87 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Iranian officials assert that they gave the U.S. and its neighbors a 72-hour notice of the impending strikes, a claim disputed by a senior official in the U.S. President Joe Biden's administration.

  2. Apr 2024
    1. • ⭕️: This case marks the first in America where parents have been held criminally responsible for a school shooting by their child, underscoring a precedent for parental accountability.

    2. • ❌: James and Jennifer Crumbley were sentenced to 10-15 years in prison for involuntary manslaughter due to their negligence which contributed to the 2021 Oxford school shooting conducted by their son, Ethan Crumbley. • ❗️📈: Four students were killed and seven others injured in the shooting at Oxford High School. • ❗️ 💬 : Steve St. Juliana criticized the Crumbley's for not admitting their mistakes, emphasizing that they never confessed to wishing they had locked the gun up. • ⚙️: The parental actions were scrutinized showing they ignored the distress signals from their son and further exacerbated the situation by buying him a gun. • ⚙️: The Crumbleys' refusal to acknowledge their son's alarming behavior was detailed through their reactions to his violent drawing and their disinterest in the urgent need for his mental health care. • ❗️ 💬 : Judge Cheryl Matthews highlighted the parents' failure to act on clear warning signs of their son's impending violence, emphasizing the responsibilities of parenting. • ⭕️: Oakland County Prosecutor Karen McDonald insisted on the preventability of the tragedy, aiming to continue efforts against gun violence and emphasize the need for responsible gun ownership and parental awareness. • ❗️ 💬 : In advocating for the maximum sentence, victim families voiced their enduring pain and criticized the Crumbleys' lack of remorse and failure to accept responsibility for their actions.

    1. • ⚙️: Human moderators and data labelers in India play a significant role in reviewing transactions and labeling footage to train the AI models behind Just Walk Out technology.

      • ❗️📈: About 700 of every 1,000 Just Walk Out sales required manual review by Amazon's team in India in 2022, much higher than Amazon's internal goal of 50 out of every 1,000 sales.

  3. Mar 2024
    1. ⚙️: To test the safety of eclipse glasses, nothing should be visible through them indoors, and they should only faintly show the brightest lights.

    1. ❗️📈 Acute malnutrition among children under age 2 has doubled in the last month, and at least 23 children have starved to death according to Gaza's health authorities.

    1. • Chronic student absenteeism has become a significant challenge in U.S. public K-12 education post-COVID-19, with a doubling of rates to 30% in 2021-22 compared to pre-pandemic levels. • Despite the severity of the absenteeism crisis, only 15% of school leaders nationwide express extreme concern, with slightly higher concern (25%) among leaders of high-poverty schools. • Parents play a critical role in addressing absenteeism, but there's a gap in awareness and concern among caretakers about their children's school attendance. • Caretakers often underestimate their children's absences, with around 15% reporting six or more days of absence, which is lower than official rates of chronic absenteeism. • There is little variation in reported absenteeism by race, but families in lower income brackets report higher levels of absenteeism, attributed to various socioeconomic factors. • Less than half of the caretakers of children at risk of chronic absenteeism express concern about their child's absences, indicating a discrepancy between perception and the severity of the issue. • A portion of caretakers believe online coursework mitigates the impact of absences, with 32% not worried about missing school due to online availability of educational materials. • There's no clear consensus on why children are missing more school post-pandemic, though child anxiety about peers, tests, or general school environment correlates with higher absences. • To improve attendance, the article suggests direct communication with parents about

    1. Teachers absences have also increased since the pandemic, and student absences mean less certainty about which friends and classmates will be there. That can lead to more absenteeism, said Michael A. Gottfried, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education. His research has found that when 10 percent of a student's classmates are absent on a given day, that student is more likely to be absent the following day.

    2. Today, student absenteeism is a leading factor hindering the nation's recovery from pandemic learning losses, educational experts say. Students can't learn if they aren't in school. And a rotating cast of absent classmates can negatively affect the achievement of even students who do show up, because teachers must slow down and adjust their approach to keep everyone on track.

