137 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2021
    1. ♿🏳️‍🌈💙Jack Monroe (they/she). ‘I’m Getting Individual Permission from Everyone Sending Me Pics of Their Food Boxes in My DMs to Repost Them Here but without Identifying Information Because I Try to Be Responsible with This Large Platform and There Are ~children~ Involved Here. Disclaimer Done, Now Get Angry.’ Tweet. @BootstrapCook (blog), 12 January 2021. https://twitter.com/BootstrapCook/status/1348917929132367872.

    1. Grint, D. J., Wing, K., Williamson, E., McDonald, H. I., Bhaskaran, K., Evans, D., Evans, S. J., Walker, A. J., Hickman, G., Nightingale, E., Schultze, A., Rentsch, C. T., Bates, C., Cockburn, J., Curtis, H. J., Morton, C. E., Bacon, S., Davy, S., Wong, A. Y., … Eggo, R. M. (2021). Case fatality risk of the SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern B.1.1.7 in England. MedRxiv, 2021.03.04.21252528. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.04.21252528

  2. Feb 2021
  3. May 2020
    1. App of the Week

      Best App of the week comes with all the great innovations around the globe. Might be some of these apps bring fortune to your business.

  4. Nov 2019
    1. From this page:

      AUPresses thinks more readers should be aware of the work they’re doing. That’s why during the organization’s annual University Press Week, it launched a reading list it’s calling READ. THINK. ACT., a list of 75 peer-reviewed books designed to help non-academic readers understand the world and work to make it a better place.

  5. Sep 2019
  6. Aug 2019
  7. Jun 2019

      Figure 1-6 and 1-7 look very different, and it could be hard to see that they are documenting the same set of data. This manipulation of data and how it is viewd can be used for very specific intents. If I wanted a client to see that my business has a consistent viewer rate, I would show them them figure 1-7's monthly chart, because of how smooth it looks. To me at first glance, it seems much more "consistent" than figure 1-6, with all of its spikes.


      This is also an important part of marketing. While there is a specific "thing" or "data" that is being produced, the facts are not necessarily all that you're looking for. You want to look at how this connects to the readers or buyers, what it makes them feel and think. Ultimately, the goal is to make these people buy into the thing/idea etc. being sold, .


      I think the whole idea of visualizations and statistics is to create something relateable. Without providing context there would be no way for the general public to interact with the data without intense reading and critical analysis. And, let's be honest, who really wants to do that much thinking about every little thing? Creating visualizations help us all to understand complex ideas easier.

      It also helps us to visualize these complex data sets to see patterns and themes that could have otherwise been overlooked. Not only do these visualizations help the general public to understand, it also helps professionals in their field analyze data within different contexts to see all of the potential.


      I believe this is very important. I think a lot of people tend to forget who they are presenting to, and lots of the valuable information goes to waste. In m Health Care Systems class we were always presented with lots of statistical data but nothing was every explain nor was the source the data was collected from presented so it seemed very misleading. Lots of numbers were thrown around without a true explanation given. After reading through this article, it seems more information was needed for both the students and the professor to understand the information provided.


      This reminds me of Organic Chemistry labs. When data points don't make sense, something must have gone wrong in the experiment. It was vital to ensure that the source was found to determine if it would effect the results or if the experiment needed to be redone.


      I wonder why bubbles were used instead of a geographical map displaying the percent? I know it mentions how it puts people to sleep, but wouldn't this be more confusing?


      This seems extremely difficult to follow. I'm wondering how people who are colour blind might interpret this chart due to the similar colours used to display the stats.

  8. May 2019
    1. enginethatistheproblembut,rather,theusersofsearchengineswhoare.Itsuggeststhatwhatismostpopularissimplywhatrisestothetopofthesearchpile
      • I wanted to highlight the previous sentence as well, but for some reason it wouldn't let me*

      I understand why the author is troubled by the campaign's opinion of "It's not the search engines fault". It makes it seem as if there was nothing that could be done to stop promoting those ideas, and that if something is popular it will just have to be the result at the top.

      This can be problematic, as people who were not initially searching that specific phrase may click through to read racist, sexist, homophobic, or biased information (to just name a few) that perpetuates inaccuracies and negative stereotypes. It provides easier access into dangerous thinking built on the foundations of racism, sexism, etc.

      If the algorithms are changed or monitored to remove those negative searches, the people exposed to those ideas would decrease, which could help tear down the extreme communities that can build up from them.

      While I do understand this view, I also think that system can be helpful too. All the search engine does is reflect the most popular searches, and if negative ideals are what people are searching, then we can become aware and direct their paths to more educational and unbiased sources. It could be interesting to see what would happen if someone clicked on a link that said "Women belong in the kitchen", that led them to results that spoke about equality and feminism.

    1. Humanities faculty, unlike their STEM counterparts, do not have labs. We do not have a place for our work and no one sees our process.

      Is this implying that people do see progress in labs? Or that somehow labs are in a way accessible for people to come in and view academic research in progress? If that's a thing that happens, I'd love to check in on the labs of more advanced students, but I have a strong feeling that simply asking to be in a lab and watch people work will be met with quite a bit of resistance.

    2. However, that work (and it is intellectual labor) is invisible and largely undervalued.

      In my microbiology lab in the January semester I realized for the first time exactly how much work goes into a paper. It gave me a healthy respect for published academics, as well as made me realize, immediately, I do not want to stay in academia my whole life. Some people are incredible with the amount of effort they put into their research.

    3. Academics are constantly being told that they need to make their work more relevant and accessible to the public. Blogging about your work hits both of those marks. It also means that you have to translate your work from academese to language that non-academics will understand (i.e. jargon) and also foreground the relevance of your work. You have to tell people why your work is important and what it adds to the world.

      Do you ever wish you read the whole article before annotating because you read one paragraph down and find out the article says the exact thing you said in your annotation? Yeah. Well, at least I feel validated in my constant search for accessible academic content.

    4. As a result, I suggest that one thing that all humanities scholars can do to take a baby step in the direction of digital humanities is to maintain a blog about their research.

      Oh, what a coincidence that our major project in this class is to maintain a blog about our findings! Joking aside, I wish articles came with a link to a blog about the research involved in them. No matter how many times I read and re-read the methods section I never can seem to fully understand what the researchers were doing, because I'm an undergraduate just scratching the surface of topics. A blog would have more casual details and wouldn't assume the audience knows a lot already and would allow me to learn without having to delve for 80 hours down a rabbit hole about a specific enzyme in one microbe to figure out why it was even mentioned. Or maybe I'm just not a natural born student!

    1. “People will use this data in ways we can’t even imagine yet,” Mr. Stowell said, “and I think that is one of the most exciting developments in the humanities.”

      I keep coming back to history in my annotations, and honestly the article could work as a reading in a history class too. This kind of collection of data; of sources for the future could do wonders for future historians. Digital records, especially those online, don't burn or get water damaged or get eaten by moths. I think it's very important that we consider our digital footprints in a historical sense, from our own personal data (which I can see functioning much the same way as diaries do for historians now) to larger projects such as the tapestry mentioned above.

    2. Mr. Edelstein said that many of his senior colleagues view his work as whimsical, the result of playing with technological toys. But he argues such play can lead to discoveries.

      As he should; he's correct. Technological advances come from "playing with technological toys" all the time, it's no stretch of the imagination to assume academic advances would as well. Of course people are always resistant to change; it's in our nature, but using the tools at our disposal to improve our work is a part of academia.

    3. “You would think if England was this fountainhead of freedom and religious tolerance,” he said, “there would have been greater continuing interest there than what our correspondence map shows us.”

      While I am not surprised that the extent of England's greatness was greatly exaggerated (given our colonial, euro, and white -centric views of history) it's very important to have the data and evidence to back it up.

    4. Even historians, who have used databases before, have been slow to embrace the trend. Just one of the nearly 300 main panels scheduled for next year’s annual meeting of the American Historical Association covers digital matters.

      We explored the expansion of digital records briefly in HIST211 in the January semester. One of the issues with history is having very few (if any) primary sources, but a bigger issue is that they often contradict each other. Digital databanks and scans of old documents and even sites like ancestry.ca have broadened sources available to historians but they also cause more contradictions to be found, making the reconstruction of any historical event/period potentially more difficult.

    5. Mr. Bobley said the emerging field of digital humanities is probably best understood as an umbrella term covering a wide range of activities, from online preservation and digital mapping to data mining and the use of geographic information systems.

      Honestly the category of digital humanities seems like it could do with being split into two (or several) smaller fields of study. I'm sure it already is, the same way ecology and ornithology are both biology, but at least with biology it can be summarized as "the study of life" - with digital humanities I still struggle to come up with something like that - "the study of anything that could possibly be explored further/easier with anything similar to a computer?"

    6. This alliance of geeks and poets has generated exhilaration and also anxiety. The humanities, after all, deal with elusive questions of aesthetics, existence and meaning, the words that bring tears or the melody that raises goose bumps. Are these elements that can be measured? Advertisement Continue reading the main story “The digital humanities do fantastic things,” said the eminent Princeton historian Anthony Grafton. “I’m a believer in quantification. But I don’t believe quantification can do everything. So much of humanistic scholarship is about interpretation.”

      Not to argue with the New York Times and a Princeton Historian, but are the digital humanities really limited to quantification? I think that's perhaps a bit of a narrow minded opinion, or that I'm misinterpreting. For example, digital art or the study of digital artwork could be considered digital humanities, and I don't think that digital art has anything to do with quantification.

