40 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2019
    1.       In the play Much Ado About Nothing, the concepts of love and romance are concretized in two different forms, represented by the relationship between Claudio and Hero, and the relationship between Beatrice and Benedick. These two couples express their love in contrasting ways, with Claudio and Hero’s relationship representing the more traditional lust filled romance, and that of Beatrice and Benedick representing a much more unconventional relationship. At first, this unconventional romance seems to lack love but in the end, it endures longer than Claudio and Hero’s does. The issue with the latter relationship is that it seems to be forced by tradition and even though there is much love or. lust at the surface of the relationship, it’s substance proves to be quite shallow. This is why trust quickly becomes a major issue. In Beatrice and Benedick’s lackluster relationship, the key factor is that although there seems to be less love in the romantic sense, there is much more thinking which overpowers the emotional aspect. This is why the shallow issues which usually befall a conventional couple are not a problem for Beatrice and Benedick. In a sense, Shakespeare is using irony to make the statement that conventional love, filled only with emotion is what leads to a faulty relationship. 
      
  2. May 2019
    1. “Faint-hearted Woodvile, prizest him 'fore me? Arrogant Winchester, that haughty prelate, Whom Henry, our late sovereign, ne'er could brook? Thou art no friend to God or to the king.” – Henry VI

      "Faint-Hearted"is a term used to describe those who are timid or not very brave. Shakespeare came up with this.

    2. To break the ice is to do or say something to relieve tension and is often used in the context of strangers meeting.

      Shakespeare invented the term "break the ice", which means to relieve tension upon meeting new people.

    3. To say that someone has a "heart of gold" means that they are kind, good natured or generous.

      Shakespeare invented the idiom, "Heart of Gold".

    1. Heaven truly knows that thou art false as hell

      means the person is so horrible that heaven recognizes them to belong in hell.

    2. More of your conversation would infect my brain.

      means the person's talking is idiotic and extremely stupid.

    1. It may denote the fact that works of fiction occasionally include poems or that poems are referred to within the narrative, and it may mean that fiction can be or comprise poetry, that we may note and discover poetry in the fictional prose text.

      ""Poetry in Fiction": A Range of Options - Connotations." https://www.connotations.de/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/bauer0232.pdf.

  3. Feb 2019
    1. very severely treated by Historians

      Reference to Shakespeare's Richard III and, perhaps, 18th century literature like Nicholas Rowe's play, The Tragedy of Jane Shore

    1. The English language since Shakespeare has undergone no alteration comparable to the alteration in the cultural environment; if it had, Shakespeare would no longer be accessible to us.

      Is this true? Gardner, as a literary scholar, do you agree?

  4. Dec 2018
  5. Nov 2018
    1. Create a note by selecting some text and clicking the button

      Sonnet 130: My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun

  6. Oct 2018
    1. MacBeth

      What you can see below is a page taken from the so called 'First Folio' - a cheap print of Shakespeare's texts.

  7. May 2018
    1. “Testing, testing, one, two three!” the man in the elaborate suit and tie announced, tapping the microphone. Bianca, still in a daze, looked around in her surroundings, finding that she was in a large space with blinding white stage lights in every direction. She glanced at the man, and was staggered to see her father Baptista, with a joker-like smile towards the audience, walking around the stage like a show host.

      “Welcome all who are present, especially those who are eager to take this prize off the stage. I am your host Baptista, and we will be giving our audience the chance for the most optimal and successful contestant to take my daughter and the cash prize of $50,000 home,” Baptista says eagerly. “Whoever does the best job of impressing me, or prove that they have the income to take care of my daughter, will have the chance to become her husband.”

      Bianca stared at her father with a horrified expression, and tried to move off the stage. However, even though she desperately wanted to move her body, she realized that she was in a fixed position, having no mobility for any of her limbs. Her hands were stuck to her waist, and her feet seemed to be glued to the stage; she was a mannequin without the plastic. She was even encased in a clear glass box, displayed like fancy jewelry.