    1. • Another record high in US equity markets was attributed to the Federal Reserve signaling more interest rate cuts and the cash reserves of tech giants, alongside optimism about their ability to monetize AI.

      • AI is believed to significantly increase productivity, disrupt jobs, and add a $40tn boost to global GDP by 2030 by transforming every sector.

      • The euphoria surrounding AI is compared to previous technological revolutions, but concerns are raised regarding the assumptions and valuations pricing in the entire anticipated transformation.

      • Nvidia, despite having tangible revenues, is highlighted as an example where future dividends would take 4,500 years to match its current price, emphasizing the speculative nature of AI investments.

      • A critique is made of the AI industry's reliance on assumptions, like the future costs of water and energy, copyright laws, and the profitability of AI, which may significantly impact its future.

      • Doubts within the AI industry are acknowledged, even among developers at leading companies like Microsoft, Google, and Amazon, about the speculative nature of profit assumptions.

      • Concerns are raised about the integration of AI into workflows and whether it can truly outperform human productivity, illustrated by resistance from workers and unions.

      • The issue of copyright infringement by AI, as evidenced by recent legal actions against major companies, and the challenges it presents in terms of licensing and corporate surveillance are discussed.

      • The monopoly power of a few tech corporations over AI is critiqued for its potential to centralize control and influence over lives and institutions.

      • A Morgan Stanley Wealth Management report suggests that the market concentration driven by AI enthusiasm might self-correct, due to regulatory, market, competitive forces, and business cycle dynamics, historically leading to poor equity returns post-peaks in concentration.

      • The growing number of antitrust cases against Big Tech and the potential introduction of carbon pricing and copyright fines challenge the current free input model necessary for AI's profitability, questioning the market's valuation of AI's future.

    1. understanding the social practices, institutional forces, and material complexity of how humans and spaces interact

      📍aim of sociology of space

  4. Aug 2023
    1. Office support: Decline due to automation handling repetitive tasks, data collection, and basic data processing. Customer service and sales: Reduced demand because of improved chatbots and the rise of online shopping. Food services: Automation's impact on tasks that can be efficiently handled by machines. Production work (e.g., manufacturing): Despite an uptick in US manufacturing, productivity gains could mean fewer workers are needed.

  5. Mar 2023
    1. Schema L - ego imagines a relation to its object, the id (S) obtains no real relation to its other (A)

  6. Nov 2022
    1. 🔤 👤 Levinson's 3 heuristics of meaning-making: - First (Q) Heuristic: What isn’t said, isn’t (i.e., - what you do not say is not the case) - Second (I) Heuristic: What is expressed simply is stereotypically exemplified - Third (M) Heuristic: What is said in an abnormal way, isn’t normal (i.e., marked message indicates marked situation)

      When conflict among these three heuristics arise, Levinson argues that these are resolved in the following way: Q defeats M, and M defeats I.

    2. 🔢 🌎 Grice's "maxims" of conversational cooperation - Quantity - Make your contribution as informative as is required (for the current purposes of the exchange). - Do not make your contribution more informative than is required. - Quality - (Supermaxim): Try to make your contribution one that is true. - (Submaxims): - Do not say what you believe to be false. - Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. - Relation - Be relevant. - Manner - (Supermaxim): Be perspicuous. - (Submaxims): - Avoid obscurity of expression. - Avoid ambiguity. - Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity). - Be orderly. - Frame whatever you say in the form most suitable for any reply that would be regarded as appropriate; or, facilitate in your form of expression the appropriate reply (added by Grice 1981/1989, 273).