      I do understand the idea that quantification and data can't "deal with elusive questions of aesthetics, existence and meaning, the words that bring tears or the melody that raises goose bumps" (frankly an awful sentence, but that's besides the point) without human interpretation. I've seen some truly horrifying or very encouraging statistics before that can evoke these responses like a piece of literature, but the statistics alone do not embody those reactions.

    1. El ritmo de las actividades de diseño e instalación de redes comunitarias en veredas del municipio de Fusagasugá se ve acrecentado por las convocatorias internas de investigación de la Universidad de Cundinamarca que a lo largo del tiempo de vida de Red FusaLibrehan sido un músculo financiero que les permite acelerar los proc

      Interesante vínculo entre comunidad y universidad. En nuestro caso, no hemos logrado un vínculo permanente y si bien algunos dineros de convocatorias de investigación universitaria y convocatorias internacionales permitieron pagar parte de los Data Weeks, junto con una contribución menor de algunos asistentes, en general ha sido un proyecto financiado con recursos propios y préstamos familiares.

  9. Feb 2019
    1. These models are emerging, which is why its exciting to be involved in the ground floor of this sector, however some models clearly make sense already and thats largely because they closely follow the models free software itself has shaped. If you want status, then you can make a name for yourself by leading a team to write the docs ala free software itself, if you want money then build the reputation for the documentation team and contract out your knowledge (eg. extend the docs on contract ala free software).

      Creo que hay que conectarlo con modelos de microfinanciación y tiendas independientes tipo Itch.io y que el experimento debería ser progresivo pero dejar un mapa posible de su propio futuro. Algo así intentaremos en la edición 13a del Data Week.

  10. Nov 2018
    1. In 2016,Microsoft launched Tay, an experimental artificial intelligence chat bot. Learning from interactions with Twitter users, Tay was shut down after one day because of its obscene and inflammatory tweets. This article uses the case of Tay to re-examine theories of agency. How did users view the personality and actions of an artificial intelligence chat bot when interacting with Tay on Twitter? Using phenomenological research methods and pragmatic approaches to agency, we look at what people said about Tay to study how they imagine and interact with emerging technologies and to show the limitations of our current theories of agency for describing communication in these settings.

      A Journal Talking about a twitter bot(Tay) created by Microsoft

    1. If there is a recent date in the very title of the video, and that particular video has been uploaded to YouTube multiple times over a short span of time, then there is high probability that the video is a fake

      Remember to see how many times that video has been uploaded. Also check for the date in the title could also instigate that it is a fake.

  11. Feb 2018
    1. Dentro de esta propuesta, bien llamada ‘investigación desde la acción colectiva’ (IAC), “las comunidades hacen parte de la producción del conocimiento como investigadoras y los investigadores e investigadoras hacen parte de las acciones colectivas [de transformación social]”

      [...] plantear la desjerarquización y deselitización del conocimiento, es decir, a la descolonización epistémica como elemento integral de estas visiones.

      La hackatón en ese sentido tendría que diversificarse, para admitir más saberes. Aún nos falta, pero estamos abriéndonos a saberes bibliotecarios, editoriales y periodísticos, desde las prácticas y convocatorias que realiza el Data Week. Los diplomados podrían extender esto.

    2. ‘caminar la palabra’, un concepto desarrollado por la minga social y comunitaria de los nasa para señalar la necesidad de hacerse visible, denunciar y tejer conocimientos, resistencias y estrategias de manera colectiva con otros movimientos. Las alianzas requieren la creación de inter-conocimiento y traducción entre movimientos y mundos para permitir la inteligibilidad y una medida de coordinación (
    3. . Cambiar la forma de cambiar para cambiar de manera autónoma y construir una nueva realidad (comunidad, región, nación) desde abajo y a la izquierda, como los zapatistas gustan decir. La autonomía no se logra por medio de la ‘captura del Estado’ sino recuperando del Estado las áreas claves de la vida social que ha colonizado. Crea ámbitos de acción que son autónomos del Estado y nuevos arreglos institucionales con ese propósito (como las conocidas juntas de buen gobierno en los territorios zapatistas). La autonomía pretende el establecimiento de nuevas bases para la vida social.

      Para compartir el comienzo del Data Week.

      Como la tecnología nos cambia, cambiamos la forma de cambiarnos.

    4. Maestría en Estudios Interdisciplinarios del Desarrollo de la Universidad del Cauca (un bastión del pensamiento decolonial en América Latina, a pesar de su referencia al desarrollo), busca ser una cátedra abierta en la que pueda tener lugar un diálogo inter-epistémico entre académicos, intelectuales y activistas. Tramas y mingas, al que asisten varios cientos de participantes, en gran parte de movimientos sociales y comunidades de base del suroccidente colombiano, es un maravilloso espacio de conversación entre mundos y conocimientos.

      ¿Podríamos hacer algo así en el SLUD, las JSL o el FLISoL o incluso en el Data Week? ¿Articular trueques de saberes, experiencias y diálogos desde la diversidad en favor del pluriverso y los bines comunes y ligados a los territorios? Salir de una mirada muy particular y tecnocéntrica de lo hacker, y pensarnos/actuarnos/encontrarnos de modos más incluyentes?¿Cómo lograrlo?

    5. El énfasis en la construcción de lugar y en la práctica colaborativa, así como en el arraigo inequívoco del diseño para la transición a una visión ecológica, constituye, sin duda, una intervención ontológica —una ontología política del diseño

      El Data Week, ayuda en esa construcción de lugar, en la medida en que es una práctica sostenida de HackBo, lo da a conocer hacia afuera y ha llevado a participantes a vincularse de manera permanente al espacio como miembros del mismo.

    6. Todo diseño es para ‘uso’ enactivo (pero no involucra sólo ‘usuarios’); produce eficacia operacional (pero no ‘utilidad’); fomenta la autopoiesis de las entidades vivas y de los conjuntos heterogéneos de vida; es consciente de vivir en el pluriverso.
    7. En la creación de ámbitos de conversaciones para la acción pasa, necesariamente, del diseño a la experiencia y viceversa (a través, por ejemplo, de la creación de prototipos y de análisis de escenarios). Se pregunta hasta dónde la creación de nuevos diseños permite la emergencia de mejores dominios de interpretación y de acción (
    8. desde esta perspectiva las organizaciones constituyen conversaciones para la acción. Hay un cierto grado de recurrencia y formalización en estas conversaciones, que Winograd y Flores (1986) caracterizan en términos de actos lingüísticos distintivos. Las organizaciones son redes de compromisos que operan a través de actos lingüísticos, como las promesas y

      las peticiones. [...] En última instancia la característica central de las organizaciones y su diseño es el desarrollo de competencias comunicativas en un ámbito abierto para la interpretación, de manera que los compromisos sean transparentes

      [...] Una parte importante del marco de Winograd y Flores es el desarrollo de un enfoque lingüístico para el trabajo de las organizaciones sobre la base de ‘directivas’ (pedidos, solicitudes, consultas y ofertas) y ‘comisiones’ (promesas, aceptaciones y rechazos). En la década de 1980 Flores desarrolló un software para organizaciones, llamado El coordinador, basado en la idea de que las organizaciones son redes de compromisos que operan en el lenguaje. Véanse Winograd y Flores (1986, capítulos 5 y 11) y Flores y Flores (2013). Su objetivo era “hacer las interacciones transparentes [...] en el dominio de las conversaciones para la acción”

      La interacción entre organizaciones institucionalizadas y conviviales está ocurriendo para casos del hacktivismo en términos de peticiones (derechos de petición, entradas al blog) y promesas (hackatones, respuestas, proyectos).

      Una de las preguntas actuales es cómo hacer que las dinámicas de gobernanza propias de las organizaciones conviviales puedan ser coherentes y escalables a nivel barrio o ciudad. Qué infraestructuras favorecerían dichas posibilidades de acuerdos transparentes en red.

      Interesante reencontrar el software de Windograd y Flores y revisar cómo se adecuan o no a sistemas como wikis y repositorios de código y cómo el diálogo entre ellos podría alentar estas ideas de software para acciones transparentes.

    9. Las rupturas son momentos en los que se interrumpe el modo habitual de ser-en-el-mundo; cuando ocurre una descomposición de este tipo nuestras prácticas consuetudinarias y el papel de nuestras herramientas en su mantenimiento quedan expuestas y aparecen nuevas soluciones de diseño;

      [...] avanzan hacia una perspectiva de interacciones sociales modeladas y contextualizadas —es decir, una perspectiva que destaca nuestra participación activa en ámbitos de interés común

      Al proponer nuevas metáforas y artefactos (cfg: [artículo][gf-primer-articulo]) se instauran estas rupturas metodológicas.

      [gf-primer-articulo]: http://mutabit.com/repos.fossil/grafoscopio/doc/tip/Docs/Es/Articulos/Libertadores/bootstrapping-objeto-investigacion.pdf

  12. Jan 2018
    1. Diseñar, por lo tanto, se convierte en una práctica crítica localizada, que vincula la dimensión abierta (open source) de la tecnología con la práctica cultural del diseño.9Como lo anuncia un reciente texto sobre metodologías de diseño, este tiene lugaren términos de conocimientos, contextos, acciones, y aprendizajes situados, ya no neutrales ni universales (Simonsen et al. 2014). A partir de este debate es importante destacar la relevancia que estos diseñadores dan a las preguntas sobre el lugar, la localidad y la comunidad en su revisión de la práctica del diseño como un correctivo a la aceptación acrítica de las tecnologías digitales móviles y como una manera de redefinir su papel en la vida cotidiana.
    2. La buena noticia, sin embargo, es que ya están sucediendo cosas más allá de lo usual en muchos ámbitos sociales, políticos y tecnológicos (como veremos más adelante, las transiciones civilizatorias ya están surgiendo); la mala noticia es que quizás no están sucediendo con la rapidez suficiente, si nos atenemos a los criterios de científicos y activistas del cambio climático

      o con el grado de propósito requerido. Más preocupante aún, la mayor parte de las políticas de diseño que continúan a nivel de la economía y el Estado descansan, cómodamente, en el mismo orden epistémico y cultural que creó los problemas que buscan resolver. Por eso una de las cuestiones más importantes que tiene que abordar el pensamiento radical del diseño es cómo ir más allá de las aporías causadas por el hecho de que enfrentamos problemas modernos para los cuales no existen soluciones modernas (Santos 2014).

