1,221 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2017
    1. The letters that were exchanged among the membership of the Royal Society in the mid-17th century, and that were later gathered into journals, gradually accrued formalized processes of review, editing, production, and distribution. In creating this new product —the scholarly journal—learned societies found one part of the financial model that would allow them to serve their larger goals. Scholars were encouraged to join and maintain their memberships in order to receive the journal. In addition to memberships made available to individuals, journal subscriptions were created for libraries, allowing academic institutions to help support the organizations that facilitated, validated, and circulated the work of their faculty members.

      History of journals from letters

    1. he web was, like scholarly societies, invented for the express purpose of supporting communication amongst researchers by allowing them to create pages on which they could share their work with one another and with the world. The difference, of course, is that the web permits any individual scholar with server access and a little bit of technical knowledge to share their work directly and immediately further diminishing their apparent need for those collectives that scholarly societies have historically provided.

      How the web is like and not like traditional societies

    2. Since the Royal Society of London, learned and professional societies have been created precisely in order to help facilitate communication amongst members, scholars, and between those members and the broader intellectual world. Now, early on that communication took place via meetings and letters that were sent among the membership between meetings. Over time, the meetings developed into regularly scheduled conferences, and the letters were gathered into systematically produced and distributed journals. Those journals accrued a series of formal publishing processes including, of course, editing and peer review that came to mark them as authoritative resources for developing knowledge in their fields, and those resources came not only to be valued by their original audience, the members of the society, but also by a broader range of scholars, researchers, and students. As a result, research libraries collected those journals and made them available to their patrons

      History of Scholarly Societies from networking centres through conferences through publishers

    3. It could if we had more gold, but I am here to tell you that we do not. The boom Brandon just mentioned in the sciences has passed us by. ACLS funds a lot of scholarship, and we award $15 million in fellowship and grants, but if recipients of our fellowships use stipends to pay author fees that would be trading publication costs for research time. The National Endowment for Humanities, its funding is now 29% of its peak appropriation, and an additional 49% cut has been proposed, and the House Budget Committee is considering complete elimination of all funding. If the author pays model were widely adopted in the humanities, it would increase the already problematical level of inequality in academia. Wealthy universities could pay for their faculty but scholars at public universities and smaller colleges could not expect such largesse.

      Why APC doesn't work in the humanities

    4. They were created to name and claim an area of knowledge and to establish and monitor standards for cultivating that area. Establishing a peer-review journal was the most obvious way of doing that but there are many other ways. Prizes for books and articles, even the elections of officers themselves. Most humanities journals have two types of peer review: prepublication review of research articles and postpublication review of books and other published materials.

      Modern scholarly societies in the humanites were created to provide peer review

    5. William Rainey Harper, the first president of the nascent University of Chicago, was aggressive in recruiting star faculty to his new campus. He would offer blandishments including one relevant to our topic this morning. If Harper really wanted someone, the president would promise the wavering scholar that he, and it was almost always a “he” in those days, would be the editor of not one but two new journals that the university press would publish: one, a journal for academic specialists, and the second, for the general public.

      How U of C used journal editorships--of scholarly and public--as recruitment tool in setting up the U of Chicago.

  2. Mar 2017
    1. It is a quasi-sacred object for me, an object with which I have a long personal association. I have carried it from place to place as part of my library. My relation to this object is an example of the way so many readers of my generation and of many generations before mine have participated in a festishism of the book

      Fetishisation of the book

    2. C.'.',, ., ., | *l | . -_ I W ., * - I E F * -l l l l g | |! i ; i _zwF:rz_*z:0E E. _-_^s__ ___ _ _ - - . - _ | - _ _ _ ffi _ _ _l __ _ _ _ - - r I r _ _ : F_w__ _E 111 _ 1 : | 8 | __ s __ _l _ - __ _ I _ __=- _ _ I ____g - I I ._ q w , I _g g I | 11111 i I _-ist siF_ F __ - , - __ s_; _ _ E:___ X, X E E , w _ _ L w w s _ :_ : _L .. .: __ _ : -_ _ _- __ - === W. - _ _ __- _ __, ___ - _ _; __--_: __ _W - - i--W i - Wih - - - ffi m _.. _ e _ _ Wiii,i' _i --,.,q,q.,-.. _ _Iq]E - - - i F == F -| ' Ri - WqiE S - '! _i _ _ R _ _ !,,,; _i 1E.: _ :| | f _E i,,-E ___r'..; _ ; .; _,,q,i.: } =ii; ; q-d __gIIii"." iiA =_es, _w_ i _

      Interesting understanding of the issue of pre-set links:

      Nothing, however, prevents using the computer for quite conventional or traditional notions about the relation of a work to its author and to its historical and cultural contexts. ... The apparent freedom for the student to "browse" among various hypertext "links" may hide the imposition of predetermined connections. These may reinfornce powerful ideological assumptions about the causal force of historical context on literary works. It depends on what links have been set up or on the use's inventiveness in setting up new ones.

      --Also quite interesting because it is pre-search engine.

    3. i--W i - Wih - - - ffi m _.. _ e _ _ Wiii,i' _i --,.,q,q.,-.. _ _Iq]E - - - i F == F -| '

      Some of the claims for the revolutionary effect of computers on humanistic study have clearly been exaggerated or wrongly formulated. Seen from a certain point of viewm a computer, even one connected by modem or Ethernet to the Wolrd Wide Web, is, as many people would claim, no more than a glorified typewriter, though one should not underestimate the changes this glorification makes. An example is the new ease of revision, the facility with which things can be added, deleted, or moved from one place to another in a computer files as opposed to a typed manuscript. Such ease gradually encourages the adept in computer composition to think of what he or she writes as never being in quite finished form. Whatever is printed is alsways just one stage in a potentially endless process of revision, deletion, addition, and rearrangement.

    1. if 'a' is preceded by 'o': sound ? O yoare (yOr) if 'a' is preceded by 'e' and followed by 'u': sound ? O jeauntis (jOntiz)

      The left hand columns need to be more obviously grouped. I.e. two lines on the left in each row for one line on the right.

    2. sound ? A

      sound ← A

    3. dgement 379 14 Phonetic transcription software § 9 In order to pick out alliterati

      Blank line after end of tables?

    4. d’s t

      should be 's

    5. Vndir the ryallest roye of rente and renowne Now am I regent of rewle this region in reste, Obeye vnto bidding bud busshoppis me bowne And bolde men that in batayll makis brestis to breste. To me betaught is the tent this towre-begon towne, For traytoures tyte will I taynte the trewthe for to triste. The dubbyng of my dingnité may noyot be done downe, Nowdir with duke nor dugeperes, my dedis are so dreste.

      SHould be single block quotation

    1. Works cited Lewis, Charlton, and Charles Short. 1989. A Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.? Nara, Katariina. 2014. Word of the month: Locusts and lobsters. The Anglo-Norman words blog. Accessed March 13. http://anglonormandictionary.blogspot.co.uk/?

      Margin

    2. al Ťcathedralť li

      « »

    3. e Ť DEAF électronique ť – un

      Le « DEAF électronique »

    4. rench – for

      dash

  3. dm.ubiquitypress.com dm.ubiquitypress.com
    1. ? edges = [ ? // W1, W2, W3, W4 ? [ 0, 1, 1, 0], // edges for segment 1 ? [ 1, 1, 1, 1], // " for segment 2 ? [ 0, 0, 0, 0], // " for segment 3 ? [ 0, 1, 1, -1], // " for segment 4 ? [ 1, 1, 0.3, 1] // " for segment 5 ? ]

      Not separate block code

    2. including a CSS rule like the following in the website stylesheet: .segment:target { outline: medium solid red; } § 9 The CATview widget doe

      Should block code have the pull-quote bar beside it?