    3. 🔢 👤 Searle's mutually exclusive & jointly exhaustive classes of illocutionary acts: 1. representative/assertive - speaker becomes committed to truth of propositional content 2. directive - commanding someone 3. commissive - speaker becomes committed to act in a way representated by the propositional content (e.g. making a promise) 4. expressive - expression of a sincerity condition 5. declarative - speaker performs action representing themselves as performing that action (e.g. "I dub thee Sir Knight")

    1. The five essential parts of the Shannon–Weaver model: A source uses a transmitter to translate a message into a signal, which is sent through a channel and translated back by a receiver until it reaches its destination

    1. 🔢 👤 Leech's politeness maxims: tact, generosity, approbation, modesty, agreement, sympathy: 1. tact: "Minimize the expression of beliefs which imply cost to other; maximize the expression of beliefs which imply benefit to other." - Could I interrupt you for a second? - I could just clarify this then. 2. generosity: "Minimize the expression of beliefs that express or imply benefit to self; maximize the expression of beliefs that express or imply cost to self." - You relax and let me do the dishes. - You must come and have dinner with us. 3. approbation: "Minimize the expression of beliefs which express dispraise of other; maximize the expression of beliefs which express approval of other." - I heard you singing at the karaoke last night. It sounded like you were enjoying yourself! 4. modesty: "Minimize the expression of praise of self; maximize the expression of dispraise of self." - Oh, I'm so stupid – I didn't make a note of our lecture! Did you? 5. agreement: "Minimize the expression of disagreement between self and other; maximize the expression of agreement between self and other." - A: I don't want my daughter to do this, I want her to do that. - B: Yes, but ma'am, I thought we resolved this already on your last visit. 6. sympathy: "minimize antipathy between self and other; maximize sympathy between the self and other." - I am sorry to hear about your father.

    1. Searle/Vanderveken's 7 features of illocutionary force: 1. illocutionary point - "characteristic aim" of each type of speech act → what each act is "for" 2. degree of strength of illocutionary point - e.g. requesting v. insisting 3. mode of achievement - special (social) conditions necessary/sufficient for achievement of illocutionary point (e.g. being in a position of authority) 4. content conditions - what must be true/false for aim-achievement 5. preparatory conditions - all other social conditions apart from mode of achievement (e.g. having certain things requisite for bequeathing them) 6. sincerity conditions - a speech act is sincere only if the speaker is in the psychological state that her speech act expresses 7. degree of strength of sincerity conditions - e.g. requesting v. imploring

  7. Aug 2022
    1. Philosophy does not move in the inert, abstract, unreal medium of mathematics, but in an actual, living progression of distinct notional phases, some of which negate what went before, and are themselves negated in what follows, but are all necessary steps in the progression, and are recalled in its final conclusion. philosophical truth is like a Bacchanalian riot where the drunken participants fall down as they try to stand up, but it is also like the enlaced final sleep in which all have collapsed on to the floor

      philosophy is immanently cultural and living, not mathematical and dead

    2. mediation is merely the self-negation, and the negation of this negation, involved in the self-Identification of the Subject

      mediation = negation-of-negation

    1. Downstream: Group → product → consumers

      Upstream: cash → consumption → cash'

      Empty value extraction; creation of an experience through purely monetary means

  8. Jul 2022
    1. Hegel's process from experience to speech: 1. Sensation 2. Representation (Vorstellung) 3. Representational reproduction (Bedeutung) 4. Imaginative production (sign-abstraction) 5. Sublation of signs through time 6. Speech

  9. Jun 2022
    1. 6 types of biological association - easily applied to economic phenomena

    1. Frame bridging is the "linkage of two or more ideologically congruent but structurally unconnected frames regarding a particular issue or problem" (Snow et al., 1986, p. 467). It involves the linkage of a movement to "unmobilized sentiment pools or public opinion preference clusters" (p. 467) of people who share similar views or grievances but who lack an organizational base. Frame amplification refers to "the clarification and invigoration of an interpretive frame that bears on a particular issue, problem, or set of events" (Snow et al., 1986, p. 469). This interpretive frame usually involves the invigorating of values or beliefs. Frame extensions are a movement's effort to incorporate participants by extending the boundaries of the proposed frame to include or encompass the views, interests, or sentiments of targeted groups. (Snow et al., 1986, p. 469) Frame transformation is a process required when the proposed frames "may not resonate with, and on occasion may even appear antithetical to, conventional lifestyles or rituals and extant interpretive frames" (Snow et al., 1986, p. 473). When this happens, new values, new meanings and understandings are required in order to secure participants and support. Goffman (1974, p. 43–44) calls this "keying" where "activities, events, and biographies that are already meaningful from the standpoint of some primary framework transpose in terms of another framework" (Snow et al., 1986, p. 474) such that they are seen differently. There are two types of frame transformation: Domain-specific transformations such as the attempt to alter the status of groups of people, and Global interpretive frame transformation where the scope of change is quite radical as in a change of world views, total conversions of thought, or uprooting of all that is familiar (e.g. moving from communism to market capitalism; religious conversion, etc.).