      Baptista began to pick random men from the audience, motioning them towards Bianca. Bianca stood there with no hope of escape. The expression on her face was a still picture, displaying a bright, blinding smile, but her insides churned at the thought of being wed to any of these men in the audience. Suddenly, a man that could have been considered her grandfather approached her, sliding his hand down the glass container. She could slowly feel the bile crawl up her throat as this man stared at her from head to toe.

      “I will take her! I have more than enough money to care for her myself,” Gremio exclaimed gallantly to Baptista.

      “She will love me!” Hortensio exclaimed angrily, waving his finger in Gremio’s face.

      You cannot buy love! Bianca screamed in her mind, distraught by the men in front of her. Love is not an object for you to give away without my consent!

      “Well, in order for you to take my daughter and have her love, you both must show me what you have. Say, Signior Gremio, what can you assure her?” (Shakespeare Act II ll. 365).

    2. woo her with some spirit when she comes. Say that she rail; why then I’ll tell her plain She sings as sweetly as a nightingale:

      In Shakespeare’s “Taming of the Shrew” Petruchio approaches his marriage to Kate as an opportunity to control her. Before they meet for the first time, Petruchio discusses his plans to court her. He states he will “...woo her with some spirit when she comes! Say that she rail, why then I’ll tell her plain She sings as sweetly as a nightingale.” (177-179) Despite her crude and ruthless comments, Petruchio plans to act as though she is flirting with him and speaking in beautiful prose. The structure of these lines show the playful approach Petruchio plans to use to subdue Kate. He speaks in internal rhymes which plays into the witty and lighthearted banter that he and Kate enter into in the next few lines. He believes if he approaches her with “spirit” it will benefit him. He knows Kate is infamous for her sharp tongue and wit. If he does not keep up and over power her intellectually, he has no chance of controlling her. Comparatively, the nightingale is known for its gentle and sweet call. Comparing Kate to a nightingale is a part of a recurring theme in the book. Petruchio constantly refers Kate to animals, whether wild or calm. In this particular quote she is referred to as a sweet and gentle animal. This is because Petruchio is trying to appeal to her better nature and woo her. However, when Kate first appears in the play, she is called a “wildcat” by Gremio. The constant reference of kate to an animal shows that people want to tame her wild personality and make her a domesticated creature.

  8. Apr 2018
    1. “I have been used to consider poetry as the food of love,”

      Allusion to Shakespeare, the footnotes acknowledges what Mr. Darcy says is related to Duke Osino’s opening line. The lines reveals and foreshadows one of Mr. Darcy interest which is music, so this line foreshadow that Elizabeth plays music and Mr. Darcy shows this fact in Part II, Ch. XIII (Doody, Jane Austen’s Names, 292).

  9. Oct 2017
    1. This transcript is derived from the automatically generated closed captions on the video. The original file contains many errors. We did some initial editing but now can no longer eliminate these without risk to the annotations, sadly.

  10. Jul 2017
    1. Summary and Analysis

      Be sure you are able to analysis this poem for the midterm!

      Stylistically, Sonnet 29 is typically Shakespearean in its form. The first eight lines, which begin with "When," establish a conditional argument and show the poet's frustration with his craft. The last six lines, expectedly beginning in line 9 with "Yet" — similar to other sonnets' "But" — and resolving the conditional argument, present a splendid image of a morning lark that "sings hymns at heaven's gate." This image epitomizes the poet's delightful memory of his friendship with the youth and compensates for the misfortunes he has lamented.

      The uses of "state" unify the sonnet's three different sections: the first eight lines, lines 9 through 12, and the concluding couplet, lines 13 and 14. Additionally, the different meanings of state — as a mood and as a lot in life — contrast the poet's sense of a failed and defeated life to his exhilaration in recalling his friendship with the youth. One state, as represented in lines 2 and 14, is his state of life; the other, in line 10, is his state of mind. Ultimately, although the poet plaintively wails his "outcast state" in line 2, by the end of the sonnet he has completely reversed himself: ". . . I scorn to change my state with kings." Memories of the young man rejuvenate his spirits.