      ¿Podríamos, de modo casi que paradójico, acelerar el diseño para las transiciones? Por supuesto, esto no tendría que ver con las dinámicas angustiantes del aceleracionismo de la singularidad y otras maquinaciones, sino con brindarnos infraestructuras y prácticas potentes que nos conecten y articulen a escalas más complejas para un mundo más humano.

      Algo similar a lo que hacemos en los Data Rodas y Data Weeks, con Grafoscopio, en los que un pequeño grupo de activistas puede editar obras completas y complejas en dos fines de semana, y aumentar la capacidad de enunciación y apertura de aquello que crea y construir sobre lo construido.

      Allí puede haber una clave sobre cómo acelerar la transición, cambiando de modelos epistémicos hacia ideas sobre bienes comunes soportados por infraestructuras comunitarias y de bolsillo. El tema es cómo escalar esto.

    3. el metarrelato del ‘razonamiento abstracto’ del conocimiento ignora una característica muy importante de la producción de conocimiento que el pensamiento de diseño no olvida: el hecho de que la creación es siempre emergente, en los dos sentidos del término, es decir, auto-organizada y ‘alter-organizada’. Este último calificativo significa que el académico/diseñador también establece elementos y toma decisiones que permiten que la dinámica de auto-organización despegue y haga su trabajo.

      ¿Hasta qué punto el Data Week y las Data Rodas han permitido alter-organizaciones?

    4. co. El diseño es ontológico porque cada objeto, herramienta, servicio o, incluso, narrativa en los que está involucrado, crea formas particulares de ser, saber y hacer

      Diseñamos formas de ser saber y hacer ciudadanía con herramientas como Grafoscopio y el Data Week.

    1. . Skill, effort and practice are regarded necessary elements in the process by which an actor becomes taken-for-granted (Bourdieu 2000). Accordingly, legitimacy is not simply out there for the asking, but has to be created as well as exploited by actors who seek to gain legitimation.

      ¿Cómo ocurre esto en el caso de las Data Rodas y Data Weeks, dado su carácter recurrente y orientado a la creación de capacidad en la base?

  13. Dec 2017
    1. t from day one the Club complemented its hacks with outward-oriented com-munication aimed to make the hackers’ findings comprehensible and its political demands visible to the largest possible public. The Btx hack itself, for example, would not have been overly effectual if news media had not picked up the story. As news media reported widely on the hack and were largely in support of the hackers’ criticism, the hack gained an event character. Following the Btx hack, the CCC was recognized as a collective actor that had something relevant to say about the communi-cation and information landscape in Germany. The CCC was invited to speak on the main television news magazine of public broadcaster ZDF, the advice of Club members was frequently sought by national newspa-pers, they were asked by corporations to speak on data security and were requested by the newly established Green Party to write a report on the Party’s potential use of networked computing. one of the important details here is that instead of only being the subject of media coverage, the CCC had the opportunity to communicate its point of view to differ-ent audiences

      En nuestro caso eso no ocurrió. El impacto mediático ha sido bajo (ver comentario anterior) y cuando se han entrevistado miembros de la comunidad, por ejemplo en el caso d RedPaTodos y la Ley Lleras, estos espacios mediáticos han sido usados para hablar desde lo indvidual y las fundaciones y no para visibilizar a las comunidades de base que eran cercanas a sus luchas.y consginas y que las empoderaron y posicionaron originalmente.

      El tema de los data selfies intentará lograr mayor visibilidad estratégica en periodos pre-electorales (supeditado a la terminación de la tesis doctoral) y una manera más articulada de recorrer el camino entre comunidades de base e instituciones circundantes).

    2. a lower number of partici-pating members also meant a lower number of differing opinions; which, in turn, enabled the group to keep the frames of relevance more focused and to make decisions in a timely manner. Accordingly, performing direct digital action in the form of hacking was directly related to com-municative practices, as they later played an important role in relation to organizing, coordinating and executing the Club’s political project

      [...] This communicative figuration within the hacker organization formed the Club’s basis for executing well-orchestrated hacks, emphasizing that for the hacker organization media technologies and infrastructures are not simply instruments for acting politically but are political matters in themselves

      El tamaño pequeño de la comunidad y la recurrencia de algunos de sus miembros en los eventos tipo Data Week y Data Rodas nos ha dado una agilidad de acción/reacción similar, así como la madurez progresiva de las infraestructuras, lo cual se refleja en los cortos tiempos en los que asumimos proyectos relativamente más complejos, como el Manual de Periodismo de Datos y la hackatón de Biblioteca Digital de Bogotá, usando saberes, prácticas e infraestructuras desarrolladas en nuestros encuentros previos cara a cara y cristalizados progresivamente en las infraestructuras.

      La siguiente fase estará relacionada con diversificar los caminos recorridos por los asistentes a los encuentros para cristalizar sus saberes y aportar desde los mismos, con un currículo que incluya más prontamente los espectros de licenciamiento y uso de repositorios y documentación, además de los habituales temas de visualización de datos.

      A pesar del incremente de la agilidad, hay un desafío permanente respecto a la visibilidad y alcance de estas iniciativas.

  14. Nov 2017
    1. Thismaynotbestatedexplicitly,butthediscourseoninscribingdigitalrightsashumanrightsininternationalhumanrightslawoftenassumesthattheforceofsuchlawswillguaranteethatindividuals,states,corporations,andotherbodieswillperformthem.Thisassumptionfailstorecognizethathowpeopleexperiencebeingdigitalcitizensandhowtheyperformrightsbybringingthemintobeingthroughenactingthemselvesarethegroundsonwhichrightswillbeguaranteed.Howpeopleexperienceperformingrightsisthekeytounderstandinghowtheyinhabitthatspaceofrightsanddevelopapoliticalsubjectivitynecessarytomakingrightsclaims‘I,we,theyhavearightto’.Withoutsuchunderstandingandwithoutdevelopingconceptsandmethodsappropriatetosuchanunderstanding,mosteffortstoinscriberights,weareafraid,wouldremaininadequate,forthesewouldberightswithoutpoliticalsubjects.Conversely,thesamecanbesaidforthosewhoassumethattheenactmentofrights,ofimaginativelyandperformativelybringingrightsintobeing,wouldguaranteetheirinscription.Withoutunderstandingthelegalityofclaimsandtheirscopeorsubstance,suchenactmentswouldremaininadequate,too.Withouttheforceoflaw,thiswouldamounttosubjectswithoutpoliticalrights.Itisthatspacebetweeninscriptionandenactmentthatprovidescluestounderstandinghowdigitalcitizensareemergingaspoliticalsubjectsofoureraandthosewhosepoliticssidewitheitherinscriptionorenactmentaresomewhatmissingthesignificanceofthatrelation.

      Aún está pendiente ver cómo los temas de colectivos como RedPaTodos se cruzan con temas como los del Data Week y cuáles son los espacios para dichos cruces. Pueden lugares como la Biblioteca Pública Digital, Universidad, Institutos (como ISUR) y hackerspaces (como HackBo) favorecerlos?

    2. First,itisundecidablewhetheranactisindeedcapableofproducingasubjectthatitnames.Forthatreason,withoutguarantees,itmustbedoneregardlessofitsactualeffects,fortheeffectsofcitationanditerationareasmuchaboutbringingthepoliticalsubjectthusnamedintobeingasaboutmakinganattempttoremindourselvesthat‘I,we,theyhavearightto’mustbeperformed.Second,withoutnamingthepoliticalsubject,withoutcitinganditeratingyetagainthat‘I,we,theyhavearightto’,itseventualeffectwillnotbeaccomplished,thatis,bringingtheforceoflawintobeing.

      [...] Our argument is that bills, charters, declarations, and manifestos would have stronger imaginary force if they also derived their performative force from everyday acts through the Internet: how people uptake positions as citizens of cyberspace, how they respond to callings to participate in cyberspace, how they create openings for constituting themselves differently, how they struggle for and against closings, and how they make digital rights claims in or by performing digital acts.[85] They would also have more performative if not legal force if they arose from not only a universal commitment but also regional commitments to understanding how the figure of the citizen is being articulated differently in cyberspace and how this figure is essential for bringing the force of law into being. The most significant space for thinking about the politics of the Internet and the political subject it has given rise to—the digital citizen—is the space between the inscription of rights and their enactment.

      Hasta qué punto las criptodivisas y criptocontratos son una reiteración de este "yo, nosotros, ellos" y sus acuerdos a través de un algoritmo? La idea de inscribirse o excluirse son las únicas posibilidades. El resto de la política ocurre en repositorios de código y en "propuestas de mejora" técnicas.