      🔢 four types of frame alignment

  10. Apr 2022
    1. Citizens who are manipulated into allowing identity divides to overshadow their shared interest in curbing corruption will continue to suffer harm


  11. Aug 2021
    1. As Henrich shows, the late-ancient Western Church began to enforce a package of social policies for its members which, e.g., insisted on lifelong monogamy with little scope for remarriage after divorce; banned marriages between even distant relatives, including in-laws and god-siblings; and eroded customary inheritance laws. Taken together, the MFP profoundly undermined Europe’s tribes “by (1) establishing a pan-tribal social identity (Christian), (2) compelling individuals to look far and wide to find unrelated Christian spouses, and (3) providing a new set of norms about marriage, inheritance, and residence that would have set a foundation on which diverse tribal communities could begin to interact, marry, and coordinate” (193).

      Marriage and Family plan created social stability throughout pluralistic cultural difference

    1. If it be said that the legislative body are themselves the constitutional judges of their own powers, and that the construction they put upon them is conclusive upon the other departments, it may be answered, that this cannot be the natural presumption, where it is not to be collected from any particular provisions in the Constitution. It is not otherwise to be supposed, that the Constitution could intend to enable the representatives of the people to substitute their WILL to that of their constituents. It is far more rational to suppose, that the courts were designed to be an intermediate body between the people and the legislature, in order, among other things, to keep the latter within the limits assigned to their authority. The interpretation of the laws is the proper and peculiar province of the courts. A constitution is, in fact, and must be regarded by the judges, as a fundamental law. It therefore belongs to them to ascertain its meaning, as well as the meaning of any particular act proceeding from the legislative body. If there should happen to be an irreconcilable variance between the two, that which has the superior obligation and validity ought, of course, to be preferred; or, in other words, the Constitution ought to be preferred to the statute, the intention of the people to the intention of their agents.

      the constitution as the basic axioms on which the whole government stands must always preempt any statute potentially abridging it

    2. There is no position which depends on clearer principles, than that every act of a delegated authority, contrary to the tenor of the commission under which it is exercised, is void. No legislative act, therefore, contrary to the Constitution, can be valid. To deny this, would be to affirm, that the deputy is greater than his principal; that the servant is above his master; that the representatives of the people are superior to the people themselves; that men acting by virtue of powers, may do not only what their powers do not authorize, but what they forbid.

      nothing can be allowed to stand above the law; this can only occur if the law is justly and regularly interpreted

    3. The Executive not only dispenses the honors, but holds the sword of the community. The legislature not only commands the purse, but prescribes the rules by which the duties and rights of every citizen are to be regulated. The judiciary, on the contrary, has no influence over either the sword or the purse; no direction either of the strength or of the wealth of the society; and can take no active resolution whatever. It may truly be said to have neither FORCE nor WILL, but merely judgment; and must ultimately depend upon the aid of the executive arm even for the efficacy of its judgments.

      each piece of the government operates as a power of the intellect - executive as will, legislature as force, judiciary as reason; the judiciary is thus the most impotent

