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  1. Feb 2021
    1. The global COVID-19 death toll stands at more than 1·3 million. Among the lives lost have been those of health-care workers, who have had crucial roles throughout the response and continue to serve at the front lines. At the outset of the pandemic, doctors warned of the potential implications of the virus. As the virus spread, many doctors provided treatment for a disease they little understood, while others contributed to accelerated research on potential treatments and vaccines. And as the COVID-19 pandemic worsened worldwide, health professionals worked tirelessly to provide care for patients—some even emerged from retirement to provide assistance.
    2. A tribute to some of the doctors who died from COVID-19
    1. 2020-12-11

    2. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30954-3
    3. As someone who has been immersed in the COVID-19 pandemic since January of 2020, looking back on all that has happened since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is an extreme challenge. Trying to keep the full context of all the events, the new discoveries, the policies, and the rhetoric is almost a specialty in its own right. That's why a book like Unprepared: America in the Time of Coronavirus by Jon Sternfeld has such value. There will be many books written on this pandemic, but I suspect none that provide such a unique service as Unprepared does. This book is not a traditional narrative but more akin to a pandemic scrapbook. Unprepared is entirely comprised of COVID-related quotations from public figures, news outlets, and organisations. These are chronologically ordered beginning with the ominous news of Dec 31, 2019, which heralded what was to come, extending through June 5, 2020. The book is divided into five sections each aptly titled (e.g., “The Arrival”, “The Emergency”, “The Reckoning”).
    4. The words that shaped COVID-19
    1. 2020-12-07

    2. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30922-1
    3. In their response to our Personal View,1Brown RCH Kelly D Wilkinson D Savulescu J The scientific and ethical feasibility of immunity passports.Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Oct 16.)https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30766-0Summary Full Text Full Text PDF Scopus (3) Google Scholar Françoise Baylis and Natalie Kofler argue that our position is informed by a misguided emphasis on liberal individualism. By contrast, they argue that their insistence that immunity passports must be fought “tooth and nail”2Baylis F Kofler N Why Canadians should fight tooth and nail against proof-of-immunity cards.https://www.cbc.ca/news/opinion/opinion-pandemic-coronavirus-immunity-passport-1.5551528Date: May 7, 2020Date accessed: November 17, 2020Google Scholar is based on a more justifiable, communitarian approach to public health.Our concern for individual liberties is not, we think, extreme. We agree that individuals might be required to make sacrifices in order to promote the social good and, indeed, that the current situation demands many such sacrifices. Although it is unclear what, precisely, Baylis and Kofler's communitarian public health ethic commits one to, it does not (presumably) require a jettisoning of individual interests altogether. Individuals are, after all, components of communities.
    4. A public health ethic should inform policies on COVID-19 immunity passports – Authors' reply
    1. 2020-11-13

    2. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30866-5
    3. We read with interest the article by Estella Ektorp, which describes the death threats received by Marcus Lacerda following a trial on chloroquine for COVID-19 in Brazil.1Ektorp E Death threats after a trial on chloroquine for COVID-19.Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; 20: 661Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (7) Google Scholar We give Lacerda our full support and herein report our experience in France and Switzerland following publication of a meta-analysis2Fiolet T Guihur A Rebeaud ME Mulot M Peiffer-Smadja N Mahamat-Saleh Y Effect of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin on the mortality of COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020; (published online Aug 26.)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.08.022Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (1) Google Scholar on hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, for COVID-19.The meta-analysis included 11 932 participants treated with hydroxychloroquine, 8081 with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, and 12 930 patients in a control group. Hydroxychloroquine was not significantly associated with mortality: pooled relative risk (RR) was 0·83 (95% CI 0·65–1·06) across all 17 studies and 1·09 (0·97–1·24) across three randomised controlled trials. Hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin was associated with increased mortality (RR 1·27, 95% CI 1·04–1·54; seven studies).
    4. Hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19: a tale of populism and obscurantism
    1. 2020-11-19