      El caracter recurrente del Data Week es una manera de hacer enactivos los compromisos que nos juntan como comunidad. La página es un acto de enunciación que es reiterado a través del Data Week

    3. Thecharterincludesnineteenrightsandonesetofduties,whichareimportanttooutline

      Nuestro trabajo estaría enmarcado en la parte de Libertad de participación en los asuntos públicos a través de Internet y también con las puestas por el pluralismo y la gobernanza.

  15. Oct 2017
    1. Howcanthecallingtoparticipatethatwehaveidentifiedproducedigitalcitizenswhoseactsexceedtheirintentions?Toputitdifferently,atensionexistsbetweenthewaysinwhichthefigureofthedigitalcitizenisconceivedinhegemonicimaginariesandlegaldiscoursesandhowsheisperformativelycomingintobeingthroughactionsthatequiphertobeacitizeninwaysthatarenotacknowledgedoralwaysintended.
    2. Mossbergeretal.,forexample,understanddigitalcitizenshipastheabilitytofullyparticipateinsocietyonline,whichrequiresregularaccesstotheInternet,withadequatedevicesandspeeds,technologicalskillsandcompetence,andinformationliteracy.[21]Equippingthusincludesnotonlyhardware,suchasinstallingcomputersinclassroomsandlibrariesandexpandinghigh-speedbroadbandservices,butalsodevelopingskillsandcapabilitiesthroughtrainingcoursesincomputing,coding,andprogramming

      Una de las cosas que hemos hecho es apropiarnos de los ciclos de actualización tecnológica para ponerlos en nuestras manos sin andar corriendo detrás de la última actualización.

    3. Inequalityisexpressedasleadingtotwodivisions:betweenthosewhodoanddonothaveaccessandbetweenthosewhodoordonotcontributetocontentorleavedigitaltraces.

      Aumentar la capacidad en la comunidad de base para enunciar sus propias voces.

    4. Wecannotsimplyassumethatbeingadigitalcitizenalreadymeanssomething,suchastheabilitytoparticipate,andthenlookforwhoseconductconformstothismeaning.Rather,digitalactsarerefashioning,inventing,andmakingupcitizensubjectsthroughtheplayofobedience,submission,andsubversion

      Nosotros hablábamos de deliberación, implementación y seguimiendo sobre las decisiones, como forma de participación. Desde el Data Week estamos yendo del seguimiento a las primeras.

    5. ‘Theforceoftheperformativeisthusnotinheritedfrompriorusage,butissuesforthpreciselyfromitsbreakwithanyandallpriorusage.Thatbreak,thatforceofrupture,istheforceoftheperformative,beyondallquestionoftruthormeaning.’[22]Forpoliticalsubjectivity,‘performativitycanworkinpreciselysuchcounter-hegemonicways.Thatmomentinwhichaspeechactwithoutpriorauthorizationneverthelessassumesauthorizationinthecourseofitsperformancemayanticipateandinstatealteredcontextsforitsfuturereception.’[23]Toconceiveruptureasasystemicortotalupheavalwouldbefutile.Rather,ruptureisamomentwherethefuturebreaksthroughintothepresent.[24]Itisthatmomentwhereitbecomespossibletodosomethingdifferentinorbysayingsomethingdifferent.

      Acá los actos futuros guían la acción presente y le dan permiso de ocurrir. Del mismo modo como el derecho a ser olvidado es un derecho futuro imaginado que irrumpe en la legislación presente, pensar un retrato de datos o campañas políticas donde éstos sean importantes, le da forma al activismo presente.

      La idea clave acá es hacer algo diferente, que ha sido el principio tras Grafoscopio y el Data Week, desde sus apuestas particulares de futuro, que en buena medida es discontinuo con las prácticas del presente, tanto ciudadanas, cono de alfabetismos y usos populares de la tecnología.

  16. Sep 2017
    1. wewillspecifydigitalacts—callings(demands,pressures,provocations),closings(tensions,conflicts,disputes),andopenings(opportunities,possibilities,beginnings)—aswaysofconductingourselvesthroughtheInternetanddiscusshowthesebringcyberspaceintobeing
    2. Wehaveidentifiedthisasthecontradictionbetweensubmissionandsubversionorconsentanddissent.JacquesRancièrecapturesthisasdissensus.[27]Wewillreturntodissensusinchapter7.Second,whilearticulatingaparticulardemand(forinclusion,recognition),performingcitizenshipenactsauniversalrighttoclaimrights.Thisisthecontradictionbetweentheuniversalismandparticularismofcitizenship.

      Estos reclamos por el reconocimiento han tomado diferentes formas en las prácticas del Data Week. ¿Quiénes son nuestros supuestos interlocutores? ¿Por quién queremos ser reconocidos desde nuestras prácticas alternas? Yo diría que se trata de algún tipo de configuración insitucional: empresa, academía y sobre todo gobierno, pues si bien no todos estamos en los dos primeros lugares, si es cierto que todos habitamos el territorio colombiano. Uno de los esfuerzos de la Gobernatón, por ejemplo, fue pensar una manera de reparto más equitativo de los recursos públicos entre comunidades de base diversas y no sólo en aquellas enagenadas por el discurso de la innovación.

    3. Ifmakingrightsclaimsisperformative,itfollowsthattheserightsareneitherfixednorguaranteed:theyneedtoberepeatedlyperformed.Theircomingintobeingandremainingeffectiverequiresperformativity.Theperformativeforceofcitizenshipremindsusthatthefigureofthecitizenhastobebroughtintobeingrepeatedlythroughacts(repertoires,declarations,andproclamations)andconventions(rituals,customs,practices,traditions,laws,institutions,technologies,andprotocols).Withouttheperformanceofrights,thefigureofthecitizenwouldmerelyexistintheoryandwouldhavenomeaningindemocraticpolitics.
    4. Givenitspervasivenessandomnipresence,avoidingorshunningcyberspaceisasdystopianasquittingsocialspace;itisalsocertainthatconductingourselvesincyberspacerequires,asmanyactivistsandscholarshavewarned,intensecriticalvigilance.Sincetherecannotbegenericoruniversalanswerstohowweconductourselves,moreorlesseveryincipientorexistingpoliticalsubjectneedstoaskinwhatwaysitisbeingcalleduponandsubjectifiedthroughcyberspace.Inotherwords,toreturnagaintotheconceptualapparatusofthisbook,thekindsofcitizensubjectscyberspacecultivatesarenothomogenousanduniversalbutfragmented,multiple,andagonistic.Atthesametime,thefigureofacitizenyettocomeisnotinevitable;whilecyberspaceisafragileandprecariousspace,italsoaffordsopenings,momentswhenthinking,speaking,andactingdifferentlybecomepossiblebychallengingandresignifyingitsconventions.Thesearethemomentsthatwehighlighttoarguethatdigitalrightsarenotonlyaprojectofinscriptionsbutalsoenactment.

      ¿A qué somos llamados y cómo respondemos a ello? Esta pregunta ha sido parte tácita de lo que hacemos en el Data Week.

    5. whenweconsiderTwitter,forinstance,wecanask:Howdoconventionssuchasmicrobloggingplatformsconfigureactionsandcreatepossibilitiesfordigitalcitizenstoact?

      Es curioso que los autores también se hayan enfocado en esta plataforma, como lo hemos hecho en los Data Week de manera reiterada.

    6. Butthefigureofcyberspaceisalsoabsentincitizenship

      -> But the figure of cyberspace is also absent in citizenship studies as scholars have yet to find a way to conceive of the figure of the citizen beyond its modern configuration as a member of the nation-state. Consequently, when the acts of subjects traverse so many borders and involve a multiplicity of legal orders, identifying this political subject as a citizen becomes a fundamental challenge. So far, describing this traversing political subject as a global citizen or cosmopolitan citizen has proved difficult if not contentious.

      Ver: https://hyp.is/6bnriqSPEeeYN7sZXlOCNg

    7. First,bybringingthepoliticalsubjecttothecentreofconcern,weinterferewithdeterministanalysesoftheInternetandhyperbolicassertionsaboutitsimpactthatimaginesubjectsaspassivedatasubjects.Instead,weattendtohowpoliticalsubjectivitiesarealwaysperformedinrelationtosociotechnicalarrangementstothenthinkabouthowtheyarebroughtintobeingthroughtheInternet.[13]WealsointerferewithlibertariananalysesoftheInternetandtheirhyperbolicassertionsofsovereignsubjects.Wecontendthatifweshiftouranalysisfromhowwearebeing‘controlled’(asbothdeterministandlibertarianviewsagree)tothecomplexitiesof‘acting’—byforegroundingcitizensubjectsnotinisolationbutinrelationtothearrangementsofwhichtheyareapart—wecanidentifywaysofbeingnotsimplyobedientandsubmissivebutalsosubversive.Whileusuallyreservedforhigh-profilehacktivistsandwhistle-blowers,weask,howdosubjectsactinwaysthattransgresstheexpectationsofandgobeyondspecificconventionsandindoingsomakerightsclaimsabouthowtoconductthemselvesasdigitalcitizens

      La idea de que estamos imbrincados en arreglos socio técnicos y que ellos son deconstriuidos, estirados y deconstruidos por los hackers a través de su quehacer material también implica que existe una conexión entre la forma en que los hackers deconstruyen la tecnología y la forma en que se configuran las ciudadanías mediadas por dichos arreglos sociotécnicos.

    1. Third, the space acted as a recruitment tool for participants and served as a source of solidarity as members rallied around the space. This emphasis on actively inviting new members drew attention to the group's latent desire for open-access, a radical shift from the often insular nature of hacker culture.