  11. Mar 2017
    1. with the publication of the “New Oxford Shakespeare”, they have shaped the debate about authorship in Elizabethan England. 

      Interesting how the technology improves.

  12. Oct 2016
    1. Good night, ladies, good night, sweet ladies, good night, good night.

      This line is taken from Hamlet. Ophelia speaks it to Gertrude and Claudius while she grieves (and sings) for the death of her father. This line is interesting to think about in that context, especially when you consider the tragic/unfair fate Shakespeare writes for Ophelia and the larger issue of gender in Hamlet. Does this relate to Lil?

  13. Sep 2016
    1. Shakespeare followed in 1594, in The Comedy of Errors: “There’s not a man I meet but doth salute me/As if I were their well-acquainted friend”

      Shakespeare uses they for singular in comedy of errors.

  14. May 2016
    1. But true it is. From France there comes a power Into this scattered kingdom

      I believe that the understatement of the French invasion of England in the folio is a flaw. To understand the direction of the plot, the statement that France is mobilizing against the armies of Goneril and Regan is important for when one reads the battle scenes. Though the folio mentions French spies, neglecting to mention the mobilization of France makes the dissent against Goneril and Regan appear more ambiguous.

    2. No, he's a yeoman that has a gentleman to his son, for he's a mad yeoman that sees his son a gentleman before him.

      In the folio, the Fool more directly answers his own question regarding "whether a madman be a gentleman or a yeoman," and it is significant that the Fool negates and corrects Lear's answer of "A king, a king" with "No." When the Fool corrects Lear's 'wrong' answer, it could bias the reader's understanding of Lear's mental state to think of Lear as mad and wrong.

    3. I tax not you, you elements, with unkindness.

      I find it interesting that in the quarto, Lear says, "I task not you, you elements, with unkindness," while in the folio, Lear says, "I tax not you, you elements, with unkindness." Using "task" implies that the elements are given an obligation to Lear (imposed by Lear), while "tax" implies that the elements most certainly owe Lear (and are obligated by a greater force to comply, such as a legal one, compared to the self-imposed obligation to Lear implied by the word "task").

    4. all germens spill at once That makes ingrateful man.

      The fact that the line "That makes ingrateful man" stands on its own line in the folio version of the play makes the line that much more powerful when Lear ends the first part of one of his great speeches in the heath. The image conjured up by "all germens spill at once" is very strong, because the spilling of seed in this place of nothingness reminds us of the sub-theme of infertility in the play. The result of this spilling of seed--"That makes ingrateful man"--seems much more significant when it stands on a line of its own in the folio. The spilling of fertile seed into nothingness can only bring forth ingrateful [sic] offspring or make the parent figure ingrateful [sic] as well. The image is stronger when it stands on its own line to end this section of Lear's rambling speech.

    5. What's here

      It is significant that Kent asks "What's here" in the quarto edition compared to "Who's there" in the folio. The "who" indicates that Kent is inquiring about the identity and whereabouts of a person, while the "what" indicates that the unknown presence in the scene could be more ambiguous--such as a natural force or something that potentially has an inhuman quality. A human stripped down to its base nature, like Lear or Poor Tom in the scenes containing their madness and nakedness, could also be considered a "what." Therefore, I think it is powerful that, in the quarto, Kent presents this possibility of a stage presence with an ambiguous quality existing in the scene, because it fits in with Shakespeare's thematic use of chaos and perverted human nature in the play.

    6. Tears his white hair, Which the impetuous blasts with eyeless rage Catch in their fury and make nothing of; Strives in his little world of man to outscorn The to-and-fro-conflicting wind and rain. This night, wherein the cub-drawn bear would couch, The lion, and the belly-pinched wolf Keep their fur dry, unbonneted he runs, And bids what will take all.