    2. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32465-X
    3. As the UK enters a winter wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, our understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve. However, what is strikingly clear from early data is the disproportionate effect of COVID-19 on elderly, socioeconomically deprived, and ethnic minority groups, both in the UK and globally.1Aldridge RW Lewer D Katikireddi SV et al.Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data.Wellcome Open Res. 2020; 5: 88Crossref PubMed Google Scholar,  2Chen J Krieger N Revealing the unequal burden of COVID-19 by income, race/ethnicity, and household crowding: US county versus zip code analyses.J Public Health Manag Pract. 2020; (published online Sept 9.)https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000001263Crossref PubMed Scopus (4) Google Scholar Rapid analyses of large-scale population-based data show increased risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and poor outcomes in these groups.3Niedzwiedz CL O'Donnell CA Jani BD et al.Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection: prospective cohort study using UK Biobank.BMC Med. 2020; 18: 160Crossref PubMed Scopus (37) Google Scholar,  4Mathur R Rentsch CT Morton C et al.Ethnic differences in COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation, and mortality: an OpenSAFELY analysis of 17 million adults in England.MedRxiv. 2020; (published online Sept 23.) (preprint)https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.22.20198754Google ScholarThe intersecting effects of occupation, community interactions, household environments, and structural racism are key drivers of excess exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among ethnic minorities.5Ethnicity sub-group of the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE)Drivers of the higher COVID-19 incidence, morbidity and mortality among minority ethnic groups.https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/925135/S0778_Drivers_of_the_higher_COVID-19_incidence__morbidity_and_mortality_among_minority_ethnic_groups.pdfDate: 2020Date accessed: November 12, 2020Google Scholar Ethnic minority groups in the UK typically have higher occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-26Office for National StatisticsCoronavirus (COVID-19) related deaths by occupation, England and Wales.https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/causesofdeath/bulletins/coronaviruscovid19relateddeathsbyoccupationenglandandwales/deathsregisteredbetween9marchand25may2020Date: June 25, 2020Date accessed: November 12, 2020Google Scholar and reduced opportunity to work from home. Transmission of infectious diseases is known to be more intense in densely populated and deprived areas, and within closely interconnected social networks. Highly socially and physically connected households with extended kinship and social support ties are generally more common in ethnic minority communities.7Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on BehavioursSPI-B: well-being and household connection: the behavioural considerations of “bubbles”. Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies, May 14, 2020https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/spi-b-well-being-and-household-connection-the-behavioural-considerations-of-bubbles-14-may-2020Date accessed: November 12, 2020Google Scholar Furthermore, many of these households are multigenerational, with older age adults, working age adults, and children living together.8UK GovernmentFamilies and households.https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/uk-population-by-ethnicity/demographics/families-and-households/latestDate: April 3, 2019Date accessed: November 4, 2020Google Scholar Multigenerational living can intensify transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and efforts to isolate vulnerable or older individuals can be difficult, especially when combined with overcrowded living conditions
    4. Urgent actions and policies needed to address COVID-19 among UK ethnic minorities
    1. 2020-11-23

    2. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30910-5
    3. Cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection have been reported in Hong Kong, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the USA.1To KK-W Hung IF-N Ip JD et al.COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-coronavirus-2 strain confirmed by whole genome sequencing.Clin Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Aug 25.)https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1275Crossref Google Scholar,  2Tillett RL Sevinsky JR Hartley PD et al.Genomic evidence for reinfection with SARS-CoV-2: a case study.Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Oct 12.)https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30764-7Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (33) Google Scholar,  3Iwasaki A What reinfections mean for COVID-19.Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Oct 12.)https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30783-0Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (12) Google Scholar,  4Mulder M van der Vegt DSJM Oude Munnink BB et al.Reinfection of SARS-CoV-2 in an immunocompromised patient: a case report.Clin Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Oct 9.)https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1538Crossref Google Scholar Here we report the first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in Ecuador and South America.
    4. A case of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in Ecuador
    1. 2020-12-02

    2. IN EARLY November, covid-19 cases in Europe were surging, accounting for almost half the world’s new cases and deaths. Now many in the region are emerging from a second round of lockdowns, including England on 2 December and soon France on 15 December. So how well did they work, and which countries got them right?
    3. Did Europe's lockdowns work, and which countries got it right?
    1. 2020-11-06