      En HackBo, el espacio que atrae más miembros externos a la comunidad es el Data Week. Unos pocos de los cuales se convierten en miembros permanentes. Algunos miembros optan por mantener la membresía cerrada, si bien tenemos permanentes crisis respecto a pagar las mensualidades que permiten cubrir el arriendo y los servicios y es un espacio muy frágil económicamente, que requiere de la solidaridad constante de los miembros.

    2. The most important shift in learning during this period was members' relationship to knowledge. GeekSpace attempted to democratize hacking and move towards a more inclusive model. This stands in contrast to Jean Burgess' observation that hacking "as an ideal, permits rational mastery ... but in reality, it is only the technical avant-garde (like computer scientists or hacker subcultures) who achieve this mastery" (Burgess, 2012, p. 30). Individualized encounters with software gave way to making and hardware tinkering where users learned by doing (Rosenberg, 1982). Collaborative work in the space took place in small groups clustered around a project, or the projects were passed from person to person to solve specific problems. The frustrations members had with the first phase of the space organically shifted to a set of practices based in materials, routines, and projects. "Collaboration on ideas and [their] physical manifestations," in the words of a GeekSpace director, is "how you tell somebody's part of the community."

      Un cambio similar se dio en HackBo, al menos en lo referido al Data Week y las Data Rodas como experiencias y rituales de aprendizaje intensional y semi-estructurado, en lugar de ir a ver gente haciendo cosas en solitario.

    3. Coleman (2010) asserts that previous literature such as Taylor's "fails to substantially address (and sometimes even barely acknowledge) is the existence and growing importance of face-to-face interactions" (p. 48). For example, Vichot (2009) notes how communities of hackers that coalesce online use "real space" to gain visibility needed to accomplish their collective political goals.

      En Colombia tenemos ejemplos como la SLUD, JSL, el FLISoL y el Data Week.

    4. The grassroots nature of HMSs provides a contrast to the less popular FabLabs (Gershenfeld, 2005), which operate as franchises that require expensive tools, and Computer Clubhouses (Kaf ai, Peppler, & Chapman, 2009), which are extensions of schools. Hacker and maker space backers such as Mitch Altman claim that hands-on interactions with technology enable a more flexible and personalized learning experience than an institutionalized curriculum (Baichtal, 2011 ).

      Esto lo hemos visto también en el caso de HackBo. Los Data Weeks son esfuerzos por formalizar parte de ese aprendizaje informal a través de la idea de talleres.



    1. How might civic hackathons be improved? Balsamo does not deny contradictory influences exist in these spaces nor avoid engaging because they are “neoliberalist.” Rather, she suggests that sites of messy innovation are also potential sites of learning. Accordingly, my hope is that civic hackathons might be treated more seriously as moments for education and public engagement around the politics of technology. This can be a radical notion because culture, narratives, myths, rituals, expressions, and knowledge might still be reworked.

      Desde acá se puede pensar la presencia nuestra en Hackatones organizadas por el Gobierno y los privados, para aportar desde la diversidad y en ocasiones desde la contestación. Podríamos llevar materiales preparados (interminados y variables) para novatos, así como nuestra perspectiva particular a estos espacios, extendiendo y potenciando prácticas similares a cuando participamos en la Hackatón Salud con Silvia.

    2. Civic hackathons are undeniably fraught. Our projections about civic futures are entangled with collective fantasies abouttechnology. This is a story at least as old as science fiction, yet never ultimately removed from our social realities. In some cases small tasks stimulated the civic imagination on larger public problems. In others, cultural reproduction led people to imagine technology that was already racialized, reflecting collective fears that rise to the top. Yet, I resist dismissing civic hackathons. Donna Haraway would certainly see the fallacy in demanding we return to the deliberation of Tocqueville’s town hall meetings. Plus, as anyone who has participated in local government can tell you, city council meetings are hardly a gold standard for civic participation. Mills reminds us that our rationalities are bounded and exist within a particular historic context. We might never get technology out of politics, or the politics out of technology. In a sense, civic technology may itself be a cyborg formed from our collective hopes and fears, one that we might better learn to live with.

      Se puede colocar como introducción al Data Week y las Data Rodas.

    3. Put slightly differently, if we want civic hackathons to produce ideas that improve society, we need to more deeply and sincerely shape choices, thought processes, and activities that might make technology civic.

      De acá la importancia de crear capacidad en las bases para que ellos digan sus propias voces medidos por la tecnología.

    4. After we were done, pictures were taken of the group and distributed online to groups in other cities performing similar activities, contributing to the spectacle of the day.

      En los eventos locales se toman fotos durante el evento, al margen de los resultados. En el Data Week en cambio, las fotos con pocas en comparación (a veces nulas), particularmente en consideración a la privacidad. La lógica del espectáculo/impacto está más centrada en las visualizaciones mismas.

    5. The discussion of the rich social life of data behind the scenes stimulated a discussion for a spin-off project on aggregating geographic data about environmental issues in city. The apparently rote task of transcribing the presence of open data was an inroad to broader questions about how data was constructed behind the scenes and ways residents might add to it.

      Esta idea de juntar la discusión a la acción, si bien está mediada por el código, es permanente en el Data Week.

    6. We failed to assemble a pitch because the civic imagination could not simply float alone. It needed a technological metaphor to give practices traction. Many of the pitched projects had the opposite problem. They started with an existing technology and grafted the goals of the city to it, essentially transposing a model of informed citizenship onto it. These technologies were not so much re-drawing government as increasing its utility.

      Esto me recuerda la metodología de Leinonen, en la cual se puede empezar de cualquier lugar (lo conceptual o una tecnología) e ir, prácticamente a cualquier otro. Creo que lo que falta es una premisa política/ética sobre el mundo que se quiere compartir. Por el contrario, en el Data Week y la Gobernatón, dicha premisa es explícita, desde los bienes comunes.

    7. An audience member yelled out, “what skills does a hack require?” Abhi shook his head. “Not much,” he replied, “you could solve a problem through marketing.” When asked, only around a third of the room raised their hands to identify as software developers.

      Para el Data Week sería bueno hablar de la pregunta por si éramos los de las ideas o los de el código.

    8. In addition to moments of the expression of civic imagination, I am attentive to failure — times where conceptual roadblocks were encountered, spectacles failed, and cultural reproduction turned ugly. Being attentive to failure is necessary because civic hackathons tend to be universally celebrated as successes in popular literature. As Anne Balsamo noted in the case of Xerox PARC (p. 55), sites of technological production tend to also be involved in their own hype and myth-making (Also see: Balsamo, 1996). It is necessary to see what is entangled with the fiction.

      ¿Qué es lo que "falla" en el caso de Grafoscopio?¿Cuáles son las tensiones presentes?

      Uno podría pensar que tiene que ver con la velocidad con que la comunidad, en general, adquiere la experticia que le permite poner a diálogar lo simbólico, con lo icónico y lo enactivo. El hecho de que algunos asistentes vengan reiteradamente, pero no transiten caminos que les ayuden a adquirir esa experticia por sí mismos. Dichas tensiones ayudan a mantener el proyecto real, al mismo tiempo que dan cuenta de posibilidades futuras de las que la comunidad se encuentra sembrada. Creo que pueden ir en la tradición de revisar las fallas, como ocurren con los hackerspaces feministas y pueden hacerse más explícitos en futuras ediciones del Data Week.

      Chévere revisar los mitos y ficciones en Xerox PARC.

    9. At least since Doug Engelbart’s “mother of all demos” the introduction of new products has been accompanied by showmanship. Demonstrations are theater where possible uses for technology are presented (Smith, 2009). Hackathons have been argued to be the “front stage” for data and can be contrasted with the murky “back stage” of data production, munging, and interpretation (Gregg, 2014b). The difference with Balsamo might be that she does not put performance in scare quotes.

      Esto conecta las ideas de boostrapping vía infraestructura, de Engelbart, con la idea de demo como performance (espectáculo, obra viva) y la inversión infraestructural de Star, al traer al frente aquello que está al fondo (la producción de datos y su uso).

    10. A more diverse range of participants attended, as civic hackathons were more frequented by community organizers, activists, and students than seasoned software engineers. Those who turned up were also more diverse in ways other than occupation – racially, ethnically, and by gender. These events were largely run by Hack for LA with a wide range of partners. Rarely did sponsors emphasize working code

      Para el Data Week el código funcional existe, pues estamos trabajando con narrativas de datos, en lugar de con aplicaciones. Incluso un boceto de una libreta arbórea es ya un prototipo funcional. La incorporación temprana de sistemas de control de versiones (Fossil), una vez Grafoscopio se estabilizó, ayuda a compartir tales prototipos tempranamente y hacerlos trazables y disponibles a otros.

      La modularidad para la transmisión de narrativas y código en libreta por un lado y en paquetes por otro, ayuda a que dichos prototipos se compartan, con diferentes niveles de experticia.

    11. the civic hackathon violated the very conventions of hackathons. It had “no hacking” in the traditional sense of creating or modifying working software. This curious disappearing act of code in hackathons over the last several years was controversial among programmers. Thea Aldrich of Random Hacks of Kindness wondered aloud when I interviewed her in 2013, “don’t community organizers already have ways to engage politically?” To Thea “civic hacking” was a form of civic engagement particular to the technically adept.

      En el Data Week tratamos de crear capacidad a través de la técnica, y recibimos distintas clases de experticia, si bien el encuentro está todavía muy centrado en el código y lo escritural y en una manera particular de hacerlo (live coding) a través de una plataforma particular (Pharo/Grafoscopio).