      This section of the gentleman’s answer to Kent’s question regarding the whereabouts of King Lear only exists in the quarto. These eight and a half lines constitute one of the largest differences between the quarto and folio versions of Act III. The gentleman gives us a preview of Lear’s madness in the heath—telling us how the storm strikes Lear and how he attempts to fight back against it—and then relates the scene to dangerous predatory animals that would usually hunt in the night and in the elements. He essentially says that even such fierce creatures are taking cover from the storm, yet Lear still runs in it, rages against it, and thinks the storm will listen and react to his words. The shorter response of the gentleman in the folio neglects to provide us with this in-depth preview of Lear’s actions in the storm.

    7. Contending with the fretful elements; Bids the wind blow the earth into the sea, Or swell the curlèd waters 'bove the main That things might change or cease.

      In the folio, the gentleman answers Kent’s question about Lear’s whereabouts in a simpler manner. He just essentially discusses how Lear fights against the storm and entreats it to behave in a certain way. The four succinct lines set up the following scene (III.2) in which Lear both encourages and rages against the storm. These lines are also in the quarto, but in the folio, the word “element” in the quarto becomes plural as “elements,” and this small, one-letter change to make the word plural causes the storm to seem even bigger, stronger, and harsher. Without the next eight and a half lines that are only included in the quarto, the audience does not get an in-depth preview of Lear’s chaotic raging, and so the next scene, featuring Lear, is slightly more of a shock for the audience.

    8. Tears his white hair, Which the impetuous blasts with eyeless rage Catch in their fury and make nothing of

      These first few lines in the gentleman's reply that are not in the folio are especially powerful in incorporating major themes that continue throughout the play. The reference to Lear's "white hair" shows the theme of age in the play that is often connected to Lear's madness, and the "impetuous blasts" foreshadow the apocalyptic language and scenes that personify Lear's madness as the great chaos of the storm. The adjective "Eyeless" to describe "rage" brings in the theme of seeing and not seeing--as well as of deception. The "eyeless rage" also just literally shows that the storm has no human or animalistic features and so obviously cannot respond to Lear's entreating. The use of the word "nothing" continues the theme of nothingness throughout the play, and the storm makes Lear's hair into nothing--just as almost everything in the play is reduced to nothing. Unfortunately, the folio version does not contain these lines and thus does not have these immense connections to the play's major themes.

    9. Here's a night pities neither wise man nor fool

      It is interesting that, in the quarto version, the fool says "Here's a night pities neither wise man nor fool," while, in the folio version, the fool's sentence becomes plural: "Here's a night pities neither wise men, nor fools." When the sentence says "wise man nor fool," it seems that the fool implies that, of Lear and himself, one is a wise man and one is a fool--even though which character is the wise man or fool is not specified. When the sentence says "wise men, nor fools," it seems that the fool implies that, of Lear and himself, one could be wise, one a fool, or both characters could be wise men or fools. The situation seems a bit more vague. The answer to this question of characterization as wise or foolish is never explicitly answered in the quarto and folio versions of the play.

    10. smite

      I think the difference between "smite" in the quarto and "Strike" in the folio is significant because "smite" has a much more severe connotation than "Strike." The quarto version of "smite" fits in better with the apocalyptic language used by the characters in the heath and with Lear's mental apocalypse in Act III--where Lear's madness is even personified in the absolute chaos around him. "Smite" also incorporates a biblical connotation that fits in with the hellish chaos of the storm when Lear is on the heath.

    11. thou, all-shaking thunder

      Though simply a difference of line placement and a single comma, it is still significant that, in the quarto, a comma comes after "thou." The fact that there is a comma before and after "all-shaking thunder" in the quarto makes it an appositive phrase, and clarifies that Lear is directly addressing the thunder--an entity that has no ability to listen and react to him--thus more strongly showing Lear's mental degradation. The folio version does not use an appositive phrase, so the direct address of the thunder is not as clear.

    12. True, my good boy

      It is interesting that Lear calls the fool "my good boy" in the quarto, while he simply calls the fool "boy" in the folio. Calling him "my good boy" in the quarto denotes ownership, affection, and familiarity that it is not explicitly expressed in the folio version of this line.