    1. The idea of a council to the Executive, which has so generally obtained in the State constitutions, has been derived from that maxim of republican jealousy which considers power as safer in the hands of a number of men than of a single man. If the maxim should be admitted to be applicable to the case, I should contend that the advantage on that side would not counterbalance the numerous disadvantages on the opposite side. But I do not think the rule at all applicable to the executive power. I clearly concur in opinion, in this particular, with a writer whom the celebrated Junius pronounces to be "deep, solid, and ingenious,'' that "the executive power is more easily confined when it is ONE'';2 that it is far more safe there should be a single object for the jealousy and watchfulness of the people; and, in a word, that all multiplication of the Executive is rather dangerous than friendly to liberty.

      executive unity is necessary for its function within an already pluralistic apparatus of state; thus hemmed in, it merits little fear due to its winning little power of usurpation

    2. A feeble Executive implies a feeble execution of the government. A feeble execution is but another phrase for a bad execution; and a government ill executed, whatever it may be in theory, must be, in practice, a bad government.

      without a strong leader, all falls apart

    3. Energy in the Executive is a leading character in the definition of good government. It is essential to the protection of the community against foreign attacks; it is not less essential to the steady administration of the laws; to the protection of property against those irregular and high-handed combinations which sometimes interrupt the ordinary course of justice; to the security of liberty against the enterprises and assaults of ambition, of faction, and of anarchy. Every man the least conversant in Roman story, knows how often that republic was obliged to take refuge in the absolute power of a single man, under the formidable title of Dictator, as well against the intrigues of ambitious individuals who aspired to the tyranny, and the seditions of whole classes of the community whose conduct threatened the existence of all government, as against the invasions of external enemies who menaced the conquest and destruction of Rome.

      executive supremacy is necessary as a final measure against government collapse

    1. But if the government be national with regard to the OPERATION of its powers, it changes its aspect again when we contemplate it in relation to the EXTENT of its powers. The idea of a national government involves in it, not only an authority over the individual citizens, but an indefinite supremacy over all persons and things, so far as they are objects of lawful government. Among a people consolidated into one nation, this supremacy is completely vested in the national legislature. Among communities united for particular purposes, it is vested partly in the general and partly in the municipal legislatures. In the former case, all local authorities are subordinate to the supreme; and may be controlled, directed, or abolished by it at pleasure. In the latter, the local or municipal authorities form distinct and independent portions of the supremacy, no more subject, within their respective spheres, to the general authority, than the general authority is subject to them, within its own sphere. In this relation, then, the proposed government cannot be deemed a NATIONAL one; since its jurisdiction extends to certain enumerated objects only, and leaves to the several States a residuary and inviolable sovereignty over all other objects.

      the federal government maintains power only within explicitly enumerated spheres

    2. On examining the first relation, it appears, on one hand, that the Constitution is to be founded on the assent and ratification of the people of America, given by deputies elected for the special purpose; but, on the other, that this assent and ratification is to be given by the people, not as individuals composing one entire nation, but as composing the distinct and independent States to which they respectively belong. It is to be the assent and ratification of the several States, derived from the supreme authority in each State, the authority of the people themselves. The act, therefore, establishing the Constitution, will not be a NATIONAL, but a FEDERAL act. That it will be a federal and not a national act, as these terms are understood by the objectors; the act of the people, as forming so many independent States, not as forming one aggregate nation, is obvious from this single consideration, that it is to result neither from the decision of a MAJORITY of the people of the Union, nor from that of a MAJORITY of the States. It must result from the UNANIMOUS assent of the several States that are parties to it, differing no otherwise from their ordinary assent than in its being expressed, not by the legislative authority, but by that of the people themselves. Were the people regarded in this transaction as forming one nation, the will of the majority of the whole people of the United States would bind the minority, in the same manner as the majority in each State must bind the minority; and the will of the majority must be determined either by a comparison of the individual votes, or by considering the will of the majority of the States as evidence of the will of a majority of the people of the United States. Neither of these rules have been adopted. Each State, in ratifying the Constitution, is considered as a sovereign body, independent of all others, and only to be bound by its own voluntary act. In this relation, then, the new Constitution will, if established, be a FEDERAL, and not a NATIONAL constitution.

      the "States" of the United States were initially understood as free and independent of each other

