic service from the main mobile carriers to fit particular lifestyles.

      Esto me recuerda la película "Her".

    8. Upon closer examination of the appropriation phase, we distinguish three modes of tech-nology appropriation: baroquization, creolization, and cannibalism, by analogy with cul-tural appropriation. Baroquization is the filling-in of technological spaces that providers intentionally leave blank for users to personalize devices and applications; creolizationis bricolage, the recombination of the technology’s components to create something new; and cannibalism is creative destruction, an innovative act that requires breaking down the existing to invent something new.These three forms of appropriation correspond to increasingly confrontational stances users take vis-à-vis technology providers, within a context of asymmetric power. Baroquization is docile, where users follow an appropriation script laid out for them by the provider. Creolization is playful and unpredictable, where users re-mix the providers’ script with their own, in ways that may clash with providers’ interests. At the extreme, cannibalism is deliberately hostile to the providers’ interests. These various appropria-tion modes correspond to progressively deeper user involvement with technology, requir-ing increasingly sophisticated technical skills. All three modes represent creative ways for users to assert greater control over technology, mold it to fit their lives, and make it their own.
    9. First, the range of possibilities explored depends on the latitude for experimentation afforded by the technology. Second, the intensity with which innovations are explored reflects the

      range and depth of innovative practices of users. Third, the extent to which this creativity is harnessed depends on how the resulting innovation is built within next technology generations or suppressed

      También está relacionado con la facilidad para experimentar. En el caso de Grafoscopio, comparado con Scratch, por ejemplo, el incorporar tempranamente un lenguaje simbólico permite la amplia experimentación, pero implica un costo inicial alto para realizar dichos experimentos que con otros lenguajes más visuales. Acá hay un problema de bootstrapping: Crear esas metáforas visuales amplias, para públicos adultos, implica tener un grupo de personas que esté dispuesta a experimentar con los lenguajes simbólicas que permite escribir dichas interfaces más amigables.

      En general, las nuevas características son implementadas en la infraestructura, pero esto no incrementa los ciclos de adopción, aunque futuras ediciones del Data Week pueden hacer que nuevos públicos sean beneficiarios de la misma.

    10. In fact, the manner in which providers negotiate this transition (how they handle the power shift) matters to the future success of technology and to the likelihood that users will further adopt and experiment.At the end of the repossession stage, a new or modified technology becomes availa-ble, upon which new rounds of adoption, appropriation, and repossession take place

      La reapropiación es alentada directamente en Grafoscopio y de hecho las prácticas del Data Week transitan las 3 fases. Lo difícil es que nuevos usuarios escriban el código fuente que llegue a ser parte de Grafoscopio, más allá de sus propias narrativas de datos.

    11. User practices that create new uses represent forms of technology appropriation: whereas during the adoption stage, users simply used technology as it was given to them, here they modify technology to make it their own and invent practices around its possi-bilities. In doing so, users re-negotiate the relationship tying them to technology provid-ers: claiming technology as their own, they strive for greater control, with results that may not necessarily be congruent with the provider’s interest
    12. Users do new things in new ways. Users explore new possibilities, including some beyond what motivated initial adoption. For instance, users personalize devices and applications to integrate them within their practices. Some users will re-arrange devices in ways that reflect their personalities

      [...] Some users may hack devices to trans-form them more fundamentally.

      Esta parte es más complicada, pues si bien la intensión es que los usuarios hagan sus propias cosas, el lenguaje simbólico y formas de pensar requeridas para ello tardan en desarrollarse y requieren un compromiso constante. Si bien los Data Weeks y Data Rodas, mantienen a la comunidad conectada y vital, lo que ocurre en ellas no es suficiente para que muchos usuarios empiecen a hacer sus propias adaptaciones fundamentales.

      Los escritos originales pensaban en un ecosistema de plugins para facilitar dichas adaptaciones, pero dicho sistema no puede ser desarrollado hasta tanto no se cuente con una masa crítica de hacedores de los mismos, lo cual quiere decir, resolver las tensiones (particularmente económicas) que permiten a los usuarios dedicarse a este tipo de creaciones de manera cotidiana.