    1. ‘

      Opening quotes?

    2. ———

      ensashes

    3. .?

      ? comes in at end of biblos.

    4. –

      En-dash? Or Em-dash?

    5. AcknowledgementsThe authors thank Gene Lyman for his help in discovering the location of the XML files discussed in this article.The authors are listed in alphabetical order. The corresponding author is O'Donnell. Author contributions, described using the CASRAI CRedIT typology ("CRediT - CASRAI" 2016), are as follows (authors identifed by initials):Conceptualization: cc, sc, gd, vg, dpod;Methodology: cc, sc, gd, vg, dpod;Investigation: cc, sc, gd, vg, dpod;Resources: dpod;Writing – Original Draft Preparation: dpod on the basis of notes from cc, sc, gd, vg, dpod;Writing – Review & Editing: dpod;gdSupervision: dpod;Project Administration: vg, dpod.Works cited Bauman, Syd, and Lou Burnard. 2008. TEI P5: Guidelines for electronic text encoding and interchange. Oxford; Providence: [Text Encoding Initiative].? Berners-Lee, Tim. 1990. "The original proposal of the WWW, HTMLized." http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html? Brindley, Lynne J. 2002. "The future of libraries and Humanities research: New strategic directions for the British Library." Libraries & Culture 37.1: 26–36.? Connolly, David W. 1994. "Toward a formalism for communication on the Web." W3C. February 15.https://www.w3.org/MarkUp/html-spec/html-essay.html.? "CRediT - CASRAI." 2016. Accessed May 18. http://ref.casrai.org/CRediT.? Currall, James E. P., and Michael S. Moss. 2010. "Digital asset management." In Encyclopedia of library and information sciences, 1528–38. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=5017873.? Dahlström, Mats. 2006. "Under Utgivning: Den Vetenskapliga Utgivningens Bibliografiska Funktion." Borĺs: Valfrid. http://bada.hb.se/bitstream/2320/1738/2/MatsDahlstromSpikblad.pdf.? Earhart, Amy E. 2012. "The digital edition and the digital humanities." Textual cultures 7.1: 18–28.? "[electronic editing,digital editing]." 2016. Google Books Ngram Viewer. Accessed June 30. http://bit.ly/electronicDigitalEditingNgram.? Fulk, R. D., Robert E. Bjork, and John D. Niles, eds. 2008. Klaeber's Beowulf, fourth edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.? Hickes. 1705. Linguarum Vetrum Septentrionalium Thesaurus Grammatico-Criticus et Archaeologicus Auctore GEORGIO HICKESIO. Oxford.? Internet Archive. 2016. "Frequently asked questions." Internet Archive. Accessed July 4. https://archive.org/about/faqs.php.? Ker, Neil Ripley. 1990. Catalogue of manuscripts containing Anglo-Saxon. Oxford: Clarendon Press.? Kiernan, Kevin S. (1981) 1996. Beowulf and the Beowulf manuscript. New Brunswick, New Jersey:

      Margins are off.

    6. Their editions in this respect were meant to conserve the manuscript record. Digital imaging makes it possible for editors to examine the validity of their decisions. Figure 19. Lost Text in Manuscript A case in point is the obliterated text between syđđan and ţ on fol. 179r10. Any attempt at restoration is com

      The image here is part of the block quote. Is it possible to keep the line?

    7. t—th

      Looks like emdashes are not working properly.

    8. repeatedly for earlier releases, including the eighteen month-old version 3.1: The third edition of Electronic Beowulf was an html application on DVD that used a Java applet and JavaScript. When first published, major internet browsers could run the html application on PCs and Macs. However, security problems with Java in Summer 2013 forced all major browsers to disable unsigned Java applets compiled with earlier versions of Java. As it was compiled in 2011, Electronic Beowulf 3.0 was then disabled. To fix the problem in 2013 we compiled a new signed applet with Mac and PC installers that moved Electronic Beowulf 3.1 from the read-only DVD to the owner's hard disk. By 2014, however, this solution was beginning to have problems, because Java kept changing its security protocols. To solve the problem, we decided to stop using Java altogether and to re-engineer Electronic Beowulf using only JavaScript. At the 49th International Congress on Medieval Studies in May 2014, Emil Iacob explained the technological issues and Andrew Prescott announced in a plenary lecture celebrating the twenty-first anniversary of Electronic Beowulf that the fourth edition would be going online in 20

      Should these be a single block quote?

    9. http://ebeowulf.uky.edu/ebeo4.0/CD/main.html

      Sometimes these are hyperlins, sometimes they are not.

    1. Hélčne
    2. sičcle

      siècle

    3. zcárate Aguilar-Amat, Pilar, Julio Escalona, Cristina Jular, and Miguel Larrańaga. 2006. Volver a nacer: historia e identidad en los monasterios de Arlanza, San Millán y Silos en el siglo XIII.” In “Feindre, leurrer, fausser: fiction et falsification dans l'Espagne médiévale, edited by C. Heusch. Special issue. Cahiers d'Études Hispaniques Médiévales 29: 359-394.? Becerro Galicano de San Millán de la Cogolla (digital edition). 2013. Accessed October 12, 2016. http://www.ehu.eus/galicano.?

      Should we do hanging indents? Margins wrong

    4. XIII.” In “Feindre

      Quotation mark issues

    5. .?

      QuestionMark at the end of every reference

    6. Notes: [1]. The classical reference for this conceptual shift is the 1991 Paris Conference Les Cartulaires (Guyotjeannin, Morelle, and Parisse 1993), which triggered a sustained wave of studies in most European countries, up to the present. French research remains the most active in this field, especially through the works of Pierre Chastang, who has proposed the term 'cartularisation' to define the emergence of cartularies as a documentary genre in the central Middle Ages (Chastang 2001, 2006). Major landmarks in the process are a number of national and international conferences and collective volumes including the Colloquium of the Commission Internationale de Diplomatique in Princeton and New York in 1999 (Kosto and Winroth 2002) and the 2002 Béziers Conference on the cartularies from southern France (Le Blévec 2006). The most recent major international meeting is the Lisboa 2015 Conference Cartularies in Medieval Europe (http://medievalcartularies.letras.ulisboa.pt/). For a more detailed contextual discussion, see (Escalona and Sirantoine 2013). [2]. The cases of multiple cartularisation have been insufficiently researched to date. Their study is a very promising avenue of research for the immediate future. In the Iberian Peninsula steps have recently been taken in this direction, as shown in the comparative study of three cases presented at the international conference entitled “Cartularies in Medieval Europe: Texts and Contexts” held in Lisbon in June 2015 (see Tinti, Peterson and Agúndez 2015). [3]. Cartulario: Spain. Ministry of Culture. National Historical Archive. AHN, Diversoso y Colecciones, Códice 998. Becerro: Spain. Ministry of Culture. National Historical Archive. AHN, Diversos y Colecciones, Códice 1375. The two codices were digitised as part of the CRELOC project, and images can be viewed at www.creloc.net (Jular Pérez-Alfaro, 2006). [4]. The Becerro plan announced that there would be eight chapters: 1) Foundation of the monastery; 2) Donations by the founders; 3) Donations from benefactors; 4) Papal and Royal Confirmations; 5) Sales and Purchases; 6) Property rights; 7) Censuses; 8) List of Abbots (Abadologio) (which probably eventually gave rise to a separate volume). AHN, Cod. 1375, fols 1v-2r. AcknowledgementsThis study was conducted with the support of the research projects of the Spanish National R & D Plan ref. HAR2013-47889-C3-2-P, led by Julio Escalona and ref. HAR2012-34756, led by Cristina Jular Pérez-Alfaro, respectively. Some preliminary aspects of this research were presented at the international conference entitled Cartularies in Medieval Europe: Texts and Contexts, held in Lisbon, Portugal, on 11-12 June, 2015 and the PraME Séminaire (Séminaire Pratiques médiévales de l'écrit) at the University of Namur, Belgium, on 3 December, 2015. The authors wish to acknowledge the criticisms and comments received from those present at these events. The draft was read by Francesca Tinti and we particularly appreciate the suggestions received from her. In the early stages of research, we benefitted from the comments and insights provided by Carmen Escalona Noguero, whom we heartedly thank. Finally we want to acknowledge the very helpful criticism received from Digital Medievalist's two anonymous readers, who have helped us greatly in defining the final version of the text. Any errors, however, are the sole responsibility of the authors.