    13. In such a night To shut me out?

      The folio differs in this sentence by Lear stressing the gravity of the storm and that his daughters abandoned him by reminding the audience that his daughters "shut me out" in "such a night as this." The quarto does not go through the extra trouble of once again reminding us how Lear's daughters shut him out.

    14. This is a brave night to cool a courtesan. I'll speak a prophecy ere I go. When priests are more in word than matter, When brewers mar their malt with water, When nobles are their tailors' tutors, No heretics burned but wenches' suitors; When every case in law is right, No squire in debt, nor no poor knight; When slanders do not live in tongues, Nor cut-purses come not to throngs; When usurers tell their gold i'th'field, And bawds and whores do churches build; Then shall the realm of Albion Come to great confusion. Then comes the time, who lives to see't, That going shall be used with feet. This prophecy Merlin shall make, for I live before his time.

      The Fool's prophecy that ends Act III.2 in the folio version of the play is one of the main, most striking differences between the quarto and folio in Act III. The Routledge Parallel Text Edition of King Lear attributes much of the prophecy to a Chaucerian parody where the land of Albion (England) shall come to great confusion and chaos, and the footnote interpretation of the Fool's words states that, intellectually despairing, he means "that both the world as it is and the world as it ideally should be are equally confusing and meaningless" (p. 204). The Fool's metatheatrical performance here in the folio directly addresses the audience by breaking the fourth wall, and indicates that the Fool is significant beyond the realm of the play. The Fool expresses that he even predates Merlin--an English legendary figure which no other character in the play is aware of. In addition, bringing in this idea of life becoming meaningless and chaotic in the realm of Albion would play to the contemporary audience's fears about the kingdom(s) and the succession during the reign of King James and continue the theme of political chaos brought about by Lear dividing the kingdom--an action that would horrify the paranoid contemporary English audience. I believe that this prophecy is an exceptionally important and powerful speech during the play, and it is unfortunate that it only appears in the quarto.

    15. I'll pray, and then I'll sleep.

      It is interesting that Lear's line regarding prayer only appears in the folio version. At first I thought that in a pre-Christian play one might not expect Lear to announce that he would go off to pray, but then I remembered that pagans and other pre-Christian peoples still prayed to certain deities or figures, and Lear has previously addressed Nature and other storm forces as if praying. However, he has not retired to go pray before. This line, only appearing in the folio version, could be interpreted in multiple ways: it could simply be a filler line, or it could show that Lear has so strongly internalized the betrayals and harm done to him that he has resorted to prayer as a comfort with which to deal with his hurt emotions or as a cry for help in his degraded state of nothingness.

    16. Come sit thou here most learned justice.

      Here is the biggest change that occurs between the quarto and the folio and this section. In the quarto, Shakespeare has this mock trial of his daughters, which is included in the quarto, but not in the folio. The Norton edition says that the lack of this scene in the folio is an act of censorship, as this scene takes away the seriousness of the play before Gloucester's torture scene. However, the editors of the Norton say that they include it because it became an important part of the popular perception of the play. This section is another excellent indicator of Lear's madness, and provides levity in a play that is not exactly known for its humor.

  15. Apr 2016
    1. slave

      Rhyme Scheme: line1) a slave line2) b pleasure L3) a crave L4) b leisure L5) c beck L6) d liberty L7) c cheque L8) d injury L9) e strong L10) f time L11) e belong L12) f crime L13) g hell L14) g well

  16. Mar 2015
    1. SCENE I. Elsinore. A platform before the castle. FRANCISCO at his post. Enter to him BERNARDO BERNARDO Who's there? FRANCISCO Nay, answer me: stand, and unfold yourself.

      Image Description

      This has to be one of the most intense opening scenes in all of literature. We are immediately thrown into a moment of panic as each guard responds wearily to the other's approach. In general these opening lines set the tone of the play to be one of apprehension.