    13. Initially, user practices do not change fundamentally: users do old things in new ways. For example, users make calls on a mobile phone instead of a wired phone or a public phone, but they carry out similar conversations, with the same people. New technology may allow existing practices to become more efficient—cheaper, faster, less place-bound—but not fundamentally different.

      Esto ocurre también con la metáfora de la escriturea arbórea: los usuarios escriben viejos textos de nuevas formas. Luego, con la introducción del código, los usuarios hacen nuevas cosas, en este caso, crear narrativas de datos.

      Program or be programed.

    14. Our three-stage cycle of technology evolution begins when users adopt a technology and employ it to support their social or business activities. In a second stage, users appropri-ate technology: they experiment, try possibilities, and shape technology to fit their needs. In the third stage, providers take back control and repossess technology to re-configure it, reacting to the changes introduced through user appropriation. A new technology results, entering a new cycle as users adopt, appropriate anew, and prompt further repos-session, and so on (Bar, 1990).

      En el caso de Grafoscopio, esta transición es más suave: lo que hay es un tránsito de la escritura en prosa (adopción), a la escritura en código (apropiación) que en algunos casos es incorporada al código fuente original, con la colaboración del autor (reposesión). El software ha sido licenciado como bien común desde el comienzo, y lo que transita entre un lugar y otro, son los saberes y capacidades del usuario de la herramienta para convertirse en hacedor de la misma.

    15. First, we view technology evolution as a three-stage cyclical process of adoption, appropriation, and repossession. Users drive adoption. Users and providers alternatively drive appropriation and repossession, as users lead appropriation, while providers react when reclaiming the resulting innova-tions. Second, we identify three appropriation modes—baroquize, creolize, and canni-balize—that represent increasing degrees of power contestation by users. And third, we identify three repossession modes—co-opt, combine, and block—that represent increas-ingly antagonistic reactions by providers and mirror users’ appropriation strategies.

      El documento como árbol es una convención fija inicial, para lograr cierto movimiento en el desarrollo de la plataforma y las dinámicas alrededor de la misma, pero dicha convención puede ser móvil después (como se indicaba en el primer texto sobre Grafoscopio). Textos rizomáticos o laberínticos como los presentados en la literatura latinoamericana (Cortazar, Borges) podrían ser construidos con Grafoscopio una vez la convención inicial se mueva. Esto implicaría pasar por las sucesivas fases e incluso "canibalizar" Grafoscopio al final, con la ventaja de que las tensiones entre proveedores y usuarios no son tan fuertes, pues son los usuarios los que se están proveyendo de tecnología a sí mismos y cambiándola por el camino. Los lugares de tensión ocurren cuando se manifiesta el caracter político de sus usos, por ejemplo haciendo web scrapping que viola los contenidos de los términos de uso de un sitio web (citar caso de Twitter).

    16. for analytic purposes we next order them from the less confrontational baroque to the more radical cannibalism, with creolization somewhere “in-between” (Santiago, 2001). While they are second nature for Latin Americans, we observe them throughout the world. Together, these modes offer a powerful taxonomy to understand innovation through mul-tiple appropriation strategies.

      Dónde cae el Data Week? Pareciera ser confrontacional en lugar de integrado o colarse en los intersticios.

    17. Born in the Plantation, the Hacienda, the Latifundio, and the Mine, creolization is now “scattered in those sheet plates and concrete mazes where our common becoming is adventuring itself, in favellas and mega-cities” (Glissant, 1995: 87). Alive and well, cre-olization can be found where Latin Americans live, in the spaces where they are exposed to new technologies. Born of avoidance (like Internet Protocol (IP) packets that find a route around obstacles) and mixing (like mashups and re-mix), creolization fits the realm of ICTs.
    18. Latin Americans often resort to mixing and re-mixing in a process of “creolization.” The Americas are the con-tinent of mestisaje and hybridization. A reality that implies a process, hybridization can become an identity and the basis for appropriation.

      “We know the other is within us,” Glissant (1997a) writes, “and affects how we evolve and the bulk of our conceptions and the development of our sen-sibility” (p. 27)

      Creolization is crossbreeding plus unpredictability. More important still, it is, and should be seen as a process. Started in the at Plantation, creolization manifests through the evolution of the creole language: “thisunpredictable construction based on heterogeneous elements” (Glissant, 1997b: 37).