      Margins are wrong

    7. Notes: [1]. The classical reference for this conceptual shift is the 1991 Paris Conference Les Cartulaires (Guyotje

      Something funny about the marker

    8. ere repositories of documentation, to now seeing them as cultural objects worthy of study in and of themselves.[1] There has also b

      Something funny about the layout of the footnote marker

    9. nt –eve

      endash, I think, even though they should have been emdash

    10. s ‘-2’ and

      Smart single quotes

    11. maker™

      Superscript TM

    12. ria—of

      emdash

    1. Competing interestsDuring the course of her undergraduate studies at Columbia University, the reviewer consulted with Professor Stephen Murray for academic advice. She has had, however, no part in either the design or production of the website under review.

      Margins are wrong

    2. ology” an

      Closing smart quotes

    3. les—like

      emdash (and passim)

    4. ing’s

      smart apostrophe?

    5. tions—a pr

      emdash?

    6. Hrinc

      Original typo

    7. Lefčbvre

      For è

    8. s – buil

      missing emDash

    9. Author:

      Reviewers and accepting editor?

    1. essay will argue that creative writing represents a special and crucially important case, one where the neo-naturalism of writing technologies must necessarily break down.

      Argues that "Hypertext" doesn't work for fiction

    1. If historians want to be represented on the information superhighway, they and their organizations need to become active participants in the information process, ensuring that future programs for training in the humanities do not exclude history. Without such representation, histo rians will be on the equivalent of the interstate ramps that were built before the highway itself. They will be there, hanging in the air with others speeding past, but will lack the connectivity that will make the highway a meaningful part of their academic and

      On Historian's lack of engagement with technology, even in 1994

    2. I have touched briefly on what I consider to be some important sources for the newly wired historian and suggested that the challenges that this part of the humanistic disciplines face will affect other humani ties disciplines as well. I have not touched on such important topics as WAIS, an acronym for Wide Area Information System, which pro vides access to diverse information resources, or the WORLD WIDE WEB, commonly abbreviated as WWW or simply W3, a wide-area hypermedia information retrieval initiative that intends to provide universal access to Internet documents, or any of the other new tech nical innovations in existence or being planned to ease Internet access and use.

      I haven't touched on the WORLD WIDE WEB

    3. tion. Since electronic publications and/or editorial work have not, at least not as far as discussions that have appeared on the HUMANIST and other listservers suggest, achieved the same level of recognition as works published in traditional sources, some changes are needed to provide the stability that electronic res

      Discussion of rewards on Humanist

    4. That is clearly no longer the case. I know personally of five closed lists and was accepted as a subscriber to two of them, but their owners have requested that I reveal neither their existence nor their addresses. It is hard to discover purposely hidden resources. These five may be just hints of a trend that will result in a relatively closed system in which elite scholars, wherever they are located in the world, will utilize private and specialized mailing lists—that, by the way, do not appear in any of the general directories—as their real forum for infor mation interchange

      World of closed listservs

    5. n active listserv will generate is growing exponentially and is derived from an increasingly diverse population. As a result, the "noise" to information ratio is rising and unwanted information crowds the listserver. Even after dropping off several lists, I receive more than 100 messages a day which consume at least an hour each morning despite expediency necessitated pr

      Problem of overload and noise

    6. from railroads to

      Railroads to pronography

    7. There are five factors involved with listservers: quantity, quality, scholarly withdrawal from general lists, cost, and the structure of the professional reward system that might affect these potentially important tools in the future

      Issues with Listervs

  4. oup.silverchair-cdn.com oup.silverchair-cdn.com
    1. References

      No gray lit.

    2. Gabler, H. 2000. “Towards an Electronic Edition of James Joyce’s Ulysses.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 15 (1): 115–20. doi:10.1093/llc/15.1.115.

  5. oup.silverchair-cdn.com oup.silverchair-cdn.com
    1. References

      No gray lit.

    2. Crasson, A. 2000. “Pour Une Lecture Ouverte Du Texte Electronique.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 15 (1): 109–14. doi:10.1093/llc/15.1.109.

  6. oup.silverchair-cdn.com oup.silverchair-cdn.com
    1. Ott, W. 2000. “Strategies and Tools for Textual Scholarship: The Tubingen System of Text Processing Programs (TUSTEP).” Literary and Linguistic Computing 15 (1): 93–108. doi:10.1093/llc/15.1.93.

  7. oup.silverchair-cdn.com oup.silverchair-cdn.com
    1. Robinson,P. (1994).TheTranscriptionof Primary TextualSourcesusing SGMI.Oxford: Office forHumanitiesCommunication

      Gray lit.

    2. Driscoll, M. 2000. “Encoding Old Norse/Icelandic Primary Sources Using TEI-Conformant SGML.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 15 (1): 81–94. doi:10.1093/llc/15.1.81.

  8. oup.silverchair-cdn.com oup.silverchair-cdn.com
    1. References

      No gray lit.

    2. Orlandi, T. 2000. “Progetti Relativi a Testi Elettronici a Roma, Accademia Dei Lincei E Universita La Sapienza.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 15 (1): 73–80. doi:10.1093/llc/15.1.73.

  9. oup.silverchair-cdn.com oup.silverchair-cdn.com
    1. References

      No gray literature

    2. Vliet, H. van, and A. Kets-Vree. 2000. “Scholarly Editing in The Netherlands.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 15 (1): 65–72. doi:10.1093/llc/15.1.65.

  10. oup.silverchair-cdn.com oup.silverchair-cdn.com
    1. References

      No Gray literature

    2. Bakker, M. 2000. “Some Bits of Good News: Computer Collation of the Old Slavic New Testament and Tatian’s Gospel Harmony.” Literary and Linguistic Computing 15 (1): 57–64. doi:10.1093/llc/15.1.57.

  11. oup.silverchair-cdn.com oup.silverchair-cdn.com
    1. References

      No gray literature

    2. Parker, D. C. 2000. “The Text of the New Testament and Computers: The International Greek New Testament Project.” Literary and Linguistic Computing. ALLC. http://llc.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/1/27.short.

    1. Many systems have been implemented that provide resource sharing capabilities by establish- ing "robot users" O.e., computer programs that operate continuously, without human monitoring). These programs are capable of responding to commands sent to them in electronic mail mes- sages. Users send mail to the service's network address. When the message is received and inter- preted, the program will attempt to respond to the embedded commands. In this way users can control programs operating on computers located thousands of miles away that manage access to large repositories of resource materials. Such programs can be instructed to send particular files or programs or to perform other operations, such as searching a database of information (e.g., an index for a scholarly journal). Results are returned to the user in the form of electronic mail or files sent back over the network

      What's funny, of course, is that this is a description of how the WWW works as well, though nobody would think of explaining it this way.

    2. conference members

      Understands listserv subscribers as "conference" attendees

    3. We also argue that CMC can have a more substantial impact on scholarship than that achieved simply in facilitating interaction. This new medium offers the opportunity to realize the advantages of oral and written discourse simultaneously, producing a text with "dialogic" qualities. Generated in on- going computer-mediated exchange between scho- lars, a dialogic text allows us to re-appropriate and preserve some of the interactive, conversational qualities of knowledge production lost since the development of printed text.