    2. 10.1126/science.abf5396
    3. Racism, climate denial, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are major crises standing in the way of a prosperous future for the United States, and resolution of all three could be enabled by science that is persistently ignored. In Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises, a character named Mike is asked how he went bankrupt. “Two ways,” he answers. “Gradually, then suddenly.” The resistance of U.S. policy to science has followed a similar path: It gradually built up over 40 years, beginning with the election of Ronald Reagan, but suddenly reached a tipping point in the chaos of 2020. Will the path to resolution also be gradual and then sudden, and if so, at what cost?
    4. Gradually, then suddenly
    1. 2020-10-21

    2. “FORTUNATE” isn’t a word that often comes up in relation to the coronavirus pandemic, but in one respect it is true. In the nine months that the virus behind covid-19 has been circulating widely, it has hardly mutated at all. “We are fortunate that the virus is not mutating fast,” says Sudhir Kumar at Temple University in Pennsylvania. A rapidly mutating virus could evolve into different, possibly more virulent, strains. “So it’s good to have a low diversity” among the viruses currently circulating, he says.
    3. Is the coronavirus evolving and will it become more or less deadly?
    1. 2020-09-16

    2. Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural America
    3. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2019378118
    4. Despite considerable social scientific attention to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on urbanized areas, very little research has examined its impact on rural populations. Yet rural communities—which make up tens of millions of people from diverse backgrounds in the United States—are among the nation’s most vulnerable populations and may be less resilient to the effects of such a large-scale exogenous shock. We address this critical knowledge gap with data from a new survey designed to assess the impacts of the pandemic on health-related and economic dimensions of rural well-being in the North American West. Notably, we find that the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural populations have been severe, with significant negative impacts on unemployment, overall life satisfaction, mental health, and economic outlook. Further, we find that these impacts have been generally consistent across age, ethnicity, education, and sex. We discuss how these findings constitute the beginning of a much larger interdisciplinary COVID-19 research effort that integrates rural areas and pushes beyond the predominant focus on cities and nation-states.
    1. 2020-12-15

    2. Among groups at higher risk of dying from COVID-19, such as people with diabetes, people with DS stand out: If infected, they are five times more likely to be hospitalized and 10 times more likely to die than the general population, according to a large U.K. study published in October. Other recent studies back up the high risk.
    3. COVID-19 is 10 times deadlier for people with Down syndrome, raising calls for early vaccination
    4. 10.1126/science.abg1795
    1. 2020-12-14

    2. People worldwide have been waking up an hour later than normal during the coronavirus pandemic. Data collected from 100,000 users of a sleep-tracking app, Sleep as Android, from countries around the globe provides a snapshot of how sleeping patterns have shifted. Users toggle the app on and off as they go to bed and wake up.
    3. People are spending an extra hour in bed since pandemic started
    1. 2020-12-11

    2. Scientists have identified a collection of drugs with the potential to benefit tens of thousands of patients who are admitted to intensive care with life-threatening coronavirus infections. The breakthrough emerged from a major study of critically ill patients that revealed a suite of genes involved in antiviral defences and lung inflammation that leave people at greater risk of developing severe Covid disease.
    3. This article is more than 2 months old Coronavirus: UK scientists identify drugs that may help severe cases
    1. 2020-12-03

    2. A public-interest group told a London court that the U.K. wasted millions of pounds on Covid-19 personal-protective equipment as it rushed into contracts at the start of the pandemic.Nearly 400 million pounds ($538 million) worth of protective gear, including masks and gowns, that were bought earlier in the year remain in storage and have never reached frontline doctors and nurses, the Good Law Project said in a court filing Thursday. {"contentId":"QKRH4EDWRGG801","position":"box","dimensions":{"mobile":[[300,250],[3,3],[1,1],"fluid"]},"type":"Mobile Body Box Ad","positionIncrement":1,"targeting":{"position":"box1","positionIncrement":1,"url":"/news/articles/2020-12-03/u-k-s-obscure-ppe-process-during-pandemic-challenged-in-suit"},"containerId":"box-7C8ZWoB"}
    3. U.K.’s ‘Obscure’ PPE Process During Pandemic Challenged
    1. 2021-01-11

    2. The UK’s race to vaccinate 13.9 million people in high-priority groups against covid-19 by 15 February is a Herculean undertaking. “Unprecedented” may have become an overused word in the pandemic, but the size and speed of the vaccine roll-out warrants it, though it may still be months before many people receive a covid-19 vaccine.
    3. The UK may struggle to hit its covid-19 vaccine target – here's why
    1. 2021-01-16