      Si bien lo escritural amplia el espectro, el código lo acota. La combinación de los dos, produce nuevas prácticas, como ha mostrado el reciente esfuerzo frente al Manual de Periodismo de Datos.

      Enfocarnos en un lugar, permite ampliar otros e incluso brinda a comunidades técnicas, nuevos aprendizajes. En algunos ediciones del evento, se ha charlado de descentrar el encuentro sobre el código y traer otros problemas a la mesa

    12. civic hackathons in Los Angeles were rich spaces for observing communication about technology throughspeeches, group collaboration, and pitches.

      Otros eventos terminan, por ejemplo en exposiciones, mientras que la Data Week tienen continuidad en las Data Rodas y en futuras ediciones, pero no se exponen ampliamente al público. La relación entre lo que ocurre en esos espacios más cerrados y un público más amplio está por explorarse.

    1. Unlike that of other hacker-spaces, members’ focus was not primarily hobbyist engineers. They built HackerMoms to serve mothers. Although as hobbyist engineers, writers, illustrators and artists these moth-ers could ostensibly join any other “traditional” hackerspace, members of HackerMoms claimed those sites became unaffordable or unmanageable without opportunities for childcare. The HackerMoms environment promised not only childcare but also a safer space to breastfeed and express milk, a sliding scale for membership dues, and access to a community of restless and curious moms.

      Si bien algunas mamás han llevado sus hijas a espacios como HackBo y La Galería. La oferta a madres ha sido no intensionada, ni ampliada por estos espacios. Incluso, eventos que incrementan la diversidad de los participantes, como el Data Week, riñen con el hecho de permitir a madres y padres participar activamente de los mismos.



    1. In fact, the manner in which providers negotiate this transition (how they handle the power shift) matters to the future success of technology and to the likelihood that users will further adopt and experiment.At the end of the repossession stage, a new or modified technology becomes availa-ble, upon which new rounds of adoption, appropriation, and repossession take place

      La reapropiación es alentada directamente en Grafoscopio y de hecho las prácticas del Data Week transitan las 3 fases. Lo difícil es que nuevos usuarios escriban el código fuente que llegue a ser parte de Grafoscopio, más allá de sus propias narrativas de datos.

    2. Users do new things in new ways. Users explore new possibilities, including some beyond what motivated initial adoption. For instance, users personalize devices and applications to integrate them within their practices. Some users will re-arrange devices in ways that reflect their personalities

      [...] Some users may hack devices to trans-form them more fundamentally.

      Esta parte es más complicada, pues si bien la intensión es que los usuarios hagan sus propias cosas, el lenguaje simbólico y formas de pensar requeridas para ello tardan en desarrollarse y requieren un compromiso constante. Si bien los Data Weeks y Data Rodas, mantienen a la comunidad conectada y vital, lo que ocurre en ellas no es suficiente para que muchos usuarios empiecen a hacer sus propias adaptaciones fundamentales.

      Los escritos originales pensaban en un ecosistema de plugins para facilitar dichas adaptaciones, pero dicho sistema no puede ser desarrollado hasta tanto no se cuente con una masa crítica de hacedores de los mismos, lo cual quiere decir, resolver las tensiones (particularmente económicas) que permiten a los usuarios dedicarse a este tipo de creaciones de manera cotidiana.

    3. The baroque succeeded because it expressed something all Latin American people (Indians, Africans, mestizos, and even sons and daughters of Spaniards born on the con-tinent) had in common: the rejection of the domineering and distant center. Carpentier (1995) explains that to understand “Why is Latin America the chosen territory of the baroque?” we must look at the people and processes that allowed them to finally own the continent: “Because all symbiosis, all mestisaje engenders the baroque. The American baroque develops [...] with the self-awareness of the American man [...] the awareness of being Other, of being new, of being symbiotic, of being a criollo” (p

      Eso se parece a la idea de decir, con las tecnologías del colono, la voz de los colonizados y es similar a lo dicho por Freire y lo que practicamos desde el Data Week, donde rechazamos el discurso centralizado, imperialista y capitalista del "emprendimiento", a pesar de que usamos tecnologías digitales producidas en EEUU para hablar de las voces locales.

    4. Likewise, the interplay between economic, cultural, and political tensions remains largely unexplored.

      En nuestro caso el interjuego entre lo político, lo cultural y lo económico, ha estado presente desde el comienzo, al menos a escala del hackerspace. El cambio de escala ha sido la principal tensión, articulando otras comunidades de activistas o generando una interlocución más fluida con el gobierno.

    5. Surman and Reilly (2003) focus on appropriation of networked technologies in a strategically, politically, and creatively innovative manner oriented toward social change. In this context of advocacy, effective technology appropriation includes strategic Internet use for collaboration, publishing, mobilization, and observation. Here, the delineation between the use and appropriation occurs when technology is adapted to reflect goals and culture. Camacho (2001) describes appropriation by civil society organizations at the pinnacle of a technology use ladder. In the middle of the ladder, organizations focus on adoption of conventional technology. Toward the bottom, organizations and individuals with constrained access or slow adoption rates lag behind and seek access to technology. At the pinnacle, however, pioneers and activists appropriate technology to promote causes, for instance, creating flash mobs through mass text messaging to instantaneously organize large groups of people for social protest

      Desde el comienzo, el Data Week ha estado preocupado por la perspectiva de transformación social en la apropiación tecnológica al estar vinculada con la creación de capacidad en la base, modificación de la infraestructura y la amplificación de voces ciudadanas frente a iniciativas privadas o públicas.

    1. Inconsistencies in ideological perspective are not uncommon in activities which attempt to balance individualism and communalism. These very frictions might belie possibilities for a greater imagination or shared experience. However, we argue that it is only in the disputes and frictions between pluralities of publics that democratization emerges. Dissensus across making and hacking communities allows people to experiment, eventu-ally finding communities and processes in which they feel comfortable and can identify. These very migrations, connected by fluid narratives and practices, drive the capacity of communities to develop and innovate.

      Esta idea de fluidez y confrontación también la vivimos en HackBo, con miradas encontradas sobre la gestión del espacio y la falta de apoyo colectiva a determinadas iniciativas colectivas, lo cual permitió replantear nuevas dinámicas y establecer nuevos grupos.

    1. Might “utopian realist” be applicable to the practices of civic hackers, intertwined with particular repertoires, technologies, and affective publics? McKenzie Wark (2014) sug-gests that the relationship between utopian and realist might be mutually constitutive rather than dialectical. He re-frames utopia as a realizable fragment or diagram that re-imagines relations. From this perspective, civic hacking gets traction not because they were ever intended to be the sole “solution” to a problem, but they are ways of acting and creating that are immediately apprehensible. Prototypes capture the imagination because they are shards of a possible future and can be created, modified, and argued about (Coleman, 2009).
    2. That “hackers” can model beneficial process disrupts the often presumed subversive nature of hacking as much as it does easy assumptions about a Foucaultian notion of governmentality. Prototypes act as working evidence to lobby for changing government process, particularly those that improve digital infrastructure or direct communication with citizens. The capa-bility of code to act as a persuasive argument has long been noted, and modeling can produce charged debates about the very meaning of “civic.”

      [...] On a level of hackathons, prototypes can be speculative (Lodato and DiSalvo, in press) rather than an “outcome,” revealing conflicting notions of “civic tech” (Shaw, 2014).

      Nuestro enfoque ha estado centrado más en la modelación, que es requerida para la visualización, pero también en la idea de construir capacidad en la infraestructura y en la comunidad, lo cual va más allá del prototipo volátil, que se abandona después.

    3. The most popular apps to date have been highly instrumental ways to request services to fix city infrastructure, such as SeeClickFix, a platform that lets residents take pictures of issues that need repair, that are delivered to the appropriate city department as an actionable item. We might think of this as a base-level civic act similar to picking litter off the ground or paint-ing over graffiti. Other activities are thicker modes of participation by generating data or metadata. The primary effort of the 2014 CodeAcross effort was to map exist-ing sources of open data. The leader of the event, D.W. Ferrell, described “our role as citizens is to complement” efforts by the government and organizations such as CfA. Contributing to data repositories served purposes for multiple stakeholders:

      Esta perspectiva instrumental (en el sentido latino, no inglés) se ve en el solucionismo de crear una app para salvar el mundo. Nuestra aproximación es más crear competencias críticas, mediadas por la programación y los datos para conversar con el gobierno.

    4. dis-putes over community as a particular category threatens to distract from a general focus on solidarity by activating “social bases of discursive publics that engage peo-ple across lines of basic difference in collective identities” (p. 374). A mutable, popu-larized hacker identity may have this potential, capable of processing and interpreting abstract systems of regulation.

      processing and interpreting abstact systems of regulation.

      La idea de usar la tecnología digital para aumentar nuestra capacidad de agencia en sistemas tecno-políticos complejos. Esto está en confluencia con los argumentos de Bret Victor, pero asume una perspectiva más política.

      Acá la idea es que los hackers cívicos pueden ser puentes entre distintas comunidades. De alguna manera, esto está pasando con los Data Week y cómo articulan distintos públicos.

    5. Civic hackers widely view machine-readable data as more useful because it drives a wider variety of potential uses, even as the shift from informational uses raises the bar to the literacies required to interpret it. In civic hackathons, knowledge of government operations was as useful as technical knowledge.

      En el Data Week intentamos poner a dialogar estos alfabetismos críticos y crear capacidades en la base. En la tercera edición, por ejemplo, además de trabajar con el código, también modelábamos cómo el lenguaje de contratación estatal se colocaba dentro del entorno computacional.