      Not just for networking. Also dialogic

    4. Although CMC offers great promise, its development cannot be taken for granted. Systematic and organized efforts are required to integrate the use of CMC into the communication practices of an academic community.

      Although computers offer great promise, they can't be taken for granted. Societies need to take the lead in ensuring their integration

    5. Empirical research has sought to determine whether CMC as a tool for scholarly communica- tion achieves its expected advantages. The earliest studies reported that participants were enthusias- tic about the medium, finding that the computer facifitated information exchange within larger groups, enhanced creative thinking and idea gen- eration, fostered more complete examination of ideas, and generated new interaction and friend- ship patterns among participants (Ferguson, 1977; Freeman, 1980; Spelt, 1971; Zinn, 1977). In one of the most extensive evaluations of interaction in "on-line communities" (Hiltz, 1984), participants reported that their scholarly contacts were broad- ened, that they better understood the research of others and how their research related to that of others, and that the conferences had clarified theoretical controversies

      Early adopter attitudes towards computer-mediated communication was very positive

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Any communication between people about the same thing isa common revelatory experience about informational models of that thing.Each model is a conceptual structure of abstractions formulated initially inthe mind of one of the persons who would communicate, and if the conceptsin the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those inthe mind of another, there is no common model and no communication

      cf. Wittgenstein Beetle in a Box

    2. The Computer as a CommunicationDevice

      Licklider, J.C.R. and Robert W. Taylor. "The Computer as a Communication Device." Science & Technology (1968), 21--31

    1. not a student of science fiction, I placed a query on the CompuServe science fiction forum -- I suppose that such a query might in some modest way resemble the brother Grimm's interrogation of bearers of folktale.

      Comparison of asking listserv to informants

    2. PACS-L @UHUPVM 1

      This was later turned into an OJS Installation: https://journals.tdl.org/pacsr/index.php/pacsr/index

    3. Discussions contained in the Bitnet list PACS-L @UHUPVM 1 suggest that there is some interest in recognizing the Internet as a publica- tion, albeit an amorphous one, that might never- theless be subject to cataloging.

      Recognition of Internet as publication

    4. Ultimately, we may discover that an Internet- based system for distribution, together with the donated, institutionally subsidized, labors of au- thors and editors can result in less cost to aca- demic consumers and a greater variety of mate- rials becoming available

      Interestingly hesitant claim for what most people think is the strength of the internet.

    5. With the dissemination of large textual data- bases via media such as disks, authors and editors lose control over their work: users can generate subsets, modify them according to their own sense of what constitutes improvements, and even change them so as to avoid charges of plagiarism and copyright infringement.

      Interesting how this sense of loss of control always comes back. I think nowadays we wouldn't say this. Cf. Shapiro et al 1985.

    6. In effect, their exchange of corre- spondence (e-mail) publicly on lists over global networks constitutes participation in a new form of publication. This dimension is central; such network communications systems as Bitnet and the Internet offer new modes of publication, often but not always with counterparts in print media.

      How email represents a new form of publication

    1. p. 25

      Perhaps the attribute of electronic mail systems that most distinguishes them from other forms of communication is their propensity to evoke emotion in the recipient--very likely because of misinterpretation of some portion of the form or content of the message--and the liklihood that the recipient will then fire off a response that exacerbates the situation.... All these factors taken together create a novel situation that must be taken into account repeatedly in using electronic mail systems.

      One additional factor often mentioned is anonymity. It would appear that persons sending electronic mail to others over a network who are not know in person might be freer in communicating feelings than to friends or associates. [go on to say that they haven't seen this]

    2. Interesting that this argues for editorship--i.e. McCarty's approach, rather than free-flow, Conner's.

    3. p. 21

      One of the most surprising things about electronic mail is the ease with which misinterpretations arise. People are used to reading "body language," voice intonation, and numerous other cues when interpreting messages deleviered in conversation, or even on the telephone. Those cues are missing in electronic mail, and what was meant as a casual comment, or an attempt at humour or irony, is misinterpreted.

    4. pp. 15-16

      Interesting discussion of typographic contextualisation cues between quick informal email and more deliberate one. Recommends that the READER take a different approach to each.

      Why do we care about the level of formality of a message? Simply because the content of the second message should be given more attention and care when received than the first. Words were chosen in the second, and therefore could be expected to be chosen carefully to convey the meaning intended. In the first, informal, message, the words might well have been dashed off, and should be taken quite lightly. You should not try to read deep meaning into a hasty note. (In our other written correspondence, we have other clues: scribbled notes on the back of an envelope are treated more informally than typed letters. However, on your terminal, all electronic messages in one sense look the same, so greater attention must be paid to what clues there are to their level of informality.) [Emphasis added].

    5. p. 14 reference to "Smiley face"

    6. p 14. Discusses "the tradition of flaming" on ARPAnet.

    7. p. 13 Already aware of the issue of proliferation

      Electronic mailboxes fill up with peripheral material that needs to be scanned and continuously culled. If one of your recipients decides that somebody else needs to see a message, it can be forwarded at that time.

      Consider an extreme but possible case: A message contains a distribution list of 20 people. Let's say the message asks for comments on a position paper. Each of the recipients responds, copying all the original recipints... Each of those answers is in turn comments on by each original recipient, copying all original recipients. This process generates 421 messages in every person's inbox, with the total system containing 16,421 messages. If each message takes an average of 100 characters, this process has used up 1.6 megabytes of disk storage.This is, in addition, of course, to the social cost of all the human time and effort that has gone into this electronic correspondence.

    8. p. 14 Recommendation for people to summarise replies on "special insterest group"

      A related phenomenon is the "special interest group," a named group of recipients having a common interest, and exchanging messages on that topic, accross computers and across the country. Within these groups, a common means of reducing message prliferation is for a message author to ask, in the message itself, that replies be forwarded directly to him or her; the original author will summarize in a later message the replies received for the benefit of the group. This is a good idea that should become a common protocol, invoked by a commonly understood keyword or phrase in a message.

    9. p. 11 recognise the emotional aspect even then

      Within these categories, we highlight the issues related to the emotional impact of electronic messages, since the immediacy of the medium, and yet the remoteness of the participants, leads to some unique problems in this regard.

    10. p. 11. How it is different from other things

      We have tried to indicate that electronic mail is different. Part of what we mean by that is that the old telephone or letter-writing rules of behavior do not automatically transfer over to this medium and work. You don't write business letters as electronic messages; messages are usually more informal. And yet electronic messages are not printed telephone conversations either. What we find is that the medium is different enough, and the average user's experience has been short enough, that problems arise. Meanings are misunderstood. Tempers flare and cause ill-conceived responses to be written. Many recipients' time is wasted reading content-free or irrelevant messages.

      What we need is a new set of rules: how to be a constructive, courteous sender and receiver or electronic messages. We certainly do not have this set of rules, all tied up in a tidy package. We do, however, feel it is important to hasten the cultural evolution toward this goal. What follows, then, is a discussion of some of the important guidelines we've observed from experience.

    11. p. 11 Point about evolution and new technologies

      People have had about 50,000 years' experience in the use of speech and gestures, 5,000 years' experience in writing, and about 100 years' use of the telephone. This cultural history should not be taken lightly; the entire fabric of our society has been shaped in significant part by cultural accommodations to our means of communicating.

      As individuals of the species, living within a particular culture, we have a particular messaging history: from borth, we learn speaking roles and rules from conversations. By age 4 or 5, some basic telephone habits are learned (such as: "Say something when you pick up the receiver have it rings--don't just stand there sliently"). By age 7, we are writing non-trivial messages. The average adult has accumulated hundreds,--perhaps thousands--of rules of behaviour regarding telephone and written ethics and etiquette, from practical experiences with these tools since those early years.