    2. I am no lockdown junkie. I’d like to get that straight before I explain why the most extreme variant of lockdown scepticism is rebarbative and destructive. I will never forgive the government for dragging out the first lockdown for 14 weeks, pointlessly exhausting the public’s patience and sowing the seeds of the non-compliance we see today. I think the second lockdown was an unnecessary overreaction to a surge in cases in the north-west that was being dealt with by local restrictions. I think the 10pm curfew was counter-productive and the tier system was clumsy and unfair. I always thought “circuit breakers” caused unnecessary hardship and had no chance of nipping the problem in the bud, as their advocates claimed. It was criminal to not reopen the schools in June and I’m not entirely convinced they should be closed now. I scorn the likes of Piers Morgan and “Independent” SAGE who would have had us in lockdown all year if they’d had a chance. No amount of comparing Sweden to its immediate neighbours will persuade me that the Swedes didn’t have a better 2020 than most Europeans. Contrary to folk wisdom, you can put a price on life and it can’t be denied that most of the people who die of COVID have had a good innings.
    3. Rise of the Coronavirus Cranks
    1. 2021-01-17

    2. As the total number of U.S. coronavirus cases surpassed 24 million on Monday, Los Angeles County, one of the hardest-hit areas, may face even more dire weeks ahead. Deaths in the county have continued to climb as the national death toll nears 400,000.
    3. As the U.S. surpasses 24 million cases, Los Angeles confronts a more contagious variant.
    1. n 8 December, during a regular Tuesday meeting about the spread of the pandemic coronavirus in the United Kingdom, scientists and public health experts saw a diagram that made them sit up straight. Kent, in southeastern England, was experiencing a surge in cases, and a phylogenetic tree showing viral sequences from the county looked very strange, says Nick Loman, a microbial genomicist at the University of Birmingham. Not only were half the cases caused by one specific variant of SARS-CoV-2, but that variant was sitting on a branch of the tree that literally stuck out from the rest of the data. “I’ve not seen a part of the tree that looks like this before,” Loman says. Less than 2 weeks later, that variant is causing mayhem in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe. Yesterday, U.K. Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced stricter lockdown measures, saying the strain, which goes by the name B.1.1.7, appears to be better at spreading between people. The news led many Londoners to leave the city today, before the new rules take effect, causing overcrowded railway stations. The Netherlands, Belgium, and Italy announced they were temporarily halting passenger flights from the United Kingdom. The Eurostar train between Brussels and London will stop running tonight at midnight, for at least 24 hours.
    2. Mutant coronavirus in the United Kingdom sets off alarms, but its importance remains unclear
    3. 2020-12-20

    1. 2020-12-15

    2. Many countries have closed their borders to people leaving the UK due to the rapid spread within the country of a new variant of the coronavirus that might be more transmissible. Meanwhile, South Africa is also reporting the spread of another new variant. Here’s what you need to know.
    3. What you need to know about the new variant of coronavirus in the UK
    1. 2021-01-06

    2. Rampant partisanship in the United States may be the largest obstacle to the reduced social mobility most experts see as critical to limiting the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyzing a total of just over 1.1 million responses collected daily between 4 April and 10 September reveals not only that partisanship is more important than public health concerns for explaining individuals’ willingness to stay at home and reduce social mobility but also that the effect of partisanship has grown over time—especially among Republicans. All else equal, the relative importance of partisanship for the increasing (un)willingness of Republicans to stay at home highlights the challenge that politics poses for public health.
    3. Partisan pandemic: How partisanship and public health concerns affect individuals’ social mobility during COVID-19
    1. 2021-02-18