    6. Yet, the natural equating of “openness” or government transparency (Hood and Heald, 2006) with accountability increasingly became dubious (Tkacz, 2012). The move to “open data” was often an imperative that didn’t make clear where the levers were for social change that benefited citizens (Lessig, 2009). Still, I argue that civic hackers are often uniquely positioned to act on issues of public concern; they are in touch with local communities, with technical skills and, in many cases, institutional and legal literacies. I conclude by connecting the open data movement with a specific set of political tactics—requesting, digesting, contributing, modeling, and contesting data.

      Transparencia y reponsabilidad no son lo mismo y no hay vínculos entre lo uno y lo otro directos. Los ofrecimiento gubernamentales de datos son sobre "emprendimiento" y no sobre reponsabilidad y trazabilidad.

      Sin embargo, los saberes locales que ponen datos como una forma de acción política ciudadana, que incluye la contestación han sido evidenciados en HackBo, con el Data Week y las Data Rodas.

    7. Civic hacking can broadly be described as a form of alternative/activist media that “employ or modify the communication artifacts, practices, and social arrangements of new information and communication technologies to challenge or alter dominant, expected, or accepted ways of doing society, culture, and politics” (Lievrouw, 2011: 19). Ample research has considered how changes in technology and access have created “an environment for politics that is increasingly information-rich and communication-inten-sive” (Bimber, 2001). Earl and Kimport (2011) argue that such digital activism draws attention to modes of protest—“digital repertoires of contention” (p. 180)—more than formalized political movements

      La idea de tener "repertorios de contención" es similar a la de exaptación en el diseño.

    1. Projects, as an entanglement, are “open, partial and indeterminate” (Hodder, 2012, p. 159).They might be being showed off at the next open house, orentirely forgotten. Peter noted that his hard drive was filling up with “functionally dead” shelved projects that got boring or require expertise from outside the space. Yet, to Peter failure was an indication of project success. He believed, as scholars of innovation do, that embracing failure contributed to better ideas. Projects also carried an ethical charge. Michael, a quiet member and software professional, reflected at length on what he called the “philosophical” side of projects. He saw them an inroad to “participation in the fabrication process” that was empowering. In his words, projects were “manufacturing liberation.”

      A pesar de los proyectos inacabados de HackBo, antes mencionados, Grafoscopio, el Data Week y las Data Rodas, tienen la intensión de permitir saltos desde la infraestructura y dar una noción de continuidad (ver gráfica de Markus). Se pueden mostrar en el siguiente evento, pero definitivamente no son para ser desechados. Manufacturar liberación es importante para tales proyectos, pero al confinar la apertura (preestableciendo tecnologías y temáticas) sobreviven a futuras iteraciones.

    2. These more formalized gatherings were an attempt to get people working and collaborating in a space that had mainly turned into a spot for hanging out, drinking and foosball. The shift to the new space was seen as an opportunity to encourage members to use the space in a more productive way. The space needed members as much as members needed the tools. Members echoed a liberalist concern with increasing freedom of individuals to act, while retaining hobbyist cultures’ engagement with materialities. Often hackerspace members also described the need for a hackerspace as part of a shift in their city’s economy

      Discusiones similares sobre proyectos compartidos se tuvieron en HackBo al comienzo, con ideas como lanzar un globo a la estratósfera, hacer crowdfunding de hardware y otras, que tenían que ver con "reuniones de segumiento". Algunos de ellos convocaron a miembros por poco tiempo y atrayeron nuevos miembros de manera permanente. Sin embargo, los tres proyectos que más se mantienen son: dos empresas/fundaciones y el de las Data Week y Data Rodas alrededor de Grafoscopio.

      Los cambios de escala ciudad han sido conversados de manera informal, pero nunca han cristalizado y salvo acciones de activismo específica como la Gobernatón, no logran impactos de escala ciudad.

    3. Interactions through things, and perceptions about their potential, were ways to negotiate between seemingly conflicting imperatives of the individualism and communalism (A. L. Toombs, Bardzell, & Bardzell). Members would deliberately design activities that were incomplete to encourage a playful material improvisation. In these ways, the “material sensibilities” of members were particularly important. Similarly, reading a history of craft into software hacking, Lingel and Regan (2014) found that software hackers identified their work with craft as process, embodiment, and community. These sensitive readings of interactions with stuff seemed to more accurately capture the genre of hackerspaces, more so than action was guided by culture.

      La idea de actividades incompletas y un jugueteo material están embebidas en el Data Week y Grafoscopio, así como la identificación de software como artesanía, lo cual dialoga con Aaron y Software craftmanship.

    4. This work perceptively suggested that people often don’t arrive at hackerspaces with an identity fully-formed. Tools and projects, as socio-material assemblages, shepherded new arrivals in and helped them understand

      themeselves in relation to the group. “The process of becoming such an established maker seems to rely less on inherent abilities, skills, or intelligence per se, and more on adopting an outlook about one’s agency”

      Esto ha pasado con el Data Week y Grafoscopio y está vinculado a comunidades de práctica y lo identitario.

      Se puede empezar por acá la caracterización de lo hacker!

    5. Members often toutthat “anyone can be a hacker.”While this claim is dubious– participation is limited by technical inclinations, skills, and comfort hanging around rowdy spaces –hackerspaces certainly helpproduce an “ordinary hacker.” Theyare sites where we can observe hacking’s movement from subculture to mainstream, and from an edgy to popular identity.

      Son los hackerspaces los espacios donde los hackers crean a los hackers, como un "bien recursivo" social. Habría que ver cómo es ese "hacker ordinario" y esos espacios de estéticas echizas y las preferencias de la gente afiliada por ellos y cómo esto configura o restringe formas de participación.

      Está creando el Data Week otro tipo de hacker que no es el ordinario, al tener llamados y poblaciones más diversas.

  17. May 2017
  18. Mar 2017
    1. Furthermore, the results could focus on drawing the user into the virtual app space (immersive) or could use the portable nature of tablet to extend the experience into the physical space inhabited by the user (something I have called ’emersive’). Generative (emersive) Books that project coloured ambient light and/or audio into a darkened space Generative (immersive) Books that display abstracted video/audio from cameras/microphone, collaged or augmented with pre-designed content Books that contain location specific content from the internet combined with pre-authored/designed content

      Estas líneas y las siguientes definen un conjunto interesante de posibilidades para las publicaciones digitales. ¿Cómo podemos hacerles Bootstrap desde lo que ya tenemos? (ejp: Grafoscopio y el Data Week).

    2. Some key themes arise from the two NNG reports on iPad usability: App designers should ensure perceived affordances / discoverability There is a lack of consistency between apps, lots of ‘wacky’ interaction methods. Designers should draw upon existing conventions (either OS or web) or users won’t know what to do. These are practical interaction design observations, but from a particular perspective, that of perceptual psychology. These conclusions are arrived at through a linear, rather than lateral process. By giving weight to building upon existing convention, because they are familiar to the user, there is a danger that genuinely new ideas (and the kind of ambition called for by Victor Bret) within tablet design will be suppressed. Kay’s vision of the Dynabook came from lateral thinking, and thinking about how children learn. Shouldn’t the items that we design for this device be generated in the same way?

      The idea of lateral thinking here is the key one. Can informatics be designed by nurturing lateral thinking? That seems related with the Jonas flopology

    1. A first list of projects are available here but more can be found by interacting with mentors from the Pharo community. Join dedicated channels, #gsoc-students for general interactions with students on Pharo slack. In order to get an invitation for pharoproject.slack.com visit the here Discuss with mentors about the complexity and skills required for the different projects. Please help fix bugs, open relevant issues, suggest changes, additional features, help build a roadmap, and interact with mentors on mailing list and/or slack to get a better insight into projects. Better the contributions, Better are the chances of selection. Before applying: Knowledge about OOP Basic idea about Pharo & Smalltalk syntax and ongoing projects Past experience with Pharo & Smalltalk Interaction with organisation You can start with the Pharo MOOC: http://files.pharo.org/mooc/
  19. Jan 2017
    1. I am hoping to give answers to people from both sides of the aisle from the perspective of a person who has worked both inside the system and on the outside

      Here, the author is using prolepsis to advise the reader that the rebuttal is anticipated and will be in the discussion. While doing this it leads to the appeal of logic, logos. It does this because once the opposition is reasoned it resonates within them and may give them a sense of understanding they may have not had before reading this article. Later on in the reading when Wagner illustrates the phone conversation with his mother it shows how they, personally, appealed to logic. Once they both gave their arguments on why they voted for their candidate they realized the reason they opposed each other's were for identical reason. Although this illustration was from an appeal of logos, it also, appeals to pathos; because it was a conversation with his mother it creates an emotional connection that will guide a reader to same realization as illustrated.

    2. Without giving my entire biography, I graduated film school and was hired almost completely at random as a camera man for one of the presidential campaigns before the primaries. Through a series of events and promotions I eventually found myself responsible for the media and advertising section of the campaign. Also around the same time I was put in charge, our campaign happened to run out of money.I sat down with the campaign manager, strategist, and communications team and we basically figured out how we could do campaign advertising with absolutely no money. What we ended up doing was bizarre but effective and has now become common practice. When something would happen during the day on the campaign trail, we would quickly come up with an idea for a creative — and kind of bizarre — video about it.

