874 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2021
    1. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by tens of millions of SARS-CoV-2 infections world-wide, has resulted in considerable levels of mortality and morbidity. The United States has been hit particularly hard having 20 percent of the world’s infections but only 4 percent of the world population. Unfortunately, significant levels of misunderstanding exist about the severity of the disease and its lethality. As COVID-19 disproportionally impacts elderly populations, the false impression that the impact on society of these deaths is minimal may be conveyed by some because elderly individuals are closer to a natural death. To assess the impact of COVID-19 in the US, I have performed calculations of person-years of life lost as a result of 194,000 premature deaths due to SARS-CoV-2 infection as of early October, 2020. By combining actuarial data on life expectancy and the distribution of COVID-19 associated deaths we estimate that over 2,500,000 person-years of life have been lost so far in the pandemic in the US alone, averaging over 13.25 years per person with differences noted between males and females. Importantly, nearly half of the potential years of life lost occur in non-elderly populations. Issues impacting refinement of these models and the additional morbidity caused by COVID-19 beyond lethality are discussed.
    2. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.18.20214783
    3. 2.5 Million Person-Years of Life Have Been Lost Due to COVID-19 in the United States
    4. 2020-10-20

    1. 2020-10-20

    2. Objective To derive and validate a risk prediction algorithm to estimate hospital admission and mortality outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in adults.Design Population based cohort study.Setting and participants QResearch database, comprising 1205 general practices in England with linkage to covid-19 test results, Hospital Episode Statistics, and death registry data. 6.08 million adults aged 19-100 years were included in the derivation dataset and 2.17 million in the validation dataset. The derivation and first validation cohort period was 24 January 2020 to 30 April 2020. The second temporal validation cohort covered the period 1 May 2020 to 30 June 2020.Main outcome measures The primary outcome was time to death from covid-19, defined as death due to confirmed or suspected covid-19 as per the death certification or death occurring in a person with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the period 24 January to 30 April 2020. The secondary outcome was time to hospital admission with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Models were fitted in the derivation cohort to derive risk equations using a range of predictor variables. Performance, including measures of discrimination and calibration, was evaluated in each validation time period.Results 4384 deaths from covid-19 occurred in the derivation cohort during follow-up and 1722 in the first validation cohort period and 621 in the second validation cohort period. The final risk algorithms included age, ethnicity, deprivation, body mass index, and a range of comorbidities. The algorithm had good calibration in the first validation cohort. For deaths from covid-19 in men, it explained 73.1% (95% confidence interval 71.9% to 74.3%) of the variation in time to death (R2); the D statistic was 3.37 (95% confidence interval 3.27 to 3.47), and Harrell’s C was 0.928 (0.919 to 0.938). Similar results were obtained for women, for both outcomes, and in both time periods. In the top 5% of patients with the highest predicted risks of death, the sensitivity for identifying deaths within 97 days was 75.7%. People in the top 20% of predicted risk of death accounted for 94% of all deaths from covid-19.Conclusion The QCOVID population based risk algorithm performed well, showing very high levels of discrimination for deaths and hospital admissions due to covid-19. The absolute risks presented, however, will change over time in line with the prevailing SARS-C0V-2 infection rate and the extent of social distancing measures in place, so they should be interpreted with caution. The model can be recalibrated for different time periods, however, and has the potential to be dynamically updated as the pandemic evolves.
    3. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3731
    4. Living risk prediction algorithm (QCOVID) for risk of hospital admission and mortality from coronavirus 19 in adults: national derivation and validation cohort study
    1. 2020-10-26

    2. Our cities have been the centers of momentous change over the last seven months. From the global pandemic to mass demonstrations over racial injustice, cities have been transformed. Public space is taking on a significant role in our society as a place to demand justice, while public space also raises serious concerns about public health.
    3. The Importance Of Public Space Under The Pandemic And Protests
    1. The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has seen a deluge of clinical studies, with hundreds registered on clinicaltrials.gov. But a palpable sense of urgency and a lingering concern that “in critical situations, large randomized controlled trials are not always feasible or ethical” (1) perpetuate the perception that, when it comes to the rigors of science, crisis situations demand exceptions to high standards for quality
    2. 2020-05-01

    3. 10.1126/science.abc1731
    4. Against pandemic research exceptionalism
    1. 2021-02-10

    2. Mathot, Sebastiaan, and Jennifer March. ‘Conducting Linguistic Experiments Online with OpenSesame and OSWeb’. PsyArXiv, 10 February 2021. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/wnryc.