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/7szaw
    3. Prior research has indicated that disease threat and disgust are associated with harsher moral condemnation. We investigated the role of a specific, highly salient health concern, namely the spread of the coronavirus, and associated COVID-19 disease, on moral condemnation. We hypothesized that individuals who report greater subjective worry about COVID-19 would be more sensitive to moral transgressions. Across 3 studies (N = 913), conducted March-May 2020 as the pandemic started to unfold in the United States, we found that individuals who were worried about contracting the infectious disease made harsher moral judgments than those who were relatively less worried. This effect was not restricted to transgressions involving purity, but extended to transgressions involving harm, fairness, authority, and loyalty, and remained when controlling for political orientation. Furthermore, for Studies 1 and 2 the effect also was robust when taking into account the contamination subscale of the Disgust Scale—Revised. These findings add to the growing literature that concrete threats to health can play a role in abstract moral considerations, supporting the notion that judgments of wrongdoing are not based on rational thought alone.
    4. Disease and Disapproval: COVID-19 Concern is Related to Greater Moral Condemnation
    1. 2020-12-07

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/kcpqm
    3. Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was first identified in Wuhan China in December 2019. Because of Covid-19 worldwide spreading in 2020, urgent hygiene and lockdown measures have been implemented with fundamental consequences on the lives of people in all sectors of society. Besides visible socio-economic and documented health effects, the impact of Covid-19 on people’s mental health including stress-related effects on disease spreading remains yet to be addressed. Here, we argue about the relevance of incorporating stress factors into models of covid-19 spreading and the level of detail in which such models should take stress into consideration.
    4. Stress as a meaningful variable in models of covid-19 spreading
    1. 2020-12-15

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/da95b
    3. Preexisting conditions affect disease susceptibility. Here, I show that socio-cultural values are population-level risk factors for disease. Using data from the World Values Survey, I show that, between 2 weeks and 6 months after the first COVID-19-related death in a country, COVID-19-related mortality is increased in countries endorsing values related to political participation, but decreased in countries with more trust in institutions and materialistic orientations. After controlling for income, age, urbanicity, smoking, overweight, private health expenditure and lockdown delay, these socio-cultural values were consistent across country-sets, reduced prediction errors by up to 52% and explained up to 68% of inter-country variability. They were relatively specific to COVID-19-related mortality. I could not identify values predicting general health outcomes, and values predicting increased COVID-19-related mortality predicted decreased mortality due to other causes like environmental-related mortality, explaining up to 90% of inter-country variability. Socio-cultural values might be specific predictors of health outcomes.
    4. The values of survival: Socio-cultural values predict COVID-19-related mortality
    1. 2020-12-07

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/vr5jd
    3. Background. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poorer adult mental health, and benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs) are associated with better adult mental health. Objective. To test whether ACEs and BCEs predict adult mental health beyond current stress and social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants and Setting. We analyzed data from undergraduate and graduate students (N = 502) at an urban private university in the western United States. Methods. An online survey was conducted to assess ACEs and BCEs, current stress and social support, depressive and anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and loneliness in May 2020. Results. Higher levels of ACEs were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, β = 0.45, p = .002. Higher levels of BCEs were associated with lower depressive symptoms, β = -0.39, p = .03, lower perceived stress, β = -0.26, p = .002, and less loneliness, β = -0.12, p = .04. These associations held while controlling for current stress, social support, and socioeconomic status. Conclusions. Childhood experiences are associated with mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. BCEs should be considered an important promotive factor, independent of ACEs, for psychological well-being during a global public health crisis. BCEs should be included along with ACEs in future research and screening with distressed and vulnerable populations.
    4. Adverse and Benevolent Childhood Experiences Predict Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. 2020-11-23

    2. Anderson, Ian, and Wendy Wood. ‘Habits and the Electronic Herd: The Psychology behind Social Media’s Successes and Failures’. PsyArXiv, 23 November 2020. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/p2yb7.

    3. osf.io/d8xys/
    4. If platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter are the engines of social media use, what is the gasoline? The answer can be found in the psychological dynamics behind consumer habit formation and performance. In fact, the financial success of different social media sites is closely tied to the daily‐use habits they create among users. We explain how the rewards of social media sites motivate user habit formation, how social media design provides cues that automatically activate habits and nudge continued use, and how strong habits hinder quitting social media. Demonstrating that use habits are tied to cues, we report a novel test of a 2008 change in Facebook design, showing that it impeded posting only of frequent, habitual users, suggesting that the change disrupted habit automaticity. Finally, we offer predictions about the future of social media sites, highlighting the features most likely to promote user habits.
    5. Habits and the electronic herd: The psychology behind social media’s successes and failures
    1. 2020-11-07

    2. Aczel, Balazs, Marton Kovacs, and Rink Hoekstra. ‘The Role of Human Fallibility in Psychological Research: A Survey of Mistakes in Data Management’. PsyArXiv, 5 November 2020. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xcykz.