    1. The process of election affords a moral certainty, that the office of President will never fall to the lot of any man who is not in an eminent degree endowed with the requisite qualifications. Talents for low intrigue, and the little arts of popularity, may alone suffice to elevate a man to the first honors in a single State; but it will require other talents, and a different kind of merit, to establish him in the esteem and confidence of the whole Union, or of so considerable a portion of it as would be necessary to make him a successful candidate for the distinguished office of President of the United States.

      elections will proceed according to the final will of an educated elite, ensuring proper talent in the office of president

    2. Nothing was more to be desired than that every practicable obstacle should be opposed to cabal, intrigue, and corruption. These most deadly adversaries of republican government might naturally have been expected to make their approaches from more than one querter, but chiefly from the desire in foreign powers to gain an improper ascendant in our councils. How could they better gratify this, than by raising a creature of their own to the chief magistracy of the Union? But the convention have guarded against all danger of this sort, with the most provident and judicious attention. They have not made the appointment of the President to depend on any preexisting bodies of men, who might be tampered with beforehand to prostitute their votes; but they have referred it in the first instance to an immediate act of the people of America, to be exerted in the choice of persons for the temporary and sole purpose of making the appointment. And they have excluded from eligibility to this trust, all those who from situation might be suspected of too great devotion to the President in office. No senator, representative, or other person holding a place of trust or profit under the United States, can be of the numbers of the electors. Thus without corrupting the body of the people, the immediate agents in the election will at least enter upon the task free from any sinister bias. Their transient existence, and their detached situation, already taken notice of, afford a satisfactory prospect of their continuing so, to the conclusion of it. The business of corruption, when it is to embrace so considerable a number of men, requires time as well as means. Nor would it be found easy suddenly to embark them, dispersed as they would be over thirteen States, in any combinations founded upon motives, which though they could not properly be denominated corrupt, might yet be of a nature to mislead them from their duty.

      an electoral college also prevents internal cabals throughout the public

    3. It was desirable that the sense of the people should operate in the choice of the person to whom so important a trust was to be confided. This end will be answered by committing the right of making it, not to any preestablished body, but to men chosen by the people for the special purpose, and at the particular conjuncture. It was equally desirable, that the immediate election should be made by men most capable of analyzing the qualities adapted to the station, and acting under circumstances favorable to deliberation, and to a judicious combination of all the reasons and inducements which were proper to govern their choice. A small number of persons, selected by their fellow-citizens from the general mass, will be most likely to possess the information and discernment requisite to such complicated investigations.

      an electoral college is necessary as a final refinement against the vulgar opinions of the public and as an insulated force free of "public ferments"

    1. In a free government the security for civil rights must be the same as that for religious rights. It consists in the one case in the multiplicity of interests, and in the other in the multiplicity of sects. The degree of security in both cases will depend on the number of interests and sects; and this may be presumed to depend on the extent of country and number of people comprehended under the same government. This view of the subject must particularly recommend a proper federal system to all the sincere and considerate friends of republican government, since it shows that in exact proportion as the territory of the Union may be formed into more circumscribed Confederacies, or States oppressive combinations of a majority will be facilitated: the best security, under the republican forms, for the rights of every class of citizens, will be diminished: and consequently the stability and independence of some member of the government, the only other security, must be proportionately increased. Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. It ever has been and ever will be pursued until it be obtained, or until liberty be lost in the pursuit. In a society under the forms of which the stronger faction can readily unite and oppress the weaker, anarchy may as truly be said to reign as in a state of nature, where the weaker individual is not secured against the violence of the stronger; and as, in the latter state, even the stronger individuals are prompted, by the uncertainty of their condition, to submit to a government which may protect the weak as well as themselves; so, in the former state, will the more powerful factions or parties be gradnally induced, by a like motive, to wish for a government which will protect all parties, the weaker as well as the more powerful.

      free plurality must be secured as a matter of fact

    2. It is of great importance in a republic not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers, but to guard one part of the society against the injustice of the other part. Different interests necessarily exist in different classes of citizens. If a majority be united by a common interest, the rights of the minority will be insecure.