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/wnryc
    4. In this Methods Showcase, we outline a workflow for running behavioral experiments online, with a focus on linguistic experiments. The workflow that we describe here relies on three tools: OpenSesame/ OSWeb (open source) provides a user-friendly graphical interface for developing experiments; JATOS (open source) is server software for hosting experiments; and Prolific (commercial) is a platform for recruiting participants. These three tools integrate well with each other, and together they provide a workflow that requires little technical expertise. We discuss several challenges that are associated with running online experiments, including temporal precision, the ability to implement counterbalancing, and data quality. We conclude that these problems are real but surmountable, and that in many cases online experiments are a viable alternative to laboratory-based experiments.
    5. Conducting linguistic experiments online with OpenSesame and OSWeb
    1. 2020-10-22

    2. The scientific enterprise has great potential to benefit all aspects of society, as well as to increase our understanding of the world and how it is changing in response to our actions. The advances brought about by research are too many to enumerate; one only needs to think of our successes in identifying the causes of disease and developing appropriate treatments, or the myriad technological advances that are part of our daily lives. For research to serve its purpose of benefitting society, however, it needs to engender something that is as important as it is fragile—trust. Trust in science is essential for it to effectively inform policy and more fully benefit society.
    3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000992
    4. We need leaders that believe in scientific evidence
    1. The family of seven known human coronaviruses are known for their impact on the respiratory tract, not the heart. However, the most recent coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has marked tropism for the heart and can lead to myocarditis (inflammation of the heart), necrosis of its cells, mimicking of a heart attack, arrhythmias, and acute or protracted heart failure (muscle dysfunction)
    2. COVID-19 can affect the heart
    3. 2020-10-23

    1. 2021-01-05

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/xpzs3
    3. Face masks became the symbol of the global fight against the coronavirus. While face masks’ medical benefits are clear, little is known about their psychological consequences. Drawing on theories of the social functions of emotions and rapid trait impressions, we tested hypotheses on face masks’ effects on emotion-recognition accuracy and social judgments (perceived trustworthiness, likability, and closeness). Our preregistered study with 191 German adults revealed that face masks diminish people’s ability to accurately categorize an emotion expression and make target persons appear less close. Exploratory analyses further revealed that face masks buffered the negative effect of negative (vs. non-negative) emotion expressions on perceptions of trustworthiness, likability, and closeness. Associating face masks with the coronavirus’ dangers predicted higher perceptions of closeness for masked but not for unmasked faces. By highlighting face masks’ effects on social functioning, our findings inform policymaking and point at contexts where alternatives to face masks are needed.
    4. Face masks reduce emotion-recognition accuracy and perceived closeness
    1. A lot of conspiracy theories and fake news surrounding the pandemic are doing the rounds. Among the disinformation is a suggestion that COVID-19 vaccines might cause infertility in women.
    2. COVID-19 vaccines do not make women infertile
    3. 2021-01-29

    1. 10.31234/osf.io/hmsj8
    2. Storm Clouds and Silver Linings: Impacts of COVID-19 and Daily Emotional Health in Adolescent Girls
    3. 2021-02-02

    4. Objective: Changes to daily life resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic have the potential to contribute to adolescent girls’ emotional health in both positive and negative ways, but the effects of these profound changes on adolescent daily functioning are unknown. Method: We conducted a 10-day daily diary study in a sample of 93 U.S. adolescent girls (aged 12-17) enriched for temperamental risk for anxiety and depression. The study was conducted in April/May 2020 when all participants were under state-issued stay-at-home orders. Girls provided daily reports of positive and negative affect, depressive and anxious symptoms, activities, and positive and negative impacts resulting from the pandemic. Results: Girls reported engaging in many activities that may contribute to well-being. Positive impacts associated with improved same-day emotional health included spending more time with family, more time to relax, and reduced pressure from school and activities. Negative impacts associated with poorer same-day emotional health included problems with online schooling, lack of space/privacy, lack of a regular schedule, and family conflict. Conclusion: Findings suggest that, when safe and feasible, families and communities should prioritize in-person or quality online schooling, resources and space for learning, promoting daily routines, and spending time with their teens while reducing conflict. The COVID-19 pandemic also appears to have offered many adolescent girls a respite from the chronic stress associated with modern teen life, with time to relax and engage in creative and healthy pursuits showing benefits for daily emotional health, which should be considered following the return to normal life.

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    1. 2021-02-05

    2. Gerardo Gutierrez, 70, died from complications related to COVID-19. A lawsuit filed by his family says he contracted the virus while working at a Publix deli counter during a period the grocer forbid workers from using masks. [ The Gutierrez family ]
    3. Judge denies Publix’s request to dismiss COVID-19 wrongful death case