    12. p. 9 Note that pre-email, all correspondence went via secretary.

      Traditionally, Organizations have channeled and filtered their message flows long corporate hierarchical lines. For example:

      • You do not send a memo to your supervisor's boss without a copy to your supervisor, and usually not without explicit prior permission.
      • Secetaries filter incoming mail, telephone calls, and inter-office memos. For senior executives, ALL communications (other than in meetings and conferences) pass through this important filter.

      These mechanisms have evolved to support the corporate structure, and to conserve the time and attention of its executives. Comparable mechanisms are not yet in place for electronic mail. Executives working in the evening at personal computers at home can send messages without "copying" their secretaries, resulting in those secretarties being "out of the loop" on matters of which they're normally aware. A junior executive can send a message to a senior executive, bypassing several | levels of control.

    13. Shapiro, Norman, and Robert H. Anderson. 1985. “Toward an Ethics and Etiquette for Electronic Mail.” Product Page. http://www.rand.org/pubs/reports/R3283.html.

    1. Other conventions mentioned by experienced users include keeping e-mail correspondence short, and acknowledging receipt of mail. "I hate it when I get messages with three or four questions, some of which I can handle immediately, and others which require more time," writes Jane N. Ryland, president of CAUSE, an association of university computer administrators. "If a message is more than one screen long [about 20 lines], I find it difficult to respond without first printing a copy of the message, which defeats much of the benefit of electronic messaging."

      The problems with email go back a long way.

    2. while the technology has boomed, the conventions and etiquette of computer interaction are still nascent.
    1. e. Editors and system operators must contend with the fact that electronic transmissions, lacking even the friendly cues that attractive letterhead and a signature can provide, often seem unnecessarily harsh (Turner, 1988, p. A

      How email can seem harsh

    2. he has read. The purpose of a humanistic list is not to encourage fan mail; it is to transmit ideas cleanly and clearly with as little interference from social conventions designed for face-to-face meet- ing as possible. That, of course, means that we have to d

      Purpose of listserv

    3. The primary consideration in creating any efficient electronic discussion group is not technical, but social. It is not enough to amass the names of a group of individuals who may or may not be interested in the focus of the list and to tell them how to contact one another; what is needed is a core of participants who will have reasons to correspond with one another, who will introduce more people to the list, and who can be counted upon to become dependent on the discussion group they themselves create. In other words, we must first begin with a group of people who already form a social network. Then that has to be transferred to a system such as Bitnet or Internet. Finally, the whole endeavour must be supported until, through computerization, it transcends the limitations of time and space imposed on earlier forms of communicatio

      The core elements for a successful list serv

    4. can figure out how to contact anyone else on the system, or even who is available for contact, so I have undertaken to provide telecommunications resources

      Pre-Google/Search engine: you need a hand-made directory.

    5. My own experience with the system suggests that it is better than the telephone because communications can be captured to disk and kept for reference; because the receiver of a question has time to check his/her responses; because once a message or file is sent, it is delivered immediately to the recipient's account; and because the system is funded on a subscription basis by the institu- tions, and users are not normally charged for the distance a message travels. I have used Bitnet and Internet to put together conference programs; to help write a major grant application with three other people spread over two continents; to locate and receive software one-half hour after I realized I needed it; to trade ideas and information with others working on similar projects and to learn of publication opportunities for projects on which I was currently workin

      Pat's view of the advantages of email in 1992

    6. The ability to assemble ourselves quickly into groups capable of concentrating everyone's focus on a problem without the difficulties and consequences of bringing the participants together physically would seem to be the genuine successor to flight in anyone's register of the most important technological developme

      The importance of assembling people together ~= flight in importance

    7. y. Writing and talking are not merely tools of our trade; they are our product and our raw material and the subjects of our investiga- Patrick W. Conner is Professor of English at West Virginia University where he teaches and researches Anglo-Saxon language and literature. He is the author of Anglo-Saxon Exeter (Boydell and Brewer, 1992) and the editor of The Abingdon Chronicle, volume 12 in the Collaborative Edi- tion of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (forthcoming). He is also creator of The Beowulf Workstation, a HyperCard application to aid students in studying Beowulf. tion

      On the work of the humanist

    8. "' First, humanists must be aware that they are engaging primarily in social, not technical, end

      Conner on the social nature of listservs--cf. McCatry

    1. The ideal seminar, whether traditional or electronic, is a kind of long conversation, con- vened by a single person but conducted by everyone for mutual enlightenment. Its purpose is not so much to convey facts as to further under- standing of its subject, to train the minds of its participants, and so to help create a community of scholars. It is a pedagogical structure in which every member is both teacher and student

      Why a listserv makes for a good seminar: it is about opinion, not facts.

    2. ListServ lists are sometimes called "discussion groups," and McLuhan has made the term "global village" almost unavoidable. As I have indicated, I prefer to call HUMANIST an "electronic semi- nar" (henceforth "e-seminar") and so invoke the academic metaphor of a large table around which everyone sits for the purpose of argumentation, in

      McCarty uses the metaphor of the seminar

    3. Because e-mail is restricted to verbal expression, it tends to favor those with highly developed rhetorical skills (Spitzer, 1986; Adrianson and Hjelmquist, 1988, pp. 91, 96), and because it is particularly good for lively argument, it serves well the need of scholars to reach consensus

      Email is good a promoting consensus

    4. On the practical level, HUMANIST and similar groups have demonstrated that we can certainly take advantage of the new medium for traditional scholarly and academic purposes. Experience with HUMANIST suggests that the new medium, care- fully managed, may be just what is needed to foster widespread humanistic discussion and collabora- tion in a world largely indifferent to its goal

      Argues that listserves have demonstrated that we can take advantage of the medium for traditional scholarly and academic purposes.

    5. ote, we have used speech and gestures for some 50,000 years, writing for 5,000, printing for 500, the telephone for 100, but e-mail for less than two decades (1985, p. 11; Rice, 1987, p. 69). Thus it is not surprizing that although the sociology and social-psychology of groups constituted by it have been repeatedly studied during this period,4 our knowledge is s

      On just how recent email is in relation to other forms of communication

    6. d to our immature understanding of the new me

      McCarty on the nascent nature of email correspondence

    1. Nonetheless, the costs of disseminating one’s best work on an SDG are considerable.Academic success demands that scholars make contributions to the body of knowledge intheir research area. However, electronic outlets like SDGs provide little basis upon which tovalidate this success. SDGs have not been in existence long enough to instill confidence intheir institutional permanence. This is further complicated by ambiguous copyright law andcitation conventions, making the establishment of one’s claim to original ideas unclear.Unlike electronic journals, it is still unclear how institutional rewards will be distributed forthe kind of collaborative electronic scholarship takes place in ListServ-based communities.Unless lists gain more of a scholarly legitimacy, it is likely that little of traditional academicvalue, or that which can compete with the more traditional forms of scholarly production

      Problem with listservs as academic dissemination means

    2. In commenting on the development of H-Net, a consortium of close to 100 scholarlydiscussion groups with a collective membership of over 50,000 participants, Peter Knupfer,the organization’s associate director explained the value of the SDG.Knupfer (1996)notedthat SDGs have brought the information revolution to the desktops of working scholarsaround the world. SDGs have not only increased the opportunities for scholars to conversewith each other, they have pried open previously restricted fields of editing and informationmanagement. Through SDGs, the Internet is best exploited as a collective enterprise byacademics and teachers who mediate an environment many regard as forbidding and hostile.As an example of this power, H-Net is particularly illustrative of how an internationalconsortium of scholars can use these electronic networks to advance humanities and socialscience teaching and research

      Claims about the power of SDGs

    3. When the moderator takes an active role, the rates ofparticipation and user satisfaction are significantly higher

      Argument that a strong moderator is important in promoting a good discussion group.