      if power is too centralized, the many will be able to easily overthrow the rich

    3. It is equally evident, that the members of each department should be as little dependent as possible on those of the others, for the emoluments annexed to their offices. Were the executive magistrate, or the judges, not independent of the legislature in this particular, their independence in every other would be merely nominal. But the great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department, consists in giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachments of the others.

      each department must be sufficient to stand up against encroachment by the other departments

    4. In order to lay a due foundation for that separate and distinct exercise of the different powers of government, which to a certain extent is admitted on all hands to be essential to the preservation of liberty, it is evident that each department should have a will of its own; and consequently should be so constituted that the members of each should have as little agency as possible in the appointment of the members of the others. Were this principle rigorously adhered to, it would require that all the appointments for the supreme executive, legislative, and judiciary magistracies should be drawn from the same fountain of authority, the people, through channels having no communication whatever with one another.

      no internal power determinations - all power from the people

    1. The smaller the society, the fewer probably will be the distinct parties and interests composing it; the fewer the distinct parties and interests, the more frequently will a majority be found of the same party; and the smaller the number of individuals composing a majority, and the smaller the compass within which they are placed, the more easily will they concert and execute their plans of oppression. Extend the sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens; or if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other. Besides other impediments, it may be remarked that, where there is a consciousness of unjust or dishonorable purposes, communication is always checked by distrust in proportion to the number whose concurrence is necessary.

      larger societies necessitate factionalism as a matter of fact

    2. In the first place, it is to be remarked that, however small the republic may be, the representatives must be raised to a certain number, in order to guard against the cabals of a few; and that, however large it may be, they must be limited to a certain number, in order to guard against the confusion of a multitude.

      representation must be proportional

    3. If a faction consists of less than a majority, relief is supplied by the republican principle, which enables the majority to defeat its sinister views by regular vote. It may clog the administration, it may convulse the society; but it will be unable to execute and mask its violence under the forms of the Constitution. When a majority is included in a faction, the form of popular government, on the other hand, enables it to sacrifice to its ruling passion or interest both the public good and the rights of other citizens. To secure the public good and private rights against the danger of such a faction, and at the same time to preserve the spirit and the form of popular government, is then the great object to which our inquiries are directed. Let me add that it is the great desideratum by which this form of government can be rescued from the opprobrium under which it has so long labored, and be recommended to the esteem and adoption of mankind.

      faction must be allowed to persist within the limits of established constitutional governance

    4. It is in vain to say that enlightened statesmen will be able to adjust these clashing interests, and render them all subservient to the public good. Enlightened statesmen will not always be at the helm. Nor, in many cases, can such an adjustment be made at all without taking into view indirect and remote considerations, which will rarely prevail over the immediate interest which one party may find in disregarding the rights of another or the good of the whole.

      the state cannot be presumed a panacea for all social ills - it doesn't maintain a hegemony of power

    5. The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man; and we see them everywhere brought into different degrees of activity, according to the different circumstances of civil society. A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, concerning government, and many other points, as well of speculation as of practice; an attachment to different leaders ambitiously contending for pre-eminence and power; or to persons of other descriptions whose fortunes have been interesting to the human passions, have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex and oppress each other than to co-operate for their common good. So strong is this propensity of mankind to fall into mutual animosities, that where no substantial occasion presents itself, the most frivolous and fanciful distinctions have been sufficient to kindle their unfriendly passions and excite their most violent conflicts. But the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society. Those who are creditors, and those who are debtors, fall under a like discrimination. A landed interest, a manufacturing interest, a mercantile interest, a moneyed interest, with many lesser interests, grow up of necessity in civilized nations, and divide them into different classes, actuated by different sentiments and views. The regulation of these various and interfering interests forms the principal task of modern legislation, and involves the spirit of party and faction in the necessary and ordinary operations of the government.

      modern legislation is essentially tasked with dealing with the unequal distribution of property and the various interests that result from this inequality

  12. Jul 2020
    1. mechanically-mediated prediction

    2. stochastic analysis is essentially statistical induction from complex random sets to generalities

    1. Notion of reading and re-reading for "linguistic inroads," cross sections, and divergences - language captures the amorphousness of existence. It is not bounded, its referents are not bounded, it is a moving, elastic, restless thing.