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/xcykz
    4. Errors are an inevitable consequence of human fallibility and researchers are no exception. Most researchers can recall major frustrations or serious time delays due to human errors while collecting, analyzing, or reporting data. The present study is an exploration of mistakes made during the data management process in psychological research. We surveyed 464 researchers regarding the type, frequency, seriousness, and outcome of mistakes that have occurred in their research team during the last 5 years. The majority of respondents suggested that mistakes occurred with very low or low frequency. Most respondents reported that the most frequent mistakes led to insignificant or minor consequences, such as time loss or frustration. The most serious mistakes caused insignificant or minor consequences for about a third of respondents, moderate consequences for almost half of respondents, and major or extreme consequences for about one-fifth of respondents. The most frequently reported types of mistakes were ‘ambiguous naming/defining of data’, ‘incorrect data processing/analysis’, and ‘version control error’. Most mistakes were reportedly due to poor project planning or management and/or personal issues (physical or cognitive constraints). These initial exploratory findings lay the groundwork for a systematic investigation of human fallibility in research data management and the development of solutions that may reduce errors and mitigate their impact.
    5. The role of human fallibility in psychological research: A survey of mistakes in data management
    1. 2021-01-13

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/es3rd
    3. Millions of people are mourning the death of a loved to COVID-19. According to previous studies, the circumstances of coronavirus disease-related deaths may lead to dysfunctional grief. The purpose of this study was to introduce the Polish adaptation of the Pandemic Grief Scale (PGS) as well as to assess the relationship between dysfunctional grief due to a COVID-19 death, resilience and perceived social support. The adaptation was carried out on a general population sample of 286 individuals aged 18–54 years, with the evaluation being performed on a group comprising 214 people aged 18–78 years, who lost a loved one during the pandemic. The Polish version of PGS revealed a single-factor structure with strong internal consistency (α = 0.89). The PGS scores were associated with measures of complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief), depression (Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale) and lower resilience (Resilience Scale 14), which confirmed the scale’s convergent validity. No relation between PGS scores and health behaviors (Inventory of Health Behaviors) was observed, which confirmed the scale’s discriminant validity. The results of the bootstrapping technique revealed that resilience mediates the relationship between perceived social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) and dysfunctional grief (total mediation). The results of this study suggest the need for practitioners to focus on resilience-enhancing interventions and perceived social support in order to improve mental health in people who lost their loved ones during the new coronavirus pandemic.
    4. Pandemic Grief in Poland: Adaptation of a Measure and its relationship with Social Support and Resilience
    1. 2021-01-28

    2. Ledgerwood, Alison, Sa-kiera Tiarra Jolynn Hudson, Jr Neil Lewis, Keith Maddox, Cynthia Pickett, Jessica Remedios, Sapna Cheryan, et al. ‘The Pandemic as a Portal: Reimagining Psychological Science as Truly Open and Inclusive’. PsyArXiv, 11 January 2021. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/gdzue.

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/gdzue
    4. Psychological science is at an inflection point: The COVID-19 pandemic has already begun to exacerbate inequalities that stem from our historically closed and exclusive culture. Meanwhile, reform efforts to change the future of our science are too narrow in focus to fully succeed. In this paper, we call on psychological scientists—focusing specifically on those who use quantitative methods in the United States as one context in which such a conversation can begin—to reimagine our discipline as fundamentally open and inclusive. First, we discuss who our discipline was designed to serve and how this history produced the inequitable reward and support systems we see today. Second, we highlight how current institutional responses to address worsening inequalities are inadequate, as well as how our disciplinary perspective may both help and hinder our ability to craft effective solutions. Third, we take a hard look in the mirror at the disconnect between what we ostensibly value as a field and what we actually practice. Fourth and finally, we lead readers through a roadmap for reimagining psychological science in whatever roles and spaces they occupy, from an informal discussion group in a department to a formal strategic planning retreat at a scientific society.
    5. The Pandemic as a Portal: Reimagining Psychological Science as Truly Open and Inclusive
    1. 2021-01-14