    4. Online scholarly collaboration needs to be carefully designed, and SDGs are most useful asa collaborative medium if the group has a specific task to accomplish, a deadline to meet, anda shared cultural or knowledge base

      When onine scholarly discussion groups are said to work.

    5. Commentator Kat Nagel outlined a life cycle that every list seems to go through. First thereis initial enthusiasm and evangelism (where people complain about the infrequency ofpostings). This is followed by a period of growth and then community (with lots of threadsand information and willingness to help). When the number of messages increases both involume and in diversity, a certain discomfort arises (often marked by complaints that the listhas lost its central purpose). Finally, if a group of purists emerges and is allowed to ‘‘flame’’(attack ad hominem) and act self-righteously, while others leave to form groups of their own,then a complacency develops, or worse stagnation and death. If, however, the self-righteousare minimized and a balance develops between community and diversity, then a list will reachmaturity

      Life cycle of the listserv

    6. One 1997 study found that scholars who self-select as participants inscholarly discussion groups can spend over 40% of their office hours working on the Internet,and the most popular professional uses of the Internet revolve around sending and receivingelectronic mail, both personal and list-mediated

      The origins of the Email plague!

    7. The depth of interactivity varies widely among discussion groups. Some groups are likecocktail parties with many conversations (threads) competing. Some, like formal seminars,focus around specific topics. Some are like notice boards in the local grocery store wheremessages are pinned and left for others to read and comment on. And some groups merelyfunction as newspapers, disseminating electronic journals or computer programs, advertisingconferences or job vacancies. Many people are content to just read and listen, even in themost interactive groups, while a relatively few dominate conversations

      Different kinds of listserv groups

    8. One of the earliest nonscience scholarly uses of this technology was the listHumanist,

      Humanist claimed as one of the earliest uses of Listserv for nonscience scholarly work

    9. McCarty saw a kind of electronic seminar, whosepurpose was ‘‘not so much to convey facts as to further understanding of its subject, to trainthe minds of its participants, and so to help create a community of scholars.’’

      McCarty's goal for Humanist

    10. In some ways, the exchange of correspondence publicly over these networksconstitutes a new form of publication. The posting on a list frequently resembles a letter to theeditor where someone conveys their opinions on a subjec

      A way of understanding listservs as a new form of scholarly communication--like a letter to the editor.

    1. This lot worked at one job all life through. Byron, 'Tanner', 'Lieth 'ere interred'. They'll chisel fucking poet when they do you and that, yer cunt, 's a crude four-letter word. 'Listen, cunt!' I said, 'before you start your jeering the reason why I want this in a book 's to give ungrateful cunts like you a hearing!' A book, yer stupid cunt, 's not worth a fuck!

      Justification for his role as poet: to represent class

    2. So what's a cri-de-coeur, cunt? Can't you speak the language that yer mam spoke. Think of 'er! Can yer only get yer tongue round fucking Greek? Go and fuck yourself with cri-de-coeur! 'She didn't talk like you do for a start!' I shouted, turning where I thought the voice had been. She didn't understand yer fucking 'art'! She thought yer fucking poetry obscene!

      Class vs. Poetry.

    3. They're there to shock the living, not arouse the dead from their deep peace to lend support for the causes skinhead spraycans could espouse. The dead would want their desecrators caught!

      Support : Caught RP rhyme

    4. Some, where kids use aerosols, use giant signs to let the people know who's forged their fetters

      Corporate "Graffiti"

    5. How many British graveyards now this May are strewn with rubbish and choked up with weeds since families and friends have gone away for work or fuller lives, like me from Leeds?

      Departure of upwardly mobile

    6. With Byron three graves on I'll not go short of company, and Wordsworth's opposite. That's two peers already, of a sort, and we'll all be thrown together if the pit,

      I don't get this: Byron is buried in Hucknall and Wordsworth in Grasmere. https://goo.gl/maps/drritHHeRW72

    7. Half this skinhead's age but with approval I helped whitewash a V on a brick wall. No one clamoured in the press for its removal or thought the sign, in wartime, rude at all.

      World War II memory

    8. 'My father still reads the dictionary every day. He says your life depends on your power to master words.'

      Read dictionary (e.g. Reader's digest "improve your word power")

    9. How many British graveyards now this May are strewn with rubbish and choked up with weeds since families and friends have gone away for work or fuller lives, like me from Leeds?

      Decay of the regions

  12. Feb 2017
  13. Jan 2017
    1. Three or four years later, Engelbart repeated his hypertext-meets-desktop-sharing-meets-video-conferencing demo. In the audience was an MIT prof described by Andries van Dam, another east-coast prof in attendance, as among "the best and the brightest" of the early 1970s computing cognoscenti. According to van Dam, at the end of the presentation, the MIT man raised his hand and said "I don't get it - everything you've shown me today I can do on my ASR-33."

      MIT profs don't see the value in Engelbart's technology.

    1. "Doug's demo was not unlike a flying saucer dropping out of the sky and landing on the White House lawn,Â" Saffo continues. Â"It just electrified this industry because it showed people the potential of computers that they never considered."

      Disruptive potential of inventions.

    1. Engelbart was the very image of a test pilot for a new kind of vehicle that doesn't fly over geographical territory but through what was heretofore an abstraction that computer scientists call "information space."

      Space metaphor

    1. People say that the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco was a watershed. After seeing your demonstration, people left that room never thinking about computers the same way again. Would you say that's an accurate encapsulation?

      Reception of the Mother of All Demos

  14. Dec 2016
    1. The Scholarly Commons is a consensus among knowledge producers and users that

      And maybe that research choices should be driven by the needs of research rather than some extrinsic goal.

  15. Oct 2016
    1. If we truly wish to transform scholarly communication on a global scale, then we need to be open and honest about what that entails. As much as we declare the importance of openness and transparency for our research, we should be doing the same in our scholarly communication discourse. The conversation needs to be an actual conversation and not a one-way soliloquy from the global north that gets imported colonial-style to the global south. There needs to be a dialogue, real dialogue, that decenters white North American and Western European values and knowledge creation. Those of us from the global north need to acknowledge the harm our neoliberal colonizing has done to scholarship around the world and take responsibility. Then, we need to step back and listen. Maybe instead of always having these kind of meetings in places like Madrid or San Diego, let’s schedule events in Dhaka or Lilongwe. (Don’t know where those places are? Well, that’s part of the problem. Look it up!) Let’s truly transform and radicalize scholarly communication by decolonizing these conversations.

      On need for working in the Global South.

  16. Sep 2016
    1. According to the language periodical Språktidningen, ‘hen’ was by 2014 used once in the Swedish media for every 300 used of ‘hon’ or ‘han’, up from one in every 13,000 in 2011

      Increasing rate of usage of hen vs. hon or han: 1/13,000 in 2011; 1/300 in 2014.

    2. A Swedish headteacher has been reported to the country’s Equality Ombudsman for refusing to use ‘hen’, the new gender-neutral pronoun, in what could be a landmark case for transgender rights.

      Legal enforcement of gender pronoun preference

    1. The Swedish school system has wholeheartedly, and probably too quickly and eagerly, embraced this new agenda. Last fall, 200 teachers attended a major government-sponsored conference discussing how to avoid "traditional gender patterns" in schools. At Egalia, one model Stockholm preschool, everything from the decoration to the books and toys are carefully selected to promote a gender-equal perspective and to avoid traditional presentations of gender and parenting roles

      Swedish school system has enforced use of hen

    2. acceptable for parents to, say, name a girl Jack or a boy Lisa

      Swedes won't let you call you boy Sue.