      En la Wikipedia se diferencia Creole de los lenguajes mixtos y los pidgin:

      A creole language[1][2][3] is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages. While the concept is similar to that of a mixed or hybrid language, in the strict sense of the term, a mixed/hybrid language has derived from two or more languages, to such an extent that it is no longer closely related to the source languages. Creoles also differ from pidgins in that, while a pidgin has a highly simplified linguistic structure that develops as a means of establishing communication between two or more disparate language groups, a creole language is more complex, used for day-to-day purposes in a community, and acquired by children as a native language. Creole languages, therefore, have a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar.

      [...]

      The English term creole comes from French créole, which is cognate with the Spanish term criollo and Portuguese crioulo, all descending from the verb criar ('to breed' or 'to raise'), all coming from Latin creare ('to produce, create').[18] The specific sense of the term was coined in the 16th and 17th century, during the great expansion in European maritime power and trade that led to the establishment of European colonies in other continents.

      Creolics:

      Mufwene (2000) and Wittmann (2001) have argued further that Creole languages are structurally no different from any other language, and that Creole is in fact a sociohistoric concept (and not a linguistic one), encompassing displaced population and slavery. DeGraff & Walicek (2005) discuss creolistics in relation to colonialist ideologies, rejecting the notion that Creoles can be responsibly defined in terms of specific grammatical characteristics. They discuss the history of linguistics and nineteenth-century work that argues for the consideration of the sociohistorical contexts in which Creole languages emerged.

      Ver también:

    19. The baroque succeeded because it expressed something all Latin American people (Indians, Africans, mestizos, and even sons and daughters of Spaniards born on the con-tinent) had in common: the rejection of the domineering and distant center. Carpentier (1995) explains that to understand “Why is Latin America the chosen territory of the baroque?” we must look at the people and processes that allowed them to finally own the continent: “Because all symbiosis, all mestisaje engenders the baroque. The American baroque develops [...] with the self-awareness of the American man [...] the awareness of being Other, of being new, of being symbiotic, of being a criollo” (p

      Eso se parece a la idea de decir, con las tecnologías del colono, la voz de los colonizados y es similar a lo dicho por Freire y lo que practicamos desde el Data Week, donde rechazamos el discurso centralizado, imperialista y capitalista del "emprendimiento", a pesar de que usamos tecnologías digitales producidas en EEUU para hablar de las voces locales.

    20. They tried to preserve some of their world within the interstices left by conquerors. Direct confrontation was seldom successful, but infiltra-tion could be practiced in everyday life, in many aspects of cultural production. Power was always at stake.The baroque practice originated in Europe, where it was encouraged by Rome within a Counter-Reform strategy in which movement, dance, and popular art were used to counteract protestant rigor. In the Americas, the baroque took on a new life as it infil-trated spaces intentionally left vacant by the Iberian conquerors (Zamora and Kaup, 2010) and created an opportunity for the oppressed to state their presence, insert their messages, and suggest their views of the universe.
    21. Gil, who later became Brazil’s Minister of Culture, described tropicalismo as “No longer a mere submission to the forces of economic imperialism, but a cannibalistic response of swallowing what they gave us, processing it, and making it something new and different” (Dibbell, 1989: 78). Within this historical perspective, Gil’s ministry support for Open Source and Free Software takes on its full meaning.
    22. Three strategies deserve particular attention for their symbolic value: cannibalism, baroque, and creolization. Cannibalism is appropriation trough dismembering, absorption, and chemical transformation. Baroque—an infiltration strategy—is the artistic appropria-tion of spaces through filling and layering. In-between, creolization is appropriatio

      through miscegenation and unpredictable mixing. While inspired by Latin American cul-ture, these prove useful in other cultural, geographical, and historical settings.

    23. Throughout history, Latin American populations have had extensive experience with the appropriation of objects, people, and ideas from abroad, most often in unfavorably asymmetric situations. This tradition continues to pro-duce a culture of its own, born from multiple resistance and appropriation strategies.
    24. Likewise, the interplay between economic, cultural, and political tensions remains largely unexplored.

      En nuestro caso el interjuego entre lo político, lo cultural y lo económico, ha estado presente desde el comienzo, al menos a escala del hackerspace. El cambio de escala ha sido la principal tensión, articulando otras comunidades de activistas o generando una interlocución más fluida con el gobierno.