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/8me7q
    3. Differences in political ideology are increasingly appearing as an impediment to successful bipartisan communication from local leadership. For example, recent empirical findings have shown that conservatives are less likely to adhere to COVID-19 health directives. This behavior is in direct contradiction to past research which indicates that conservatives are more rule abiding, prefer to avoid loss, and are more prevention-motivated than liberals. We reconcile this disconnect between recent empirical findings and past research by using insights gathered from press releases, millions of tweets, and mobility data capturing local movement in retail, grocery, workplace, parks, and transit domains during COVID-19 shelter-in-place orders. We find that conservatives adhere to health directives when they express more fear of the virus. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we analyze both official and citizen communications and find that press releases from local and federal government, along with the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, lead to an increase in expressions of fear on Twitter.
    4. Scared into Action: How Partisanship and Fear are Associated with Reactions to Public Health Directives
    1. 2021-03-1

    2. Misinformation on COVID-19 is so pervasive that even some patients dying from the disease still say it’s a hoax. In March 2020, nearly 30% of U.S. adults believed the Chinese government created the coronavirus as a bioweapon (Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 263, 2020) and in June, a quarter believed the outbreak was intentionally planned by people in power (Pew Research Center, 2020).
    3. Controlling the spread of misinformation
    1. 2020-10-27

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/u9pe3
    3. Frankfurt defined persuasive communication that has no regard for truth, knowledge, or evidence as bullshit. Although there has been a lot of psychological research on pseudo-profound bullshit, no study examined this type of communication in politics. In the present research, we operationalize political bullshit receptivity as endorsing vague political statements, slogans, and political bullshit programs. We investigated the relationship of these three measures with pseudo-profound bullshit, ideology (political ideology, support for neoliberalism), populism, and voting behavior. Three pre-registered studies in different cultural settings (the United States, Serbia, The Netherlands; total N = 534) yielded medium to high intercorrelations between political bullshit measures and pseudo-profound bullshit, and good construct validity (hypothesized one-factor solution). A Bayesian meta-analysis showed that all political bullshit measures positively correlated with support for the free market, while only some positively correlated with social (political statements and programs) and economic conservatism (programs), and populism (programs). In the U.S., higher receptivity to political bullshit was associated with a higher probability that one voted for Trump (vs Clinton) in the past and higher intentions to vote for Trump (vs Biden and Sanders). In the Netherlands, higher receptivity to political bullshit predicted the intention to vote for the conservative-liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. Exploratory analyses on merged datasets showed that higher receptivity to political bullshit was associated with a higher probability to vote for right-wing candidates/parties and lower probability for the left-wing ones. Overall, political bullshit endorsement showed good validity, opening avenues for research in political communication, especially when this communication is broad and meaningless.
    4. Political bullshit receptivity and its correlates: a cross-cultural validation of the concept
    1. 2020-08-18

    2. Mori, Makoto, Harlan M. Krumholz, and Heather G. Allore. ‘Using Latent Class Analysis to Identify Hidden Clinical Phenotypes’. JAMA 324, no. 7 (18 August 2020): 700–701. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2278.

    3. In precision medicine, a common question for researchers is whether patients can be classified with others who have similar risks and treatment responses. Such groupings can assist in predicting risk and matching patients with appropriate treatment strategies. The challenge is that it is often not easy to identify meaningful clusters of people with the observable data.
    4. 10.1001/jama.2020.2278
    5. Using Latent Class Analysis to Identify Hidden Clinical Phenotypes
    1. 2020-10-23

    2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly across the globe, causing epidemics that range from quickly controlled local outbreaks (such as New Zealand) to large ongoing epidemics infecting millions (such as the United States). A tremendous volume of scientific literature has followed, as has vigorous debate about poorly understood facets of the disease, including the relative importance of various routes of transmission, the roles of asymptomatic and presymptomatic infections, and the susceptibility and transmissibility of specific age groups. This discussion may create the impression that our understanding of transmission is frequently overturned. Although our knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is constantly deepening in important ways, the fundamental engines that drive the pandemic are well established and provide a framework for interpreting this new information.