    3. Activists are lobbying for parents to be able to choose any name for their children (there are currently just 170 legally recognized unisex names in Sweden).

      Sweden has only 170 legally recognised unisex names (i.e. the Swedes control the names you can give your kids).

    1. "ip," "nis," and "hiser"

      ip, nis, hiser non-binary gender pronouns

    2. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee LGBT Resource Centre card: declines non-binary gender pronouns

    3. "It maximises the student's ability to control their identity," says Keith Williams, the university's registrar, who helped to launch the updated student information system in 2009

      PGP allows students to control their identity

    4. For example, when new students attended orientation sessions at American University in Washington DC a few months ago, they were asked to introduce themselves with their name, hometown, and preferred gender pronoun (sometimes abbreviated to PGP).

      Example of introducing by Preferred Gender Pronoun

    1. “We introduce ourselves with the pronouns we use and explain why that’s done,” they said. “Literally from the day that students step on campus for the first time, we want them to know about nonbinary pronouns and that we are not going to assume their pronouns.”

      Explaining the pronouns you want to use in social interactions.

    2. “My name is Aubri and I use they/them pronouns, what pronouns do you use?” Drake said. “It should be part of social interaction.”

      How pronoun use should be negotiated in conversation,

    3. The use of they/them to identify a single person, rather than two or more people, has not been without controversy.Maryland state education official Andy Smarick made headlines earlier this month after sharing his thoughts via Twitter on Merriam-Webster Dictionary’s use of the singular “they” when referring to one of the dictionary’s staffers.“The singular they is an affront to grammar. Language rules are all that separates us from animals. We. Must. Stand. Firm,” Smarick wrote in a tweet that has since been deleted.The dictionary retorted in a tweet: “Then you’re talking to the wrong dictionary — we’re descriptivists. We follow language, language doesn’t follow us.”

      Smarick vs. Webster's prescriptivism debate

    4. Wald settled on ey/em — a pronoun set that comes from the ends of the words “they” and “them.”“Now when I introduce my pronouns, I usually say ‘ey/em, or anything else gender-neutral,’” ey said.

      ey and em as non-binary pronouns

    1. We still need deliberate effort to remove sexism – like the Washington Post’s recent move from she/he to they as their default pronoun.

      Washington Post decision to use they for neutral singular

    2. Jane Austen uses they in the singular 75 times in Pride and Prejudice (1813) and as Rosalind muses in 1848’s Vanity Fair: “A person can’t help their birth.”

      Jane Austen use of they; also Thackeray

    3. Around 1809, Samuel Taylor Coleridge rejected “he” as the generic pronoun (“in order to avoid particularising man or woman, or in order to express either sex indifferently”, he wrote in his notebooks), settling on “it” as an ideal, neutral solution

      Coleridge uses "it" for neutral singular

    4. heesh

      AA Milne's solution to neutral pronoun

    5. Shakespeare followed in 1594, in The Comedy of Errors: “There’s not a man I meet but doth salute me/As if I were their well-acquainted friend”

      Shakespeare uses they for singular in comedy of errors.

    6. At the start of 2016, the good folks of the American Dialect Society got together to crown their Word of the Year. They (see what I’m doing here) have decided that the word could now be used as a singular pronoun, flexing the English language so a plural could denote a singular, genderless, individual.

      They American Dialect Society Word of the Year 2016

    7. Geoffrey Chaucer in 1395, who wrote in The Pardoner’s Tale: “And whoso fyndeth hym out of swich blame, They wol come up…”

      Chaucer use of they for singular

  17. Aug 2016
    1. Page 8

      Jockers talking about the old approach in the 1990s to anecdotal evidence:

      … in the 1990s, gathering literary evidence meant reading books, noting "things" (a phallic symbol here, a bibliographical reference there, a stylistic flourish, an allusion, and so on) and then interpreting: making sense and arguments out of those observations. Today, in the age of digital libraries and large-scale book-digitization projects, the nature of the "evidence" available to us has changed, radically. Which is not to say that we should no longer read books looking for, or noting, random "things," but rather to emphasize that massive digital corpora offer is unprecedented access to literally record an invite, even demand, a new type of evidence gathering and meaning making. The literary scholar of the 21st-century can no longer be content with anecdotal evidence, with random "things" gathered from a few, even "representative," text. We must strive to understand the things we find interesting in the context of everything else, including a massive possibly "uninteresting" text.

    2. Pages 7 and 8

      Jockers is talking here about Ian Watt’s method in Rise of the Novel

      What are we to do with the other three to five thousand works of fiction published in the eighteenth century? What of the works that Watt did not observe and account for with his methodology, and how are we to now account for works not penned by Defoe, by Richardson, or by Fielding? Might other novelists tell a different story? Can we, in good conscience, even believe that Defoe, Richardson, and Fielding are representative writers? Watt’s sampling was not random; it was quite the opposite. But perhaps we only need to believe that these three (male) authors are representative of the trend towards "realism" that flourished in the nineteenth century. Accepting this premise makes Watts magnificent synthesis into no more than a self-fulfilling project, a project in which the books are stacked in advance. No matter what we think of the sample, we must question whether in fact realism really did flourish. Even before that, we really ought to define what it means "to flourish" in the first place. Flourishing certainly seems to be the sort of thing that could, and ought, to be measured. Watt had no yardstick against which to make such a measurement. He had only a few hundred texts that he had read. Today things are different. The larger literary record can no longer be ignored: it is here, and much of it is now accessible.

    3. Jockers, Matthew L. 2013. Macroanalysis: Digital Methods and Literary History. Topics in the Digital Humanities. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

    1. Page 122

      Borgman on terms used by the humanities and social sciences to describe data and other types of analysis

      humanist and social scientists frequently distinguish between primary and secondary information based on the degree of analysis. Yet this ordering sometimes conflates data, sources, and resources, as exemplified by a report that distinguishes "primary resources, E. G., Books close quotation from quotation secondary resources, eat. Gee., Catalogs close quotation . Resources also categorized as primary or sensor data, numerical data, and field notebooks, all of which would be considered data in the sciences. Rarely would books, conference proceedings, and feces that the report categorizes as primary resources be considered data, except when used for text-or data-mining purposes. Catalogs, subject indices, citation indexes, search engines, and web portals were classified as secondary resources. These are typically viewed as tertiary resources in the library community because they describe primary and secondary resources. The distinctions between data, sources, and resources very by discipline and circumstance. For the purposes of this book, primary resources are data, secondary resources are reports of research, whether publications or intern forms, and tertiary resources are catalogs, indexes, and directories that provide access to primary and secondary resources. Sources are the origins of these resources.

    2. Page XVIII

      Borgman notes that no social framework exist for data that is comparable to this framework that exist for analysis. CF. Kitchen 2014 who argues that pre-big data, we privileged analysis over data to the point that we threw away the data after words . This is what creates the holes in our archives.

      He wonders capabilities [of the data management] must be compared to the remarkably stable scholarly communication system in which they exist. The reward system continues to be based on publishing journal articles, books, and conference papers. Peer-reviewed legitimizes scholarly work. Competition and cooperation are carefully balanced. The means by which scholarly publishing occurs is an unstable state, but the basic functions remained relatively unchanged. while capturing and managing the "data deluge" is a major driver of the scholarly infrastructure developments, no Showshow same framework for data exist that is comparable to that for publishing.