    2. Words are not simple tools to be applied and used.

      To try to use words in life as uniform instruments with preconceived uses would be to use a jackhammer to repair a swiss watch.

      To repair a spider-web with one's fingers.

      Denial of atomistic picture of linguistic meaning. Real words, live words, don't work as singular referents.

      TS Eliot - words do not sit still.

    1. pictorialist emphasis on the pre-modern world

      creating dialogue with painting / charcoal work

    1. Pictorialism emphasized handicraft work and human manipulation

      Straight photography emphasized capturing the world as it is

  13. Jun 2020
    1. There are four types among those who sit before the sages: a sponge, a funnel, a strainer and a sieve.A sponge, soaks up everything; A funnel, takes in at one end and lets out at the other; A strainer, which lets out the wine and retains the lees; A sieve, which lets out the coarse meal and retains the choice flour.
    2. There are four types of disciples: Quick to comprehend, and quick to forget: his gain disappears in his loss; Slow to comprehend, and slow to forget: his loss disappears in his gain; Quick to comprehend, and slow to forget: he is a wise man; Slow to comprehend, and quick to forget, this is an evil portion.
    3. There are four kinds of temperments:Easy to become angry, and easy to be appeased: his gain disappears in his loss; Hard to become angry, and hard to be appeased: his loss disappears in his gain; Hard to become angry and easy to be appeased: a pious person; Easy to become angry and hard to be appeased: a wicked person.
    4. According to the labor is the reward
    5. He used to say: At five years of age the study of Scripture; At ten the study of Mishnah; At thirteen subject to the commandments; At fifteen the study of Talmud; At eighteen the bridal canopy; At twenty for pursuit [of livelihood]; At thirty the peak of strength; At forty wisdom; At fifty able to give counsel; At sixty old age; At seventy fullness of years; At eighty the age of “strength”; At ninety a bent body; At one hundred, as good as dead and gone completely out of the world.

      growth in knowledge

    1. anchoring products - stating what products would otherwise sell for, while advocating that purchasers buy sooner than later such that they receive the products for cheap

      -> creation of urgency

    2. particularization and discrete-formation of activity - activity is reduced from an ambiguous relationship of activities to singular "do this" or "do that" activities for ambiguous "success"

    3. "People buy off emotion and not logic."

  14. May 2020
    1. The earliest known written mention of the philosophers' stone is in the Cheirokmeta by Zosimos of Panopolis (c. 300 AD).[2] Alchemical writers assign a longer history. Elias Ashmole and the anonymous author of Gloria Mundi (1620) claim that its history goes back to Adam, who acquired the knowledge of the stone directly from God. This knowledge was said to be passed down through biblical patriarchs, giving them their longevity. The legend of the stone was also compared to the biblical history of the Temple of Solomon and the rejected cornerstone described in Psalm 118.[3] The theoretical roots outlining the stone’s creation can be traced to Greek philosophy. Alchemists later used the classical elements, the concept of anima mundi, and Creation stories presented in texts like Plato's Timaeus as analogies for their process.[4] According to Plato, the four elements are derived from a common source or prima materia (first matter), associated with chaos. Prima materia is also the name alchemists assign to the starting ingredient for the creation of the philosophers' stone. The importance of this philosophical first matter persisted throughout the history of alchemy. In the seventeenth century, Thomas Vaughan writes, "the first matter of the stone is the very same with the first matter of all things"

      Syncretism across NeoPlatonic (anima mundi), Platonic (Timaeus, classical elements), and Judeo-Christian (Adam) elements

    1. known as siddhi or abhijñā, were ascribed to the Buddha and subsequent disciples

      crossover between western/eastern spiritualism