    25. Surman and Reilly (2003) focus on appropriation of networked technologies in a strategically, politically, and creatively innovative manner oriented toward social change. In this context of advocacy, effective technology appropriation includes strategic Internet use for collaboration, publishing, mobilization, and observation. Here, the delineation between the use and appropriation occurs when technology is adapted to reflect goals and culture. Camacho (2001) describes appropriation by civil society organizations at the pinnacle of a technology use ladder. In the middle of the ladder, organizations focus on adoption of conventional technology. Toward the bottom, organizations and individuals with constrained access or slow adoption rates lag behind and seek access to technology. At the pinnacle, however, pioneers and activists appropriate technology to promote causes, for instance, creating flash mobs through mass text messaging to instantaneously organize large groups of people for social protest

      Desde el comienzo, el Data Week ha estado preocupado por la perspectiva de transformación social en la apropiación tecnológica al estar vinculada con la creación de capacidad en la base, modificación de la infraestructura y la amplificación de voces ciudadanas frente a iniciativas privadas o públicas.

    26. Appropriation considers both learn-ing-by-using and learning-by-doing as central to the development of new processes (Rosenberg, 1982). Learning-by-doing in particular assumes that knowledge emerges through bricolage—tinkering with and recombining technology elements, thus enhancing one’s understanding (Lévi-Strauss, 1966). For Tuomi (2002), learning through appropria-tion is a user-centered process whereby users meld culture with material resources to innovate.

      Los principios de diseño en Smalltalk hacen que aprender haciendo sea uno de los elementos centrales de la estética de encuentro que favorece esta materialidad.

      El continuo donde no hay diferencia entre el entorno de desarrollo y el de usuario, o entre usuario y hacedor, favorece el aprender haciendo. Ejercicios como los del Manual de Periodismo de Datos, son un llamado más directo a la acción y, por tanto, a aprender haciendo, particularmente acá, hemos visto mediante el ejemplo cómo cambiar la herramienta para adecuarla a las necesidades que el ejercicio mismo del manual ha sucitado, pero que se pueden abstraer para otros problemas.

    27. The nexus of appropriation shifts away from user empowerment through technology to users as technology developers, echoing others who view users as designers and developers (Eglash, 2004). The design perspective fur-ther recognizes that not all appropriation is successful. Notably, technological appropria-tion fails when users decide not to explore capabilities or to evaluate a technology (Carroll etal., 2002).
    28. Rogers (2003) defines diffusion as the process through which an innovation is communicated and spreads over time. Rogers theorized diffusion as a one-stage process, whereas appropriation adds a more detailed view of actual technology use (Fichman, 2000)

      Where diffusion explains adoption and spread, appropria-tion explores the impact of use.

      Esto me recuerda Uvikuo, el experimento mental chatbot, programa de mensagería y luego sitio web, que estaba enfocado en la amplia difusión. Grafoscopio, por otro lado está enfocado en la "apropiación" densa en lugar de extensa.

    1. Yet de­spite my flaws as a pro­gram­mer, with Racket I’ve been able to ren­der big­ger ideas into pro­grams more quickly, and with fewer bugs, than any lan­guage I’ve used be­fore (and there have been many—Ba­sic, C, C++, Perl, Java, JavaScript, Python, and oth­ers). Since I haven’t got­ten a brain trans­plant re­cently, there must be some­thing spe­cial about Racket as a language.

      Me pasa lo mismo con Pharo/Smalltalk.

    1. I like to think of Pollen markup a way of capturing not just the text, but also my ideas about the text. Some of these are low-level ideas (“this text should be italicized”). Some are high-level ideas (“this text is the topic of the page”). Some are just notes to myself. In short, everything I know about the text becomes part of the text.In so doing, Pollen markup becomes the source code of the book.

      Es similar a lo que ocurre con los %keyword en Grafoscopio, más la estructura arbórea que provee para el texto y los %embed que permiten que un nodo pueda ser llamado por otro.

    2. The nicest thing we could say about XML is that its intentions are good. It’s pointed toward the right goals. But its benefits are buried under atrocious ergonomics.

      Butterick menciona tres problemas de XML:

      • Verbose syntax
      • Validation overhead
      • Masochistic document processing