    3. Page 6

      Borgman on the importance of scale in information retrieval. It's an interesting question for the humanities not only does large-scale introduce new methods for example just reading it also makes traditional methods more difficult EG challenges close reading. It is not enough to say (as color and others do) that they don't like distant reading. They also need to say how they propose doing the reading in a million book environment.

      data and information have always been both input and output of research. What is new is the scale of the data and information involved. Information management is notoriously subject to problems of scale [bibliography removed]. Retrieval methods designed for small databases declined rapidly ineffectiveness as collections grow in size. For example a typical searcher is willing to browse a set of matches consisting of one percent of a database of 1000 documents (10 documents), maybe willing to browse a 1% set of 10,000 documents (100), rarely is willing to browse 1% of 100,000 documents (1000), and almost never would browse 1% of 1 million or 10 million documents.

    4. Page 3

      this is a critical juncture in building the next generation of scholarly information infrastructure. The technology has advanced much more quickly than has our understanding of its present potential uses. Social research on scholarly practices is essential to inform the design of tools, services, and policies. Design decisions made today will determine whether the Internet of tomorrow enables imaginative new forms of scholarship and learning – or whether it simply reinforces today's tasks, practices, laws, business models, and incentives.

    5. Page 2

      Borgman on the responsibility of rears to assess reliability and the ability of content creators to have control over their work:

      these are exciting and confusing times for scholarship. The proliferation of digital content allows new questions to be asked in new ways, but also results unduplication and dispersion. Authors can disseminate their work more widely by posting online, but readers have the additional responsibility of assessing trust and authenticity. Changes in intellectual property laws give Pharmacontrol to the creators of digital content that was available for printed comment, but the resulting business models often constrain access to scholarly resources. Students acquire an insatiable appetite for digital publications, and then find an graduation that they can barely sample them without institutional affiliations.

    6. Page one

      Borgman on the difference between information and "stuff"

      as Internet penetration and bandwidth increase, so has the volume and variety of content online. Much of it is just "stuff" – the unverified and unverifiable statements of individuals, discussions on list serves and weblogs ("blogs"), questionable advertisements for questionable products and services, and political and religious screeds in all languages, from all perspectives.

    7. Page XVII

      Borgman on scholars access to information in the developed world

      Scholars in the developed world have 24/7 access to the literature of their fields, a growing amount of research data, and sophisticated research tools and services.

    8. Page 10

      Borgman on the relationship of knowledge mobilization scholarship, similarities and differences:

      once collections of information resources are online, they become available to multiple communities. Researchers can partner across disciplines, asking new questions using each other's data. Data collected for policy purposes can be used for research and vice versa. Descriptions of museum objects created for curatorial research purposes are interesting to museum visitors. Any of these resources may also be useful for learning and instruction. nevertheless, making content that was created for one audience useful to another is a complex problem. Each field that is on vocabulary, data structures, and research practices. People ask questions in different ways, starting with familiar terminology. Repurpose sing of research data for teaching can be especially challenging. Scholars goals are to produce knowledge for their community, while student schools are to learn the concepts and tools of a given field. These two groups have different levels of expertise in both disciplinary knowledge in the use of data and information resources. Different descriptions, tools, and services may be required to share content between audiences.

    9. Page 10

      Borgman on the merging of primary and secondary information sources .

      primary and secondary information sources long to be treated as a dichotomy, with different strands of research on each. Sociologist of science study the context in which primary data are produced, or primary archivists are concerned with how those that are captured, managed, and preserved. Researchers in the field of information studies and communication investigate how scholarly publications are written, disseminated, sought, used, and reference. Librarians select, collect, organize, conserve, preserve, and provide access to scholarly publications and print and digital form. Little research has explored the continuum from primary to secondary sources, much less the entire lifecycle from data generation through the preservation of scholarly products that set those data in context.

    10. Page 156

      Borgman discusses a couple of things that are useful for me. The first is how students discover what they miss from the library after they graduate and no longer have access to journals.

      The second is that this passage supplies some evidence for the claim that things that are not online no longer exist as far as such behavior is concerned.

      There's some bibliography at the end of the passage covering both of these points in the print book.

      Scholars seem to be even more dependent on library services for access to scholarly publications than in the past. Personal subscriptions to journals have declined substantially. Faculty and students have been known to panic when unable to access online library services, whether due to system failures or incorrect authentication settings. Students' dependence on these services becomes especially apparent when they graduate and no longer have access. Librarians learned early in the days of online catalogs that people rely on online sources, even if those sources are incomplete. Older material accessible only via the card catalog was quickly "widowed," which was a primary motivation for libraries to complete the retrospective conversion of card catalogs to digital form. The same phenomenon occurred with online access to journals. The more access that libraries provide, the greater the depth of coverage that users expect. The use of printed indexes in libraries has dropped to near zero, although printed finding aids remain popular in archives.

  18. Jul 2016
    1. Page 220

      Humanistic research takes place in a rich milieu that incorporates the cultural context of artifacts. Electronic text and models change the nature of scholarship in subtle and important ways, which have been discussed at great length since the humanities first began to contemplate the scholarly application of computing.

    2. Page 217

      Methods for organizing information in the humanities follow from their research practices. Humanists fo not rely on subject indexing to locate material to the extent that the social sciences or sciences do. They are more likely to be searching for new interpretations that are not easily described in advance; the journey through texts, libraries, and archives often is the research.

    3. Page 213

      Humanities scholarship is even more difficult to characterize than are the sciences and social sciences. Generally speaking, the humanities are more interpretative than data driven, but some humanists conduct qualitative studies using social sciences methods, and others employ quantitative methods. Digital humanities scholarship often reflects sophisticated computational expertise. Humanists value new interpretations, perspectives, and sources of data to examine age-old questions of art and culture.

    1. But the passage from de man does disservice to the discussion of close reading in one important respect. It makes it sound as though all you need is a negative disci-pline, a refusal to leap to the kind of paraphrases one has been led to expect, so that effective close reading requires no technique or training, only an avoidance of bad or dubious training. The suggestion seems to be that if one strips away these bad habits and simply encounters the text, without preconceptions, close reading will occur. If, as de man puts it, you are “attentive” and “honest,” close reading “cannot fail to respond to structures of language” that most literary education strives “to keep hidden.” atten-tion is important but not, alas, enough. Readers can always fail to respond—though then de man might not want to dignify the practice with the name of reading.

      Discussion of the methodological difficulties involved in close reading: i.e. there is no such thing as "just reading."

    2. Culler, Jonathan. 2010. “The Closeness of Close Reading.” ADE Bulletin, 20–25. doi:10.1632/ade.149.20.

    3. Distant Reading: Performance, Readership, and Consumption in Contempo-rary Poetry, Peter middleton calls close reading “our contemporary term for a hetero-geneous and largely unorganized set of practices and assumptions”

      Discussion of the methodology of close reading: middleton, Peter. Distant Reading: Performance, Readership, and Consumption in Contemporary Poetry. Tuscaloosa: U of alabama P, 2005. Print.

    1. Page 16

      One benefit of traditional hermeneutical practices such as close reading is that the trained reader need not install anything, run any software, wrestle with settings, or wait for results. The experienced reader can just enjoy iteratively reading, thinking, and rereading. Similarly the reader of another person's interpretation, if the book being interpreted is at hand, can just pick it up, follow the references, and recapitulate the reading. To be as effective as close reading, analytical methods have to be significantly easier to apply and understand. They have to be like reading, or, better yet, a part of reading. Those invested in the use of digital analytics need to think differently about what is shown and what is hidden: the rhetorical presentation of analytics matters. Further, literary readers of interpretive works want to learn about the interpretation. Much of the literature in journals devoted to humanities computing suffers from being mostly about the computing; it is hard to find scholarship that is addressed to literary scholars and is based in computing practices.

    2. Page 15

      Rockwell and Sinclair on the importance of staying up-to-date on commercial developments in text mining and text-handling:

      we are practicing thinking in the humanities while the way people read, the tools of reading, and information privacy and organization are shifting around us. These shifts matter. If we continue to treat textuality as a subject, we need to understand how text can be mined.