      The author uses narration, or anecdotes, to further explain his argument of how social media has become the news source for politics and it's entity. He refers back to a time where he was hands-on in a political campaign that began the implementation of social media in politics which ties back to his argument. By doing this, he appeals to ethos; his credibility is built by narrating this story in his article. The audience now knows that he has knowledge of what goes on in the background of politics and can comfortably read this piece without second guessing his plausibility.

    1. I have said to you that I would eliminate the liquor agents in this state and that the money saved would be returned to our citizens . . . I am happy to report to you that I am now filling orders for several hundred one-way tickets and stamped on them are these words . . . "for liquor agents . . . destination: . . . out of Alabama." I am happy to report to you that the big-wheeling cocktail-party boys have gotten the word that their free whiskey and boat rides are over . . . that the farmer in the field, the worker in the factory, the businessman in his office, the housewife in her home, have decided that the money can be better spent to help our children's education and our older citizens . . . and they have put a man in office to see that it is done. It shall be done. Let me say one more time . . . . no more liquor drinking in your governor's mansion.

      This hearkens so much to current day - everyone's focused on jobs and politicians are using weird backward economic logic to further their own unreasonable beliefs. We can look back now and say prohibition really was not that great for the economy, or the poor and working class, but that wasn't even on anyone's radar.

  20. Dec 2016
    1. Smalltalk doesn’t have to be pragmatic, because it’s better than its imitators and the things that make it different are also the things that give it an advantage.
  21. Oct 2016
    1. My hope is that the book I’ve written gives people the courage to realize that this isn’t really about math at all, it’s about power.
  22. Sep 2016
    1. But ultimately you have to stop being meta. As Jeff Kaufman — a developer in Cambridge who's famous among effective altruists for, along with his wife Julia Wise, donating half their household's income to effective charities — argued in a talk about why global poverty should be a major focus, if you take meta-charity too far, you get a movement that's really good at expanding itself but not necessarily good at actually helping people.

      "Stop being meta" could be applied in some sense to meta systems like Smalltalk and Lisp, because their tendency to develop meta tools used mostly by developers, instead of "tools" used by by mostly everyone else. Burring the distinction between "everyone else" and developers in their ability to build/use meta tools, means to deliver tools and practices that can be a bridge with meta-tools. This is something we're trying to do with Grafoscopio and the Data Week.



    1. The Gamma: Programming tools for data journalism

      (b) languages for novices or end-users, [...] If we can provide our climate scientists and energy engineers with a civilized computing environment, I believe it will make a very significant difference.

      But data journalists, and in fact, data activist, social scientist, and so on, could be a "different type of novice", one that is more critically and politically involved (in the broader sense of the "politic" word).

      The wider dialogue on important matters that is mediated, backed up and understood by dealing data, (as climate change) requires more voices that the ones are involved today, and because they need to be reason and argument using data, we need to go beyond climate scientist or energy engeeners as the only ones who need a "civilized computing environment" to participate in the important complex and urgent matters of today world. Previously, these more critical voices (activists, journalists, scientists) have helped to make policy makers accountable and more sensible on other important and urgent issues.

      In that sense my work with reproducible research in my Panama Papers as a prototype of a data continuum environment, or others, like Gamma, could serve as an exploration, invitation and early implementation of what is possible to enrich this data/computing enhanced dialogue.

    2. I say this despite the fact that my own work has been in much the opposite direction as Julia. Julia inherits the textual interaction of classic Matlab, SciPy and other children of the teletype — source code and command lines.

      The idea of a tradition technologies which are "children of teletype" is related to the comparison we do in the data week workshop/hackathon. In our case we talk about "unix fathers" versus "dynabook children" and bifurcation/recombination points of this technologies:

    3. The catalyst for such a scale-up will necessarily be political. But even with political will, it can’t happen without technology that’s capable of scaling, and economically viable at scale. As technologists, that’s where we come in.

      May be we come before, by enabling this conversation (as said previously). Political agenda is currently coopted by economical interests far away of a sustainable planet or common good. Feedback loops can be a place to insert counter-hegemonic discourse to enable a more plural and rational dialogue between civil society and goverment, beyond short term economic current interest/incumbents.

    4. This is aimed at people in the tech industry, and is more about what you can do with your career than at a hackathon. I’m not going to discuss policy and regulation, although they’re no less important than technological innovation. A good way to think about it, via Saul Griffith, is that it’s the role of technologists to create options for policy-makers.

      Nice to see this conversation happening between technology and broader socio-political problems so explicit in Bret's discourse.

      What we're doing in fact is enabling this conversation between technologist and policy-makers first, and we're highlighting it via hackathon/workshops, but not reducing it only to what happens there (an interesting critique to the techno-solutionism hackathon is here), using the feedback loops in social networks, but with an intention of mobilizing a setup that goes beyond. One example is our twitter data selfies (picture/link below). The necesity of addressing urgent problem that involve techno-socio-political complex entanglements is more felt in the Global South.

      ^ Up | Twitter data selfies: a strategy to increase the dialog between technologist/hackers and policy makers (click here for details).

  23. Jun 2016
    1. Projects may choose to utilise collective action to provide for their needs rather than purchasing services, or recycle and re-use rather than purchasing new product; t

      Remixing to avoid commercialism

    2. he ethics of DiY culture concern taking responsibility for your life and the world around you through positive practical direct action. Do It Yourself culture is the reason that Permanent Culture Now exists.

      hmm.. intersting concept.

    3. There has been many countercultural movements throughout history, yet it is since the 1960’s that many of these ideas really took hold as counterculture develops out of the 1960’s counter culture movements of the United States and DiY culture is a more UK-based movement centred around punk, rave culture, new age travellers movements and anti-roads protests, amongst other things.

      This is interesting from the article I read for class.

    1. Yet Levin et al. (2002), in surveying 3,000 public school stu-dents, identified a “digital disconnect” (p. v) between students and their schools, with students claiming their teachers had not yet shifted their teaching to respond to the new ways students communicate and use the Web beyond their classrooms.

      interesting that it hasn't caught on yet for teachers to use it in the classroom.

    2. eb 2.0 facilitates “participa-tory,” “collaborative,” and “distributed” practices within Web 2.0–enabled formal and nonformal spheres of everyday activitie

      Referenced to class article

    3. Individuals with programming expertise in hypertext markup language (HTML) could post content, but Web 1.0 accommodated only modest individual knowledge creation and sharing, mostly through pri-marily text-based online forums and archived listservs

      So much has changed from this

    4. using the Web for student inquiry, studying student communication via the Web, and invoking qualitative research methods to illuminate Web-based learning.

      This question of how to use the web in the classroom is an always growing concept and many want to learn how to do it better!

    5. A stronger research focus on students’ everyday use of Web 2.0 technologies and their learning with Web 2.0 both in and outside of classrooms is needed.

      Hmm.. how are students using web 2.0?

    1. Yet at its core, a DSC is an inquiry-based group activity, and the first step in the inquiry process is to ask questions, either about the narrative or about the subject matter of the central text.

      Adding inquiry to ELA, how powerful is that?

    2. As an alternative, at the conclusion of a literature lesson, students can create video adaptions of the works they have read in class, showcasing their comprehension and interpretation of the text

      That seems like a reasonable use of digital storytelling in the classroom

    3. hich posits that students who partici-pate in meaning-centered and socially centered activities are more successful at learning.

      interesting concept to consider

    4. s benefit from interacting with technology in the areas of motivation and en-gagement

      get those students engaged

  24. Feb 2016
    1. Why do you think that King Affonso let the Portuguese enslave his subjects at first? Inthe letter below, why does the king now request regulations?

      It seems that King Affonso may have allowed the Portuguese to enslave his subjects at first without knowing the possible repercussions. As the saying goes, "if you give an inch, they'll take a mile". In addition, the Portuguese began kidnapping the people, including noblemen. After seeing all that was happening, King Affonso must have came to a realization that there was something wrong, leading to his request for regulations.

    1. But without the rich gold and silver mines of Mexico, the plantation-friendly climate of the Caribbean, or the exploitive potential of large Indian empires, North America offered little incentive for Spanish officials.

      This definitely reiterates what we've read throughout recent text; the goal was riches, whatever the cost.

    2. steppes

      Image Description Sacred Valley in Peru.

    3. A massive pyramid temple, the Templo Mayor, was located at the city center (its ruins can still be found in the center of Mexico City).

      Image Description Image Description The top image is the Templo Mayor ruins in Mexico City. The bottom image is a drawing of what Templo Mayor looked like. I thought these were interesting.

    4. encomienda

      Image Description

      This is an image I found on the internet of the five classes of people in New Spain.

    5. social and political advancement i

      The racial system that was established in the new world was a racial hierarchy. The system worked based on the purity of ones blood. Then it was used as a status for political and social advancement.

    6. What were the goals of the Spanish (individually and as a nation) in establishing an empire in the Americas? In religious regards, the goal of the Spanish was to win the land and people for the Catholic church, as mentioned in the lecture. In regards to power and expansion, the goal was to gain power over the Americas (central and southern) and to seek out the fortunes that were rumored to be there.

      In the biological exchange between Europeans and Native Americans, what diseases, plants, and animals were exchanged? The diseases exchanged from Europeans to Native Americans included smallpox, influenza, and measles. Plants and animals exchanged between Europeans and Native Americans include: large, domesticated animals; corns, beans, squash, and potatoes; and tobacco plants.

      What are the ways that European powers claim their right to claim land in the Americas? The ways that Europeans claim their right to claim land in the Americas include: authority extended by the pope; claims of discovery of the land; claiming they commandeered the land from the previous people; occupying the land; and improving the land.

  25. Feb 2014